Although based on the same accesscontrol principles, our approach distinguishes itself from CHOICE in a number of ways. Three key differences are: First, we introduce the concepts of short-lived access tokens and session keys, and a soft-state authentication protocol to enhance robustness and security. The fact that the user’s security credentials (tokens and keys) are frequently renewed enables the use of lighter weight crypto systems without sacrificing security. Second, our accesscontrolarchitecture accounts for smooth handoffs between layer 3 networks. Our approach is therefore not restricted to link- layer handoffs and a single layer 3 network, which makes our architecture more scalable than CHOICE. Third, we introduce the concept of microcellular administrations (referred to as districts) to enable fine-grained accesscontrol, accounting and monitoring, which considerably improves flexibility (for example, a wide range of access policies and accounting models can be implemented).
collaborate to make decisions about providing access to on line services. A recent framework ADITI for user centric identity federation enhanced the standard federated model with new IdP and SP components operated directly by users. In that approach all the attributes of the user are still kept with IdP and the user has to download all attributes from IdP to the card selector in order to utilize these attributes for authorization decisions. This provides users with full control over their attributes which can be changed at the will of the user. Therefore ADITI framework is not well suited for service portals where users‟ attributes are required to be verified without control of users over their own attributes and independent of any centralized authority. Rajender Nath et al.  presented a fine grained accesscontrol model based on diverse attributes. The model required a service provider to make contact with diverse attribute authorities and a redirection of access requests. The working remains dependent on federated access and certificate based management. This paper presents a decentralized diverse attributes based accesscontrolarchitecture that supports users‟ attributes verification and authorization for supporting on line purchases.
Mudtadi et al. ([MHA10]), investigated accesscontrol in ubiquitous computing environments using threshold cryptography and multilayer encryption to provide dynamic and truly distributed method of security control. The architecture of the approach uses policy service, context service, and event service. Ardagna et al. ([A+11]) used policy spaces for accesscontrol in healthcare environment where the authors finely depicted the exceptional case of the break-the-glass scenarios. The authors used algebraic representations for the different policy spaces and access regulations to data. Sandhu and Zhang ([SZ05]), studied trusted computing technologies in the domain of accesscontrol practices for peer-to-peer environment. However, the solution proposed by the authors requires a fully protected runtime environment to ensure the trustworthiness of the application. This makes the practical implementation of this approach costly as pointed out by Han et al. ([H+10]).
Abstract: Workflow systems enable organizations to model and execute business processes, but the majority of contemporary workflow management systems are not designed and suited for supporting dynamic business processes. One of the deficiencies is the inability to model realistically the organization of an enterprise to manage the dynamic human-centric business processes. An accesscontrolarchitecture for managing workflow processes is described in the paper. It includes an organizational model and an authorization model for supporting dynamic business processes. More specifically, authorization policies are expressed in an SQL-like language which can be easily rewritten into query sentences for execution. In addition, the architecture supports dynamic integration and execution of multiple accesscontrol policies from disparate enterprise resources. Finally, a prototype implementation of the dynamic business process management architecture is described.
At present, application developers and deployers define the roles that make sense for an application and then identify which methods each role should be allowed to call. Therefore, access is defined in terms of operations on components. For example, in a banking core application, we can divide users according to their roles in the bank, e.g. as tellers, account managers, sales, etc. The teller user could have a teller role that enables him to perform transactions and see clients information, whereas a sales person with a sales role could have read only access on client information. In a different design of roles, someone could define a read- only role and a "perform-transaction" role, in this case the teller could be assigned both roles, while the sales user could be assigned only the "read-only" role.
