Access, participation and inequalities in HE

Top PDF Access, participation and inequalities in HE:

Widening the participation into higher education: examining Bourdieusian theory
in relation to HE in the UK

Widening the participation into higher education: examining Bourdieusian theory in relation to HE in the UK

reproduced from generation to generation, and higher education is one such value. Bourdieu did not view this positively but believed that the dominant classes use social reproduction to reproduce inequalities, and keep the working class at a disadvantage. Widening participation has altered the structure of HE, and disrupted the cycle of reproducing social inequalities within higher education as access can now be gained by non-traditional groups who were once excluded. However, widening participation has also meant an expansion of middle-classes in HE. Reay et al. assert that ‘Since 1998 participation rates have increased more rapidly among the middle classes than the working classes’ (2005, 6), which indicates that, whilst participation rates have increased, they have not increased enough amongst those groups that widening participation policies aimed to target, which may be deemed a failure on the part of government. In addition, an increase in numbers from the middle class may mean decreased opportunities for those from the working class – again, not meeting with the original objective. Nevertheless, for students like Yvette and Nyla, now with higher education as a value within the family’s cultural capital, not only will they encourage their children to take part but also be visible positive role models for them.
Show more

21 Read more

Fair access and widening participation at the University of Liverpool

Fair access and widening participation at the University of Liverpool

The two master data-sheets that were generated from the UoL central database were examined independently because they differ in important ways. To begin with, assessments, grading criteria and selection processes differ between three-year degree programmes and the five-year medical programme (see section 3.6.2 for more information). For example, three-year degrees are classified and medical degrees are not. Conversely, grading and degree classification for the three-year programmes are largely consistent between faculties making it possible to include students on these programmes and explore associations within one dataset. Moreover, previous research indicates that the socio-economic/demographic profiles of students on highly competitive subjects such as medicine, differs to other programmes, as this typically attracts a considerably lower proportion of students from less affluent socio-economic groups compared to other programmes (Gallagher et al., 2009; McManus, Woolf, et al., 2013; Singleton, 2010a). Thus, it was considered important to examine inequalities in participation and attainment between students on three-year programmes and the five- year medical programme independently to identify potential differences between these. Maintaining this level of disaggregation is also important to refine the targeting of students with academic potential who are currently underrepresented within different programmes (Singleton, 2010a). Further, the benefits of using contextual data alongside school grades as a means of identifying students' true academic potential could be greatest for highly selective programmes such as medicine where a large proportion of applicants have the highest entry grades making it particularly difficult to discriminate between them (e.g. Tiffin et al., 2012).
Show more

322 Read more

Differences and Inequalities in Civic Participation among Bulgarian Youth

Differences and Inequalities in Civic Participation among Bulgarian Youth

voting and protest activities between the group of unemployed young people and those in education and in work ( [27], [28]). Gender differences in political involvement have been much debated as well as examined empirically although results have often been mixed and inconsistent [29]. One factor with growing significance for social inequalities among youth is family background. The lack of access to jobs and the prolongation of studies, the housing market crisis and rising student taxes make young people more dependent on their parents. The intergenerational transfer of wealth, emotional and practical support help to alleviate the high costs of youth unemployment, but it also acts as a mechanism for rising social inequality because there is an intergenerational transmission of poverty and insecurity. Social research has encountered a correlation between social disadvantage and higher acceptance of violence in demonstrations as the only way to influence decision-makers ([11]: 79). Another explanatory factor has been sought in the influence of religion on the forms and contents of young people’s non-institutional political participation. There is evidence that religion is seen as offering solutions to social problems in the Middle East and North Africa and is high on the agenda of youth protests there. Within religious communities there is significant differentiation in the tolerance towards violence [26]. What is more, we can expect that similar trends might have a diverse impact on youth engagement in different national contexts.
Show more

