Respondents were selected initially from one database of small business operators, however it became apparent that two databases were required to complete the research. The initial database (Dun & Bradstreet) consisted of a selection of two thousand small firms from their Dunsfile Business Who’s Who. The parameters placed on the selection of firms included firm size of five employees or less and firms located in the state of Victoria. The choice of smaller firms was made on the understanding that larger firms were more likely to use a computerised accounting package and therefore would not be useful to this research. After administering telephone interviews over several days, it became apparent that there were insufficient non-users of CAS in the Dun & Bradstreet database.
Behavior Uncertainty on A Company’s Decision to Use Outsourced Accounting Service
The hypothesis testing above showed that the behavior uncertainty variable had a positive insignificant on SMEs’ decision to use outsourced accounting service. Hence, the third hypothesis was rejected. This research finding supported the research previously conducted by Everaert et al. (2006), where behavior uncertainty was not a significant driver of SMEs’ decision to use outsourced accounting service. This research finding contradicted the TCE theory and the studies carried out by Hafeez (2013) and Kamyabi & Devi (2011d). In the researchers’ humble opinion, this difference in this research result might be due to the different characteristics of SMEs in Malang Municipality and those in the place of previous studies. One of them was the fact that not all SME actors in Malang Municipality could apply well the applicable regulations. This made SME actors have to face high behavior uncertainty situation and therefore the decision to use outsourced accounting service was the right one, even if its influence was insignificant.
2. Academic Ranks: Table 4 contains frequencies of technology use by academic ranks. It appears that instructional technology choices for accounting education are fairly uniform across academic ranks. Only in 3 out of 18 areas lecturers are found to lag significantly behind others in using technology. One of these areas is in the use of E-mail for communication with colleagues. In addition, lecturers seem to be wading in the use of presentation and data analysis software. If accounting programs are to comply with the recommendations of the AECC, AACSB, AICPA, IMA and others, which among other things call on faculty to apply appropriate technologies across all areas of teaching, administrators must ensure that lecturers receive adequate training, instructions, and supervision to stay on a par with other faculty.
In hospitality business, managers need to know how financial transactions affect performance and financial position and how to provide financial information for external users. Also managers have to know how resources were used, how human resources were motivated to carry out a selected course of action. In this case managers must have at their disposal internal information provided by managerial accounting. In our opinion, a hospitality managerial accounting must be organized to provide information for planning alternative short or long term courses of action and to decide the best course of action to be implemented. Without management’s understanding of the information being provided, management’s effectiveness will be greatly reduced (Jagels & Ralston, 2007). We think that for the Romanian hospitality business it is necessary the organization of a managerial accounting system to analyze the performance of each department and to decide how to increase the profit and the quality of all services. To attain this target three types of information are necessary: information about costs; information about prices and information about contribution and profit policy.
In November 2007 the web site www.conta.ro (with the objective of debating the multiple problems and cases that appear in the activity of the accountants) along with „Curierul National”, „Prezent”
and „Capital.Ro” (partner newspapers of the event) offered the chance for the users to vote their favorite accounting software for establishing a ranking, the object of the competition being “The best accounting software 2006”, with the motto: “You have the software! The accountant has the remote control! Will he chose you?”. At this competition 41 accounting software developers applied with software like: Vip Profesional, Datalight Enterprise, Wizpro, Winmentor, Easycont, Classoft sql Erp, Contab Sql, Syntesio, Claris, B-Org, Contabil Profesional, Aplix Erp, Trendix, Networker Erp, Ideale 2000, Pionier, Contab 04 Salevpers, Easycont, Ciel Finance Manager, Networker Erp, Trendix, Microinf and so on.
Figure 2: Context diagram of ACAM Ltd.
