The integration of electroacoustic sound in live performance has not only expanded the palette of sounds available to the performer; it has had a far-reaching influence on the dramaturgy of performance. The redefinition of performative causality, as well as the interplay of embodied and disembodied entities have opened up a world of new narratives and poetic meanings. Through the discussion of various performative works, we have seen how the duality of embodied ‘presence’ and disembodied ‘absence’ can be used to create poetic affects such as the uncanny and the sublime. The ambiguity of electroacoustic sound’s relation to physical presences can evoke the uncanny allusion to other spaces, personalities and events (e.g. Ostertag’s All the Rage), or create ‘phantoms’ that are only partially present in the space (Klien and Grill’s Relative Realities and the acousmêtre in the author’s composition Safari TV). It can de-familiarise situations through unexpected tranformations (e.g. Emmerson’s pieces for flute and live electronics Spirit of ’76), or provide an additional layer that acts as an eerie doubling of the space and characters on stage (e.g. Ciciliani’s J&J). The uncanny and sublime affect are only two examples of many meanings and narratives that can be constructed by utilising the particularities of the electroacoustic sound on stage. However, they demonstrate its potential in the construction of dramaturgy.
Cationic surfactants do show antibacterial properties and are used as cationic softeners, lubricants, retarding agents and antistatic agents and in some cases consumer use also. Hence, cationic surfactants offer some additional advantages over other class of surfactants [1-4]. Like all other surfactants CTAB also shows a rapid change in viscosity when the physical and chemical compositions of the solution are changed . In viscometric determination of CMC of pure surfactant in presence and absence of Na 2 SO 4 , MgSO 4 , the viscosities (η) are plotted as a function of the logarithm of the surfactant. The
and 31 patients positive for DESH with adult hydrocephalus were assessed for shunt responsiveness— compared with 96 and 37 pa- tients in the current study, respectively. In this study of the 103 patients included, 78 demonstrated symptomatic improvement at 1 year after shunting. Most interesting, of those who improved, 69% were negative for DESH findings and only 31% were positive for DESH with significance between both groups (P ⬍ .001). The positive and negative predictive values for DESH findings predict- ing shunt responsiveness were 77% and 25%, respectively. This finding suggests that though the presence of DESH may predict shunt responsiveness, its absence does not preclude symptom improvement following shunting. The authors did not directly compare surgical outcomes of patients positive and negative for DESH, leaving open the possibility that DESH features were sig- nificant contributors to prognosis.
Four studies were reviewed in this knowledge summary. Despite the small number of papers available, the controlled trials and their methodologies provide strong evidence that the behavior of solitary laboratory rabbits is affected by the presence or absence of mirrors. This evidence also indicates an effect on their welfare.
Similarly, it should be noted that for the two studies that presented data according to the result of a malaria diagnostic test (Kenya, Zambia), the anti-malarial pre- scribing practices in the presence and absence of ACT were only considered for malaria-positive cases and for patients where no diagnostic test was performed but were prescribed an anti-malarial. This was done to maintain as much consistency with the other four stu- dies where only patients with a malaria diagnosis were included, even though these were diagnosed presump- tively. It was, therefore, assumed that all diagnosis was correct (whether presumptive or confirmed), and that no providers prescribed an anti-malarial for a non- malaria patient. It is acknowledged that this is an over- simplification of provider malaria diagnosis and treat- ment behaviour [30,31], however the primary objective of this paper is to understand the influence of ACT stock rather than diagnostic tests on prescribing behaviour.