13 Read more

Social inequalities in young children’s sports participation and outdoor play

Social inequalities in young children’s sports participation and outdoor play

Independent associations with children’s outdoor play were found for maternal educational level and household income. A high income household may indicate the ability to purchase play material (e.g. bicycles and jumping ropes) or may represent a residential environment suitable for children’s outdoor play [32]. Previous studies have shown that favorable attributes of the physical environment, such as access to recreational facilities, presence of sidewalks, controlled intersections, low crime rates, and area afflu- ence positively influence children’ s physical activity [44]. With respect to maternal educational level, we hypothesize that low educated mothers may have more free time (e.g. due to unemployment) that enables them to supervise out- door play of their children [19]. Although maternal em- ployment is often used to capture these work related components of SEP [31,32], the current operationalization (paid job, no paid job) may not have been sufficiently sen- sitive. We have conducted sensitivity analyses using a more elaborate variable for employment (i.e. no paid job, paid job part-time [<36 hours/week], and paid job full- time [≥36 hours/week]), and found highly similar results (data not shown).
Show more

10 Read more

Measurements of inequalities in access to higher education: Case of the Russian Federation

Measurements of inequalities in access to higher education: Case of the Russian Federation

There are 140 institutions participating in the projects. All of them are public higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Science and Education within the participating regions. Public higher education institutions under the authority of other Ministries may apply to be considered for participation in the projects. Some quotas and restrictions are imposed. All higher education institutions that participate are allowed to enroll in all programs only applicants with educational vouchers. The number of students whose educational vouchers will cover full tuition and fees without any other extra payment should be not less than 50 per cent of all enrolled, including not less than 25 per cent in each program. Each institution indicates the admission test score and tuition three months prior to the application deadline.
Show more

21 Read more

Association of participation in a supplemental nutrition program with stillbirth by race, ethnicity, and maternal characteristics

Association of participation in a supplemental nutrition program with stillbirth by race, ethnicity, and maternal characteristics

sorting of Black and White women into WIC, nor did restricting the study sample to women who had delivered at 37 weeks’ gestation or later. However, racial/ ethnic differences in the association between WIC participation and stillbirth were eliminated when the analysis was restricted to nulliparous women with no previous losses, and all associations were pulled toward the null. Any nulliparity and multiparity with previous losses are associated with greater odds of stillbirth com- pared to women who have already experienced pregnan- cies without losses [13]. Further restricting to nulliparous women with no losses also excludes women who enrolled in WIC because they met the criteria for nutritional risk because they experienced previous losses [1]. Therefore, restricting to women who are all in their first pregnancy may represent a particularly homogenous group with fewer unmeasured confounders.
Show more

8 Read more

He Never Asked If He Could Help: He Asked How He Could Help

He Never Asked If He Could Help: He Asked How He Could Help

I well remember the affect on him of meeting some of the men on death row; seeing mentally impaired inmates who could not hope to under- stand anything of signif[r]

5 Read more

Socio-economic, ethnic and gender differences in HE participation

Socio-economic, ethnic and gender differences in HE participation

• These results suggest that other factors have a larger role to play in explaining the higher participation rates of EAL pupils relative to White British pupils than they do in explaining the higher participation rates of non-EAL pupils relative to White British pupils. This may provide some potential support for the hypothesis that more recent immigrants have higher expectations and aspirations than other ethnic minorities, which in turn might explain their higher participation rates. However, the data at our disposal do not lend themselves well to a full exploration of this hypothesis, as we are only able to imperfectly proxy recent immigration status using whether or not English is spoken as an additional language in the family, and the very substantial differences in the proportion of different ethnic minority groups who speak English as an additional language suggests that it is unlikely to be capturing whether or not someone is a recent immigrant alone. Moreover, we cannot say with any certainty that differences in attitudes are driving these results. Nonetheless, it is interesting to note that we are able to explain less of the gap in participation rates for EAL pupils than for non-EAL pupils.
Show more

117 Read more

Inequalities in maternal health care utilization in Benin: a population based cross sectional study

Inequalities in maternal health care utilization in Benin: a population based cross sectional study

This study has become the foremost to explore and exam- ine prominent indicators of maternal health care service utilization in Benin, and thus utilized two rounds of nationally representative data set from 2006 and 2012 surveys. The main outcome measures under study were ANC visits, institutional delivery, postnatal care and contraceptive use among women of reproductive age. The prevalence of ANC at least 4 or more visits, facility-based delivery, postnatal care and contraceptive use among women of reproductive age were relatively the same in both rounds of survey. The estimates are consistent with literature from other sub-Saharan Africa countries where maternal health care indicators need more improvement [21–23]. Furthermore, socio-demographic, economic and proximate determinants were the main predictors of ma- ternal healthcare services. Age, geographical region, place of residence, level of education, religious beliefs, use of media, wealth index and parity were significant predictors for the disparity in access to skilled pregnancy care and fertility control [22–25].
Show more

