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Wireless LAN Access Network Architecture for Mobile Operators

Wireless LAN Access Network Architecture for Mobile Operators

The evolution of IP-based office applications has created a strong demand for public wireless broadband access technology offering capacity far beyond current cellular systems. Wireless LAN access technology provides a perfect broadband complement for the operators’ existing GSM and GPRS services in an indoor environment. Most commercial public wireless LAN solutions have only modest authentication and roaming capability compared to traditional cellular networks. This article describes a new wireless LAN system archi- tecture that combines the WLAN radio access technology with mobile operators’ SIM-based sub- scriber management functions and roaming infra- structure. In the defined system the WLAN access is authenticated and charged using GSM SIM. This solution supports roaming between cellular and WLAN access networks and is the first step toward an all-IP network architecture. The proto- type has been implemented and publicly verified in a real mobile operator network.
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LTE Radio Layer 2, RRC and Radio Access Network Architecture

LTE Radio Layer 2, RRC and Radio Access Network Architecture

TS 36.322: E-UTRA Radio Link Control (RLC) protocol specification TS 36.323: E-UTRA Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP). specification[r]

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Towards next generation software defined radio access network–architecture, deployment, and use case

Towards next generation software defined radio access network–architecture, deployment, and use case

To solve the challenge of consistency, two different mod- els can be adopted to implement the SDRAN architecture: “evolutionary” and “clean slate.” The evolutionary model allows for gradually deployment based in existing net- works: legacy control plane entities from operators can connect to the core network without modifying the exist- ing interfaces. SDRAN controller implements backward- compatible interfaces to support the interworking with legacy network entities. There are two modes to couple the legacy architecture and future evolutional architec- ture: loose couple (fully decouple the legacy control plane entities and evolved control plane entities) and tight cou- ple (reuse the legacy control plane entities with evolved structure as much as possible).
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Access Architecture Definition Document

Access Architecture Definition Document

2. The second proposal is called µ approach. This solution is based on pushing func- tionality out of the Hub, into the field. One can distinguish two variants. The first ap- proach is an extension of the modular CMTS architecture. The QAM modulators are pushed in the outside plant, at the location of the fiber nodes (positioned deeper in the network compared to today in order to generate smaller segments). The M-CMTS is still in the Hub. The second variant pushes the full CMTS functionality into the field, a µ-CMTS is defined containing the functionality of an I-CMTS, but scaled down to the dimensions of one (or a few) segments. Both approaches are logical evolutions of the current HFC networks. The architecture as defined by Cable Labs of the M-CMTS is extended. The density and power issues are solved by pushing functionality out of the Hub into the field, to a position (fiber node) that already needs power. The prob- lem with the first approach is the timing between the M-CMTS and the µ-EdgeQAM. It is unknown if the solutions of today are robust enough in terms of timing to support a long distance fiber network between both devices. Second problem is the US, that is not solved in a nice way with the M-CMTS – EdgeQAM architecture. Therefore a µ- CMTS approach, a device that does not exist yet, will solve both issues, and also the density and power problems of the Hub. The µ-CMTS is a downsized version of the regular CMTS, higher volumes and lower dimensions should bring cost down.
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Network Slicing via Function Decomposition and Flexible Network Design

Network Slicing via Function Decomposition and Flexible Network Design

Each of the control function blocks comprises a set of control functionalities. The MAC scheduling function block is in charge of managing radio resources, with the radio resource control (RRC) Cell and RRC User block handling all per cell and per user state, respectively. This includes system broadcast and RRC signaling messages, as radio resource management (RRM) adapts the radio interface based on current load and radio channel conditions to improve throughput, latency, reliability or energy efficiency of the radio interface. To provide more flexibility, we consider using SDMC controllers described in Section II, namely SDM-X and SDM-C, as a means to run applications controlling common and dedicated functions, respectively. An example is represented by self-organizing network (SON) applications, e. g., distributed-SON functions, which can be used to easily perform configuration and optimization operations in low- latency slices from the SDM-C perspective. Multi-tenancy scheduling and control is another interesting application, which is investigated in the next section.
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Parallel Architectures and Interconnection

Parallel Architectures and Interconnection

In a processor array, each PE has a unique identier, its processor id, which can be used during the compu- tation. Each PE has a small, local memory in which its own private data can be stored. The data on which each PE operates is distributed among the PEs' local memories at the start of the computation, provided it ts in that memory. The control unit, which might be a full-edged CPU, broadcasts the instruction to be executed to the PEs, which execute it on data from its local memory, and can store the result in their local memories or can return global results back to the CPU. A global result line is usually a separate, parallel bus that allows each PE to transmit values back to the CPU to be combined by a parallel, global operation, such as a logical-and or a logical-or, depending upon the hardware support in the CPU. Figure 2.15 contains a schematic diagram of a typical processor array. The PEs are connected to each other through an interconnection network that allows them to exchange data with each other as well.
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SIGNET: A Neural Network Architecture for Predicting Protein-Protein Interactions