SPIN is a graphical multimedia communications tool that allows two to eight people to sit at their desktop computers and communicate both visually and audibly over a standard computer data net work. The user interface employs a telephone-like "push" model that al lows a user to place an audio only, video-only, or audio-video call to another desktop computer user. Here, the term "push" means that SPI N conference participants control all aspects of the digitized data they send onto a net work. Thus, users can feel confident about the secu rity of their audio and video information. A caller initiates all calls to other users, and a call recipient must agree to accept an incoming SPIN call. Because all data is in the d igital domain, this model makes it almost impossible to use SPIN to eavesdrop on another person. Placing a wiretap on a person's call would involve intercepting network packets, sepa rating data from protocol layers, and then reassem bling data into meaningful information. If the network data were encrypted, interception would be impossible. SPI N also provides other communi cation services, such as an audio-video answering machine, messaging, audio-video file creation, audio help, and aud io-video documentation. Figure 1 shows a screen capture of a SPIN session in progress, using the DECspin version 1.0 application. The product is easy to learn and to use. The graphical user interface is implemented on top of Motif software. Motif provides the framework for the SPIN international user interface. A model was chosen in which all actions taken by a user are implemented by push buttons that activate pop-up menus. The SPI N application does not use pull down menus, because they require language specific text strings to identify the purpose of an entry and thus require translation for different countries. Also, pull-down menus are intended for short-term interaction, and SPIN menus usually require more long-term interaction. All push button icons are pictorial representations of the intended fu nction. For example, the main window has a row of five push buttons, each of which
Table 2 shows that the ROM data is essentially the same, the resources needed for the program, RAM use is up to 1.2 K in a collection cycle. Due to 32 KB of RAM, therefore the data can be stored in the case of 30 cycles upper computer offline. An upper computer data acquisition takes 4 s. Assuming moderate precise temperature control system, the acquisition cycle is 2 min, according to the design requirements of this art- icle: to achieve 80 logging devices, each logging devices connected 80 thermostats. Have done a test shown in Table 3. Because the time to transmit a data to upper computer is with a fixed value of 1 s, 80 thermostats need 80 s to upload data logging devices; therefore, each logging devices can only capture 80 thermostats with a 0.5-s time data, that is, for each collecting data logging device, temperature data can only be used 6 ms, but the actual test time is 15 ms. The phenomenon of data loss occurs. In another paper of this issue, “intelligent control system based on centralized upper computer data acqui- sition algorithm” was discussed in detail. To this end, a third experiment was made to find an optimal system design size. Most of the final products are based on the data in Table 4.
Accesscontrol is generally said to be policy or procedure that allows, denies or restricts access to a system . It also identifies when the unauthorized users trying to access the system. The mostly used accesscontrol methods are identity based accesscontrol models . Accesscontrol in cloud depends on the cloud storage and its data security and the access option becomes very necessary option in cloud. Accesscontrol is very important part in the data center of government and business. It is also important to understand that accesscontrol alone not a solution for securing data so the encryption of data also important. There will be a difference between policy decision and mechanism. Access policies are an always high level decision that determines how access are controlled and access decisions are made.
(remote) server-predicated cloud base. Efficient search on encrypted information is still a paramount business in clouds. The clouds should not ken the query but should be capable to bring back the records that slake the query. This is achieved by denotes of searchable encryption. Accesscontrol in clouds is gaining care since it is paramount that only sanctioned users have access to valid accommodation. An abundance of data constitutes stored in the cloud, and much of this is sensitive data. Accesscontrol is withal gaining paramount in online convivial networking where users (members) store their personal information, pictures, and videos and apportion them with culled groups of users or communities they belong to. It is not just enough to store the contents securely in the cloud but it might withal be indispensable to ascertain anonymity of the utilizer. For example, a utilizer would relish to store some sensitive data but does not optate to be apperceived. The utilizer might want to post a comment on an article, but does not optate his/her identity to be disclosed. However, the utilizer should be able to prove to the other users that he/she is a valid utilizer who stored the data without revealing the identity.