9 Read more

Reframing "participation" and "inclusion" in public health policy and practice to address health inequalities:Evidence from a major resident led neighbourhood improvement initiative

Reframing "participation" and "inclusion" in public health policy and practice to address health inequalities:Evidence from a major resident led neighbourhood improvement initiative

participate in it. Big Local partnerships have responded to the need to address both the breadth of participation (i.e., inclusion) and its depth (i.e., collective control) – the former as evidenced in, for example, respondents’ observations of “broadening” beyond the usual suspects, the latter in concerns to ensure young people are involved in BL decision-making – and have realised that this is unlikely ever to be a simple by-product of BL’s presence in the community. Both need to be worked at. Addressing inclusion in Big Local – that is, attending to the breadth of participation – requires Partnerships to understand the composition of their community, and to offer a range of activities and ways of engaging that will appeal to and reach diverse groups and individuals (e.g., community fairs that bring residents together, accessible meetings at differing times or in appropriate settings, utilising social as well as more traditional forms of media). Attempts to increase the community’s collective control over decisions – extending, that is, residents’ depth of participation – are likely to include inviting residents to help identify priorities for action, holding open Partnership meetings, or setting up sub-committees that draw on particular skills and experience in the community. It also means making sure that residents know that any or all of these options are open to them.
Show more

11 Read more

A STUDY ON INTER-MANDAL AND INTER-DIVISIONAL VARIATIONS IN RURAL FEMALE WORK PARTICIPATION RATE IN CHITTOOR DISTRICT (ANDHRA PRADESH)

A STUDY ON INTER-MANDAL AND INTER-DIVISIONAL VARIATIONS IN RURAL FEMALE WORK PARTICIPATION RATE IN CHITTOOR DISTRICT (ANDHRA PRADESH)

Women in India play a crucial and contributory role in the field of agricultural production. Rural Indian women are extensively involved in agricultural activities. However, the operations performed by female labour in agriculture are varying from region to region and from one social group to another social group. There are number of studies on the agricultural sector in Chittoor district. Among these studies, the research on agricultural labour is very limited. The empirical investigations are needed to study the agricultural labour problems. Hence this empirical and scientific investigational study of rural female work participation rate in the rural economy of Chittoor district is an important phenomena. This study aims to study the Inter–Mandal variations in rural female work participation rate in three revenue divisions of Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh. Also, study looks at the Inter–Mandal inequalities in the employment status of female agricultural workers in three revenue divisions of Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh. For highlighting the Inter-mandal and Inter-divisional variations in Rural Female Work Participation Rate, Co-efficient of variation has been calculated, which will reflect the variations in Rural Female Work Participation Rate. The Inter- mandal and Inter-divisional inequalities in the real agricultural employment status of rural females have been shown by the co-efficient of equality. In the present study, the relevant data for explanatory and explained variables is collected from the Census of India 1991 : Population Census. Inter-Mandal variations of Rural Female Work Participation Rate and co-efficient of equality in the three revenue divisions namely Chittoor, Tirupati and Madanapalle of Chittoor District was studied. The co-efficient of variation confirmed less inter-mandal variations in Rural Female Work Participation Rate. The value of co-efficient of variation also confirmed that majority of the mandals have the high level of the real agricultural employment status of rural females. The average co-efficient of equality for rural females in the district was calculated. The results obtained revealed that less variation is noticed in real employment status of rural female agricultural workers in Chittoor division followed by Madanapalle and Tirupati divisions.
Show more

12 Read more

Access and Participation of Rural Households to the Credit Markets in Meghalaya

Access and Participation of Rural Households to the Credit Markets in Meghalaya

by them from a particular state or region, and is a useful proxy to gauge household’s access to credit from formal sources. From each of the district mentioned above, two blocks have been selected based on the highest percentage of households availing banking facilities as per census of 2011 (GoI, 2011). Further, from each block five of the largest villages, in terms of number of households, were chosen and a total of twenty households from each village were selected through the process of random sampling. A simplified formula for determining desired sample size at 95 per cent confidence level at a precision level of ±5 per cent have been used and a total of 401 households were surveyed (Yamane, 1967).
Show more