SIGNET: A Neural Network Architecture for Predicting Protein-Protein Interactions

The study of protein-protein interactions (PPI) is critically important within the field of Molecular Biology, as proteins facilitate key organismal functions including the main- tenance of both cellular structure and function. Current experimental methods for elu- cidating PPIs are greatly hindered by large operating costs, lengthy wait times, as well as low accuracy. The recent development of computational PPI predicting techniques has worked to address many of these issues. Despite this, many of these methods uti- lize over-engineered features and naive learning algorithms. With the recent advances in Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, we attempt to view this problem through a novel, deep learning perspective. We propose a siamese, convolutional neural-network architecture for predicting protein-protein interactions using protein signatures as fea- ture vectors. In comparison to four leading computational methods, we find that our results are comparable to and, in many cases, surpass the results of these methods. The emphasis of the discussion is to show that there is still much room for improvement in the area of PPI prediction using modern deep learning techniques.
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e-gap SSL VPN Solutions for Lotus Environments

e-gap SSL VPN Solutions for Lotus Environments

But, e-Gap Remote Access even protects against attacks launched by authenticated users – disgruntled employees or hackers who obtain valid user credentials are a threat that must be mitigated against. To protect against such attacks – and attacks by worms tunneling into an organization from computers on which authenticated users are working – e-Gap Remote Access subjects incoming requests to stringent security checks before relaying any data to application servers on the internal network. Application-level control includes thoroughly inspecting URLs, methods, and parameters, and any other incoming data. The inspection rules can be based on the positive logic of the application, indicating a controlled set of legitimate URLs, method, and parameter combinations to which the requests are expected to conform. This prevents application-level attacks based on malformed URLs. e-Gap Remote Access also supports “negative logic” rules to specially block known attacks from reaching internal servers. It also allows the generation of an IP blacklist, which will prevent users from a particular IP address from accessing the application.
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A Virtual Mobile Assistant System Using NOVNC Framework

A Virtual Mobile Assistant System Using NOVNC Framework

In this paper, we propose an expeditious screen sharing method to ameliorate screen update rate in mobile VNC systems. In case of mobile contrivances, high intricacy video compression techniques cannot be employed due to their rigorous computation limit. However, the bandwidth constraint requires a certain level of compression ratio. Thus, there subsists a trade-off between encoder involution and compression ratio for expeditious mobile VNC systems. We first integrate sundry video encoders into our prototype system, and explore their felicitousness for mobile VNC. Withal, the subsisting RFB protocol for VNC is elongated to facilely integrate video encoders in a rearward-compatible way. We proposed an incipient modified region coding method which transmits only modified regions between current and anterior screen images. It can further reduce encoder computation and resultantly increase screen update rate. We implemented a prototype mobile VNC system genuinely, and its practical performance is widely evaluated. In recent years, there have been popularly relinquished a variety of multimedia mobile contrivances such as smart phone and tablet PC. The accommodation that the today's mobile contrivances provide to users is virtually commensurable to desktops or homogeneous contrivances. This trend requires the essentiality of collaboration among these systems such as sharing multimedia contents and applications. VNC has been utilized as an implement for a multiplatform application suite sanctioning users to access graphic exhibits remotely. It is predicated on the thin-client architecture and utilizes the RFB (remote frame buffer) protocol for sharing a screen between distinct contrivances. The client software runs on the local user’s machine while the server part operates at the target host. In this way, VNC brings remote exhibit to the local user’s machine. Prosperous application of VNC to mobile contrivances should assure rapid screen image transfer from server to client.
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CONTENT FILTERING AND CLOUD BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM.

CONTENT FILTERING AND CLOUD BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM.