In a conversation with security experts from the RDW, the Dutch vehicle registration organisation, we have discussed the dynamic accesscontrol system. The RDW is responsible for all vehicle registrations. Every year, they register nearly 900,000 new vehicles and process more than 6 million change of ownership transactions. They also keep track of the almost 11 million driving licences that have been issued in The Netherlands. Furthermore, they handle information on nearly 7 million periodical vehicle checks per year and also issue certificates for approval of imported vehicles and new vehicle types. This conversation was held with, in alphabetic order, Eric Algera, security manager; Gert Maneschijn, Corporate Security Officer; Bjorn van der Schaaf, IT auditor and Alfred Velthuis, consultant.
One of the positive factors in the hospital domain is the professional ethical environment that already exists. Clinicians are well aware of their duty to maintain patient confidentiality. Peer review processes and evidence-based practice are also now commonly used within the health system. The solution proposed here seeks to make use of these positive factors to provide a system which is highly usable and easily managed by the clinicians who will have to use it. This thesis promotes the view that in such environments, there is fundamentally no reason why informed users should be more incompetent or unethical in their management of access issues than system administrators. The solution should therefore allow system administrators to take a back seat as far as hands-on control is concerned. Their role in such a system would be one which entails role management, monitoring and auditing rather than direct control.
Traditional models of accesscontrol do not cope well with the problem of how to define access permissions for a team that is dynamic in nature (as is a treating team) and where the access is to objects (patient records) only in the loosest sense ‘owned’ by those who have a need to access such objects. In these models either the system administrator has to define permitted access in advance (mandatory accesscontrol) or the owner of the data can define the permitted accesses (discretionary accesscontrol) (Pfleeger 2000). Extensions to Role Based AccessControl (RBAC) and Team Based AccessControl (TMAC) have provided the most useful solutions to date but still require a system administrator or surrogate to define appropriate access in advance. (Ferraiolo & Kuhn 1992) (Ramaswamy & Sandhu 1998) (NIST 2004) (Thomas 1997) (Georgiadis et al 2001) (Georgiadis 2002) However, work by Thomas & Sandhu (1997) and Alotaiby & Chen (2004) has shown that it is possible to incorporate changes to access privileges as part of normal workflow.
Several researchers have modified the BC architecture to overcome classic BC challenges in IoT scenarios. In , authors proposed optimal BC for IoT platform in the case study of smart home. They used a hierarchical structure to improve the scalability, throughput and the overhead in the BC network. They also analyzed privacy and security. In  authors highlighted the limitations of using common cryptographic and accesscontrol methods in cloud environment. They explored the possibility of adopting BC to protect patient’s healthcare data that is stored in the cloud. The researcher in  propose a framework based on modified BC for IoT devices. In  a framework named Ancile is introduced that utilizes smart contract on Etherum-based BC for preserving user privacy and controlaccess to the patients’ sensitive information.
The AccessControl List is basically a sequence or setoff rules also called ACL entries. These rule specify the type of network traffic that can be passed or block through a router. ACLs are deployed at almost all points of entry in a private network and outside internet. So that all the network traffic that is incoming and outgoing packet can be monitored. Different protocols can be used in ACLs like IPX, AppleTalk etc. A packet is basically contains a limited number of fields such as source or destination port no., IP address, the source and destination protocols type etc. Every packet is matched with the rules of the ACL starting from the first rule and so on until it match with the rule or the last Statement. This matching process decides how to apply the network security.
In [21, 13], this architecture was proposed as a solution for generic multi-party computation in RAM complexity, i.e., without having to transform the original insecure RAM computation into a binary circuit. The first implementation of a system along this line was due to Gordon et al. , using Yao-circuit-type two party protocols over the tree-ORAM of Shi et al. . Gentry et al. later proposed a few optimizations for the underlying ORAM scheme , and also suggested to utilize low- degree homomorphic encryption for the two-party protocols over this ORAM, but did not implement any of these protocols. Recently Stefanov et al.  proposed the Path-ORAM protocol, which is a variant of tree-ORAM with better asymptotic efficiency.