12 Read more

Community Participation in Community Based Drinking and Sanitation Programme

Community Participation in Community Based Drinking and Sanitation Programme

Abstract:- This research aims to identify form and level of community's participation in the Pamsimas programme in Bandung Jaya village as a belonging to the community and can be managed sustainably. The research's data were collected by interviewing community's members, BP-SPAMS councils, the village councils and board members of the Kepahyang district PMD. Documents study included documenting village regulations, Pamsimas administration book such as guest book, member book and Note of BP-SPAMS Mandiri Jaya Financial Statement. The result showed that the most dominant type of community's participation was manpower manifested in mutual cooperation activities and ideas/notions outlined in community's meeting. In addition, the community also participated in the form of materials and funds. The level of the participation of the community of Bandung Jaya village in Pamsimas programme are considered high. In the initiation and planning phase of the programme, the community's participation was in the shared control level and in the implementation, supervision and maintenance phase, the community's participation was in the full control level. The result of this research provided contribution in effort to increase the success of Pamsimas through the community's participation.
Show more

7 Read more

Trust in online information   A comparison among high school students, college students and PhD students with regard to trust in Wikipedia

Trust in online information A comparison among high school students, college students and PhD students with regard to trust in Wikipedia

Another difference between high school students on the one hand and college students and PhD students on the other hand is that the last two groups applied more different information fea[r]

36 Read more

טיפול פנימייתי לילדים ולבני נוער : נייר עמדה של קבוצת מומחים במפגש הפסגה הבין-לאומית לפנימיות טיפוליות

טיפול פנימייתי לילדים ולבני נוער : נייר עמדה של קבוצת מומחים במפגש הפסגה הבין-לאומית לפנימיות טיפוליות

‫‪ | 128‬עמדה‪ :‬טיפול פנימייתי לילדים ולבני נוער‬ ‫‪s Residential Centers, 2016‬׳‪ Children‬וכן גופים ממשלתיים פדראליים וגופים‬ ‫מהמגזר השלישי במדינות השונות‪ ,‬ואתם גם גופים פילנטרופיי[r]

16 Read more

A NEW GENERALIZATION OF OSTROWSKI TYPE INEQUALITIES ON ARBITRARY TIME SCALE

A NEW GENERALIZATION OF OSTROWSKI TYPE INEQUALITIES ON ARBITRARY TIME SCALE

and Liu, W., (2016), New weighted ˇ Cebyˇ sev-Ostrowski type integral inequalities on time scales, Journal of Mathematical Inequalities, volume 10, number 2, pp. He completed his Master [r]

14 Read more

Reframing 'participation' and 'inclusion' in public health policy and practice to address health inequalities: Evidence from a major resident-led neighbourhood improvement initiative

Reframing 'participation' and 'inclusion' in public health policy and practice to address health inequalities: Evidence from a major resident-led neighbourhood improvement initiative

There is a need for greater conceptual clarity in place-based initiatives that seek to give residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods more control over action to address the social determinants of health inequalities at a local level. In this article, we address this issue as it relates to the concepts of participation and inclusion. We draw on qualitative data generated during the first phase of the Communities in Control Study, a longitudinal multi-site independent evaluation of the impact of Big Local on the social determinants of health and health inequalities. Big Local is a resident-led area improvement initiative in England, funded by the Big Lottery Fund). Initiatives focused on community empowerment are increasingly prominent in public health policy and practice globally. Approaches emphasise the promotion of greater control over decisions and action amongst individuals, groups and communities, particularly those living in disadvantaged circumstances. However, when it comes to participation and inclusion in taking action and making decisions, the field is characterised by conceptual confusion. This risks undermining the impact of these initiatives. Whilst participation and inclusion are necessary conditions for empowerment and collective control they are not necessarily sufficient. Sufficiency requires attention to the breadth of participation (i.e., to inclusion) and to the depth of participation (i.e. the extent to which it is experienced as empowering and ultimately enables the exercise of collective control over decisions and actions). In observing how different Big Local resident-led Partnerships across England are tackling the day-to-day challenges of engaging with their communities, we reveal the potential for policy and practice of reframing, and therefore clarifying (to highlight the different roles they have) the concepts of participation and inclusion in terms of depth and breadth.
Show more