To study the effect of electrophilic catalyst on the solvolysis of cinnamoyl chloride, hydrolysis is carried out in aqueous acetone and aqueous acetonitrile in the composition range of 85 to 92.5% organic component in presence of mercuric chloride. The concentration of mercuric chloride used is in the range from 0.001M to 0.005M at different temperatures. In this range of solvent composition the electrophilic catalytic activity is solely due to unionized mercuric chloride molecule. The order with respect to mercuric chloride both in aqueous acetone as well as in aqueous acetonitrile are found to be very small in the range of only 0.25 ( Table -1). The order with respect to water remains unchanged (~2.6) in presence and absence of mercuric chloride which reveals that there is no mechanistic change in presence of mercuric chloride. Very low order with respect to mercuric chloride confirms an S N 2 mechanism as already mentioned for the solvolysis. In addition mercuric chloride may not be involved in the rate determining step of the reaction. Therefore the catalytic activity is due to the increase in the extent of solvation of the transition state thus lowering the activation parameters mainly the enthalpy and free energy of activation. This is in agreement with the observed decrease in the enthalpy and free energy of activation (Table 2). The interaction of HgCl 2 molecule with the ClÉ end of the substrate molecule further loosen the loose transition state complex formed in the S N 2 path thus lowering the activation parameters. This interaction also enhances the detachment of the leaving group from the substrate. Thus the increase in rate of the reaction in the presence of catalyst is due to the combined effect of increase in the transition state stabilization and the abstraction of the leaving group from the transition state of the substrate.
So, while the opportunity to pursue a university education is available to Mombasa (and coast) residents, the offerings are particular to fields of study that characteristically have a low financial overhead. I explore this point more fully in a later chapter on reactive discourses of strategizing given the absence of an independent comprehensive public university at the coast. However, I believe the comments included here begin to point to the ways in which a partial presence of university programming is seen by some at the coast as evidence of how they marginalized, and as a reason to pursue other options elsewhere. As some of the people with whom I spoke asked, where are the other engineering options open to students from the coast who did not have the exam results necessary to gain entrance to one of the existing public universities? Where are the medical training options? Where - by way of one often cited example - are the marine sciences programs? If all the university efforts at the coast seemingly fall into these easily offered, low overhead cost types of programs, how else should what the government provides to the people of the coast be viewed, except as evidence of marginalization?
The goal of this paper is to provide computational algorithms that can handle presence and absence of blocking effects. The algorithms will be developed by combining Steedman (1996, 2000)’s Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) and Chierchia’s Binding Theory, which will be called a CCG-like system.
Subjects and methods: One hundred seven patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), 74 patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and 240 healthy control subjects underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Using new VBM software and databases covering young-mature adults and the elderly, target volumes of interest were set in the sgACC and scACC, four indicators (severity, extent, ratio, and whole-brain extent) were determined, and the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC was evaluated on the basis of the indicators. In addition, the relationships between the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC and performance of diagnosing MDD and BD and therapeutic drugs were investigated.
The chemiluminescence (CL) accompanying the oxidation of phenyl hydrazine with t-butylhydroperoxide in alkaline medium was studied in the presence and absence of luminol. The reaction occurring between phenyl hydrazine and alkaline (KOH) solution of aqueous t- butylhydroperoxide leads to the production of nitrogen gas with simultaneous emission of light (CL), which has been detected by PMT and recorded with the aid of PC using interface. The CL intensity was enhanced by addition of 10 -3 M luminol solution. The influence of concentration of various constituent
This study used liquid suspension tests to accurately compare disinfectant efficacy in the presence and absence of organic matter. Disinfectants are more efficient in suspension at reducing viral titre than on a farm, where viruses are often surface associated or dried. However this study demonstrates how organic matter and disinfectant type have a significant impact of disinfectant efficacy. Bi-OO-cyst was the only disinfectant effective against porcine rotavirus in high organic matter conditions but peroxygen compound based disinfectants (Vanodox and Virkon S) and the glutaraldehyde-based disinfectant GPC8 all were effective in the presence of low organic matter. MS2 phage served as a model for porcine rotavirus and gave similar, although slightly lower, log 10 reduction titres than
Lung tissue was dissected into 30–100 mg (wet weight) pieces and incubated for 24h in RPMI 1640 (with 2.05 mM L-glutamine and 25 mM HEPES) (Sigma, 51536C) containing Antibiotic Antimycotic Solution (PSF, penicillin, streptomycin and fun- gizone) (Sigma, A5955). Following initial incubation, media was replaced, and following the addition of LPS or IL-1 β (1 µg/ml or 10 ng/ml respectively) or vehicle controls in the presence or absence of 1 µM dexamethasone, the tissue was incubated for a further 24h, followed by the collection of supernatants. All experi- mental conditions were prepared in duplicate.