One question that may arise is how likely loss of gover- nance of the outsourced data is, and what is its impact. According to ENISA’s Cloud Computing Security Risk Assessment report , the loss of governance is a risk with very high probability and very high impact. The same report states that two of the vulnerabilities that may expose an enterprise to that risk are “unclear roles and responsibilities” and “poor enforcement of role def- inition.” This outcome comes as no surprise, since the organizational structure and the security policies of an individual enterprise cannot be easily captured by a Cloud provider. Moreover, the interoperability between an enterprise and a Cloud provider requires the devel- opment of complex communication protocols; this, how- ever, increases the chances of a security breach due to implementation errors, according to the Cloud Security Alliance . Armando et al.  exploited such implemen- tation errors in order to bypass the SAML-based a single sign-on system of Google apps. Similarly, Somorovsky et al.  gained access to multiple SAML-based systems by exploiting implementation bugs. Nevertheless, even if the developed protocol is implemented correctly, it will be Cloud provider specific, thus hindering the migration
This desktop based application is based on 3-tier architecture of .Net Framework. The 3-tier includes the three hierarchy of the flow of programming logic from user interface to database and again database to user interface with the desired information requested by the clients. In between there involves the logic layer for effectively and correctly manipulating the request. The 3-tier includes the following:
Accesscontrol is generally a policy or procedure that allows, denies or restricts access to a system. It may, as well, monitor and record all attempts made to access a system. AccessControl may also identify users attempting to access a system unauthorized. It is a mechanism which is very much important for protection in computer security. Various accesscontrol models are in use, including the most common Mandatory AccessControl (MAC), Discretionary AccessControl (DAC) and Role Based AccessControl (RBAC). All these models are known as identity based accesscontrol models. In all these accesscontrol models, user (subjects) and resources (objects) are identified by unique names. Identification may be done directly or through roles assigned to the subjects. These accesscontrol methods are effective in unchangeable distributed system, where there are only a set of Users with a known set of services. The zombie attack is possible in RB-MTAC which is possible and it will reduce the network reliability and security of the network will be compromised. To prevent the zombie attack, novel technique will be proposed which is based on the server identification. Before present its credentials to the server, legitimate client will ask the server for its credentials. If the sever credentials are verified by the client then further process will proceed otherwise algorithm will halt. Following steps are implemented to isolate zombie attack:
In this paper, we have proposed a design for the Anonymous Biometric Control System (ABAC) which allows a biometric server to verify the membership status of a user without knowing his/her identity. The system is composed of various secure multiparty protocols including Hamming distance computation, bit extraction, comparison and result aggre- gation, all implemented with a homomorphic cipher. To reduce the computational and communication complexities of such a system, we have proposed a framework called the k-Anonymous ABAC system that tradeoﬀs privacy and complexity by quantizing the search space into cells, each of which contains at least k members. Complexity is reduced by restricting the encrypted domain search process to a small number of cells. Privacy is measured by the dissimilarity of the smallest cell. A greedy quantization scheme on a reduced- dimensional space called k-Anonymous Quantization has been devised to derive the optimal quantization that max- imizes privacy. Secure procedures have been proposed to perform the dimensional reduction and cell lookup. Exper- imental results on a dataset of iris patterns demonstrate the e ﬀ ectiveness of our techniques in terms of balancing privacy and computational costs. We are currently investigating the extension of the proposed systems to handle a broader class of malicious behaviors. Also, we are interested in improving the e ﬃ ciency of the homomorphic cipher, particularly in the case when small plaintext numbers are used. Another topic under investigation is the scalability of the k-Anonymous Quantization to a much larger dataset.
Infrastructure, even within individual organisations, is siloed which makes it difficult to search or layer across multiple data and information sources. Few have digital repositories and the ability to access and find data in order to reuse is limited. There is a tension between those who want to use open source software and those who favour proprietary solutions and see the benefit of supporting a restricted number of software tools. Some people are happy to use the most appropriate tool to get the job done.