12 Read more

Participation and performance trends in ultracycling

Participation and performance trends in ultracycling

Conclusion: These findings in ultracycling races showed that (1) ∼26%–40% of starters were unable to finish, (2) the percentage of female finishers was ∼3%–11%, (3) the gender difference in performance was ∼18%–28%, and (4) ∼46% of the successful finishers were master athletes. Future studies need to investigate the reasons for the low female participation and focus on the age-related performance decline in other ultraendurance events in order to confirm that master athletes are predisposed to ultraendurance performances.

11 Read more

Retirement and perceived social inferiority strongly link with health inequalities in older age: decomposition of a concentration index of poor health based on Polish cross-sectional data

Retirement and perceived social inferiority strongly link with health inequalities in older age: decomposition of a concentration index of poor health based on Polish cross-sectional data

Although both objective and subjective socioeconomic positions are strong predictors of health status, they do not correlate highly. Objective and subjective SES might denote different components of a socioeconomic position, and therefore feed disparate mechanisms, translating socioeconomic standing into health outcomes. Epidemio- logical studies rarely acknowledge that socioeconomic sta- tus is a multifaceted concept, encompassing not only material circumstances (measured by income) and general cognitive aptitude (measured by education), but also social prestige and social distress. In our model, although in- come related strongly to health and health inequalities, it did not explain the range of complexity of how social hier- archy influences health. We propose that subjective SES, particularly with control for income and education, is treated as a proxy for perceptions of social inferiority, par- ticularly significant in highly unequal societies [62], such as Poland. Subjective perceptions of one’s position in a so- cial hierarchy might influence the psychosocial pathway especially strongly [50, 63]. This proposition explains evi- dence from longitudinal studies, in which low subjective social status predicted functional declines in older adults, even after adjustments for objective components of socio- economic positions and health statuses at a baseline of 4 years prior [64]. Of course, the social-selection explan- ation also applies here, suggesting part of the association stems from a mechanism of reversed causation (i.e., a negative influence of health issues on both socioeconomic position and self-esteem). We consider this inability to distinguish cause and effect a limitation of the study, which we mitigate by addressing the literature. All associa- tions reported in this study can be explained rationally in terms of social causation and social selection, the two pri- mary paradigms of social epidemiology. Another limita- tion derives from the properties of the analytical technique. Decomposition of a CI is an arithmetic tool that does not evaluate the direction of the relationship, nor does it test whether all variables were included. We tested the model repeatedly to ensure reliability and valid- ity, and found that the relative contribution of income and age remained the same regardless of how the variables were included in the model (e.g., binary, dummy, and nu- meric). We also found that variables such as marital status and religious involvement, included commonly in social epidemiology research, did not relate to health inequal- ities. Finally, we did not include insurance status as a co- variate potentially contributing to health inequalities because it does not differentiate the chances for receiving health care in Poland, where the public social insurance scheme financed from a mandatory quasi-tax provides
Show more

10 Read more

Exploring inequalities in access to and use of maternal health services in South Africa

Exploring inequalities in access to and use of maternal health services in South Africa

Qualitative Phase: Sampling methodology and data A delayed start to the quantitative phase of work in one rural sub-district meant that the qualitative phase could only be completed in three of the four sub-districts. In this phase, in-depth interviews were carried out with women chosen through a purposeful selection methodology to reflect a range of different delivery experiences, and with a particular focus on women who had obviously faced problems accessing services. As this was a facility-located, rather than community-based, sample of women, those who had given birth before they got to the facility, known as Born Before Arrivals (BBAs), were used as a proxy for women who were not able to access services. A total of 16 women who had recently delivered, in most cases at the facility were interviewed shortly after the birth. Follow- up interviews were conducted with six of these women a few weeks later in their own homes. Eight women were BBAs, five had had successful deliveries (three normal vaginal deliveries and two caesarean sections), and three had experienced stillbirths.
Show more

12 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...