Using legumes as a green manure is a well-established practice because it adds nitrogen-rich plant material to the soil. This study evaluates successive crops of lettuce fertilized with different doses of bovine manure in the presence and absence of mung bean. Experiments were carried out at the Rafael Fernandes Experimental Farm, Mossoró, Brazil, from August 2015 to January 2016. We applied a complete randomized block design with treatments arranged in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications. The first factor consisted of bovine manure at four dosages (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 kg m -2 ) and the second factor was the presence and absence of green manure (mung bean). We used the "Regina" lettuce cultivar. The following characteristics were assessed: plant height, number of leaves per plant, head diameter, lettuce production, and lettuce dry mass. The lettuce production achieved 87.8 kg/100 m 2 . The interaction between bovine manure and mung bean did not affect the production characteristics. The use of mung bean as green manure increased the lettuce production significantly, with mean values of 81.4 kg/100 m 2 compared to 67 kg/100 m 2 in the treatments without mung bean.
Bounds of resemblance measures for binary variables were derived in this paper using the arithmetic-geometric-harmonic mean inequality. It was shown that some coefficients are bounds of each other, and that the val- ues of some coefficients are in general more similar compared to the values of other presence/absence coefficients. The arithmetic-geometric-harmonic mean inequality may also be used to obtain bounds of parameter families instead of individual coefficients. For instance, let
Fortunately, there are two parallel electrokinetic methods that hold promise for monitoring and controlling levels of polyelectrolyte addition, in order to achieve a controlled one-pot multilayer assembly, as just described. One such method involves titration with a highly charged polyelectrolyte in order to determine the net colloidal charge of the bulk solution, after a given treatment step. Automated systems are available for such tests, using streaming current measurements as an indication of the titration endpoint (Bley 1998; Hubbe and Chen 2004). As envisioned in Fig. 8, one would want to control the added amount, in each step, so that a very small controlled excess of that polymer remains in solution after mixing with the fibers. Fiber-pad streaming potential measurements are the other kind of electrokinetic measurement to be considered for this kind of application (Nazir 1994; Miyanishi 1995; Hubbe and Wang 2004). Such measurements sense the electrical potential adjacent to the surfaces of the fibers. Recently it was discovered that the sign of charge of the outer-most layers of cellulosic fibers can be detected by carrying out streaming potential measurements in the presence of aqueous solution having a low electrical conductivity (Hubbe et al. 2006a). Online equipment has been developed for continuous measurements of streaming potential in paper mills (Nazir 1994; Miyanishi 1995). In order to use such equipment for the purposes just described it would be necessary to modify the equipment so that the fiber slurry is first dewatered, then resuspended in low conductivity solution, then subjected to the automated zeta potential test (Hubbe et al. 2006a).
to the extension in the shape of the molecule bringing about an increase in the dissymmetry of the suspended units. In the initial stages, when smaller quantities of surfactant is added, the electrostatic force predominates and causes tis binding with gliadin. In the presence of larger amounts of SDS of CPB, a second type of interaction involving non-electrostatic forces is more probable to take place. Lundgren 47 has also
Our study assesses short and medium-term psychological responses amongst a sample of participants, with or without pulmonary nodule(s) identified on their first CT scan, within the Early Cancer Detection Test-Lung Cancer Scotland Study (ECLS Study).(26) This is a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of a blood test for lung cancer screening, measuring autoantibodies against seven antigens (Early CDT®-Lung test).(26, 27) A positive Early CDT®-Lung test is associated with a significantly increased risk of malignancy in the presence of pulmonary nodules 4-20mm in diameter(28), and the consequent potential for adverse psychological effects. This study is therefore timely in assessing psychological impacts of this test and subsequent CT scanning.