The prime objective of this proposal is to provide a secure platform for the organizations/ institutions which are involving directly or indirectly with confidential information and having the resources of high usage. This project will complain the needs of the professional institutions in the society offering the e-learning activities like content generation, distribution, training, preparation relating to e-content and its maintenance in both academia and research areas. When it comes to share the user’s ideas with experts and software tool providers over internet, security has become the prime concern. The intruders/hackers may be after high speed connection can send malicious viruses and worms to blackening the reputation. In order to ensure security to the resources like software tools, hardware equipment, operating system and e-content the institution has taken necessary precautions. In this context, to overcome the threats, installation of firewalls both hardware and software in nature are of high importance. Though the measures exist, the hackers/intruders are coming up with latest techniques to hijack the networking system. As the users are increasing and mostly depending on internet to extract and use the required information / open source software tools available, to carry out their research and academic projects from the global arena. It is necessary to inspect the incoming and outgoing information, which may cause the damage or loss of digital information, resources and tools. In this context, I propose an intruder detection system against vulnerabilities over internet where the information would be filtered by using a solid hardware firewall with proper configuration and installation of software. This will help the institution to stop intruders from accessing our system. Provider can keep the internet link to the outside world, but it can't share the resources unless the user has granted the privilege. With a firewall in place the users will still have typical email access, but chat and other interactive programs will require the users to take an extra step to grant access before use.
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UMTS Network Architecture

UMTS Network Architecture

In contrast to the terrestrial cellular networks analogy, in many non-GEO networks it is necessary for one satellite to be controlled by multiple FESs. This requires co-ordination and synchronization between FESs and satellites but it allows an FES to guarantee coverage of a geographic area in the same way as a BS and CSS can, allowing network functions to page mobile terminals in a similar way. The coverage of various proposals for satellite systems and how they achieve this is discussed in detail in section 5.5. FESs will need to communicate with each other to effectively manage sharing of radio resources, call handover between FESs and the location of mobile terminals in areas covered by more than one FES. For example, a FES might not normally be involved with a call handled through another FES and yet it would be affected if there was a satellite handover using frequencies shared by both FESs. Clearly, some level of co- ordination is required. To do this an arrangement could be considered where a CSS role is to control a number of BS-like FESs directly, in a hierarchical model, as shown in figure 21. The CSS in figure 21 would not be the same entity (or have all the same functions) as a CSS in terrestrial radio access networks but would need to be specific to the satellite system to co-ordinate the satellites and FESs effectively.
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Architecture Information Access Policy

Architecture Information Access Policy

international students holding a professional degree in architecture (B. Arch. or M. Arch.) and seeking a research qualification to initiate an academic career, or for any student interested in pursuing a focused and individually determined plan of study and research. This degree will not satisfy professional licensure requirements in architecture. Concentration areas: Architecture + Health, Animated Architecture, or Design/Build

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A Brief Overview of 4G Cellular Communication

A Brief Overview of 4G Cellular Communication

4G is short for Fourth (4th) Generation Technology. 4G Technology is basically the extension in the 3G technology with more bandwidth and services offers in the 3G. But at this time nobody exactly knows the true 4G definition. Some people say that 4G technology is the future technologies that are mostly in their maturity period. The expectation for the 4G technology is basically the high quality audio/video streaming over end to end Internet Protocol. If the Internet Protocol (IP) multimedia sub-system movement achieves what it going to do, nothing of this possibly will matter. WiMAX or mobile structural design will become progressively more translucent, and therefore the acceptance of several architectures by a particular network operator ever more common. The main features of 4G services of interest to users are application adaptability and high dynamism users traffic, radio environment, air interfaces, and quality of service. [1] The 4G technology en suit with 802.16emobile version of WiMax (also known as WiBro), and HC-SDMA, Adoptive Modulation and coding (AMC), Adaptive Hybrid ARQ, MIMO and OFDM and Open distributed Ad-Hoc Wireless Network.
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SURVEY ON INFORMATION EXTRACTION FROM CHEMICAL COMPOUND LITERATURES: TECHNIQUES 
AND CHALLENGES

SURVEY ON INFORMATION EXTRACTION FROM CHEMICAL COMPOUND LITERATURES: TECHNIQUES AND CHALLENGES

IT flexibility has an influence on strategic alignment [19]. Establishments that lacked IT flexibility, encountered a more demanding time when obtaining business value from strategic alignment [20]. Strong association exists between increasing innovation levels of IT flexibility and strategic alignment [21]. The results from the examination of a formational model (data from 200 U.S. and Canadian companies) offer evidence that connectivity, modularity, and IT personnel have a noteworthy effect on strategic alignment. Additionally, the data confirmed that IT connectivity has a stronger relationship with strategic alignment than do other dimensions [20]. As organizations cope with rapid changes in their business and technological environments, alignment issues have been at or near the top of the list of “critical issues” in IT management every year for the past fifteen years [22]. [23] provided the model in the way of guidance for actually correcting misalignment between business and IT architecture and thus achieving alignment, BITAM (Business IT Alignment Method) which is a process that describes a set of twelve steps for managing, detecting and correcting misalignment, the methodology is an integration of two hitherto distinct analysis areas: business analysis and architecture analysis. The BITAM is illustrated via a case study conducted with a Fortune 100 company. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) has been proposed as a mechanism to facilitate alignment of IT with business requirements that are changing at an ever increasing rate because of its ability to engender a higher level of IT infrastructure flexibility [24]. SOA has attracted considerable attention among IT practitioners due to its potential to address alignment of IT with business requirements [25]. Department of IT (2007) defines IT Architecture segments including: Application and Data Architectures, Platform Architecture, Network Architecture, Internet Architecture, Security Architecture. As we see network architecture and IT Architecture can have effect on each other. Communication infrastructure includes voice and data technologies. As mentioned by Department of IT (2007) transmission services and protocols necessary to facilitate the interconnection of server platforms, intra-building and office networks (LANs), and inter-building and campus networks (WANs), also initiatives already in place and those planned have resulted in many significant changes. In this research we provide indicators for measuring wireless network communication in context of IT Architecture.
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Design And Development Of Linux-Based Finger-Vein Recognition System

Design And Development Of Linux-Based Finger-Vein Recognition System

8 2.5 Topology of fused CNN architecture in fmger-vein recognition 9 2.6 The Architecture of Simple Neural Network 9 2.7 The Architecture ofNeural Network with Multiple Hidden Layers 10 [r]

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5G NORMA network architecture – final report

5G NORMA network architecture – final report

Dissemination level: Public Page 145 / 204 In the NAS part of the data layer, the network slice comprises only dedicated functions. Since they are expected to be very service- or even application-specific, the figure only shows two mandatory functions, “Policy Enforcement” and “Charging”. For eMBB, various other functions can be added in a slice-specific manner, independent from other slices. Examples include, but are not limited to, Deep Packet Inspection (DPI), Lawful Interception, or forwarding and gateway functions. For efficiency reasons, the access stratum (AS) is characterized by a certain level of centralization, e.g., to realize multiplexing gains and allow for different multi-connectivity options. This means that PDCP instances are located in the edge cloud, e.g., at a tier 1 aggregation point. RLC as well as lower layers of the protocol stack need to be co-located at the radio access site. This is due to their real-time operation, implying a synchronous interaction between one another and thus a low latency inter-layer communication. Moreover, to enhance overall throughput, multi-connectivity (MC) would be employed in the “distribution” mode, i.e., data packets are distributed across several legs. Moreover, MC would be realized by both PDCP split bearer mode and “carrier aggregation” mode. In case multiple slice instances share the same RAN, transmission point and user specific part is shared across network slices, and the service (or bearer) specific part is implemented in each network slice. The RLC/PDCP function blocks in the data layer belong to the dedicated part, i.e., they are service/bearer-specific (RLC/PDCP for user- specific control signalling belong to the common part).
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Network Analysis and Application Control Software based on Client Server Architecture

Network Analysis and Application Control Software based on Client Server Architecture

This paper outlines a comprehensive model to increase system efficiency, preserve network bandwidth, monitor incoming and outgoing packets, ensure the security of confidential files and reduce power wastage in an organization. This model illustrates the use and potential application of a Network Analysis Tool (NAT) in a multi-computer set-up of any scale. The model is designed to run in the background and not hamper any currently executing applications, while using minimum system resources. It was developed as open source software, using VB.Net, with a view to overcoming limitations of legacy systems and financial restrictions in small-to mid-level organizations like businesses and educational institutes. It is fully-customizable and serves as a simple and open-source alternative to existing software. The NAT relies on simple client-server architecture and uses remote access to monitor and maintain the computers on a network, for example logging off a user or shutting down a computer after a certain "idle" time, enabling and disabling applications, troubleshooting and so on. The NAT was tested in a laboratory and resultant data is presented, along with the results of a survey that was conducted among users.
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Model of an E-Learning Solution Architecture for the Enterprise

Model of an E-Learning Solution Architecture for the Enterprise

Once all of the e-learning business decisions have been made in Business Operations Services, the Content Management Services enable content providers to register (check-in content and categorize that content through the use of metadata), assemble, manage and publish learning content for delivery. CMS provides access to all the internally built systems, authoring tools and applications listed below, as well as the third- party authoring tools supported by IT, such as DreamWeaver, Microsoft Word, OutStart, gForce, or PowerPoint. It enables e-learning providers to register entire learning applications as binary large objects (BLOBs) or to register structured objects.
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197809 pdf

197809 pdf

Distributed Network Architecture Transaction Processing Interactive Processing Data Base Design Performance Measurement & Analysis Configuration Management File Access Methods Operating [r]

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197810 pdf

197810 pdf

Distributed Network Architecture Transaction Processing Interactive Processing Data Base Design Performance Measurement & Analysis Configuration Management File Access Methods Operating [r]

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