Ltd. processes. A full documentation of the interview questions and their responses is provided in 6. In addition to the data and information gathering exercises, company production data, human resource organization charts, sales, and finance data were also examined. Initial understandings of the company processes were documented and described in the form of a spreadsheet and later transformed unto revised versions of the CIMOSA modelling templates, as described in 6, 41. Based on these earlier understandings about process decomposition, a context diagram, as shown in Figure 2, was created to represent all the DMs observed in the company. As can be seen from Figure 2, six main domains were observed with three of them being considered to be Non-CIMOSA domains. DM1 is used to represent the set of processes belonging to the customer domain. DM1 is therefore responsible for providing orders to ACAM Ltd., receiving finished bearings in time and making prompt payments. DM2 is used to describe the processes performed by the suppliers of raw materials to ACAM Ltd. A set of processes belonging to sales, planning, and designing was classified as “front-end businesses” and denoted as DM3. The managerial and supervisory activities needed to ensure the fulfilment of orders were termed the “Business Management” DM4 domain. DM5 refers to the “physical processes and activities” required to fulfil customer orders. This represents the actual material transformation processes required to convert raw materials into finished goods. Finally, DM6 is used to represent the support processes required for the fulfilment of the other domains.
A number of companies offer accounting-specific software tools, many of them accessible online for free. Such tools tend to be specifically geared toward the needs of those who want to keep track of their finances. While the use of such tools may not be realistic for large corporations that need to allow hundreds of people to have different levels of access to financial records, they can be very useful for individuals and small companies.
There are many answers. Accountants are found wherever money measurements are needed, wherever money-related decisions must be made, wherever money-based reports must be prepared and
assessed. In our modern society this is almost everywhere.
Accounting is ‘the language of business’. Money measurements are the common denominator, which companies, nations, divisions, plants, regions and products use to combine their separate activities into measurements for the organisation as a whole. The accountant is also the principal user of the major information system in an organisation and, often, its manager. Accounting is the skill. Accountancy is the profession”.
The second method, independent of the previous one, is called ‘Grundrechnung’. Early research has been carried out by the German researcher Schmalenbach and has been extended by another German researcher Riebel. Riebel has developed a technique for profit analysis and decision support, called ‘Einzelkosten- und Deckungsbeitragsrechnung’ (Riebel 1994). This financial performance measurement technique resembles what generally is known as the contribution margin technique. The main difference is that ‘Einzelkosten- und Deckungsbeitragsrechnung’ starts with building hierarchies of cost objects (a very simple example of such a hierarchy could be, for instance, company – brands – products). Costs and revenues are now traced down into the hierarchy as deep as possible, without introducing any apportioning of costs. The general ledger cannot supply the ‘Einzelkosten- und Deckungsbeitragsrechnung’ technique with the required information. For this reason, Riebel (1994) 5 has extended the ideas regarding the ‘Grundrechnung’ of Schmalenbach. ‘Grundrechnung’ is a method that prescribes accounting registration rules to accomplish purpose neutrality. Purpose neutrality of accounting data means that the use of accounting data is not limited to one application, but can be used for a whole range applications. Sinzig (1983) describes a relational data model based on the idea of ‘Grundrechnung’ for one specific organisation. As such, the model is able to supply the data needed for the techniques of Riebel. The ‘Grundrechnung’, in contrast with the REA model is not a substitute for the general ledger. Unfortunately, recent research indicates that the approach of Riebel lacks application in practice. (Weber and Weissenberger 1997). Weber and Weissenberger suggest that the required, detailed registration technique could be blamed for this. More about the research of Riebel regarding the registration of accounting data can be found in Chapter 4.
between 8-inch and 24-inch heights. membranes, since coal tar’s low membrane roof leaks. For this reason, the Slippage and resultant wrinkling are softening point makes it a poor specifier should pay special attention to some of the biggest problems with choice for vertical flashing applica their flashing design. The rooftop units base flashings. Use materials better tions. leak, the ductwork leaks, the curbs leak, suited to vertical applications for 5. West-coast base flashings use emul the supply lines leak, the pitch pans around heights over 24 inches. sion-based coatings in combination the wood dunnage leak, and the steel legs 2. For base flashing in good condition, with light polyester reinforcements, that support the larger units leak.
We will focus on the deferred exchange as it is the most common, but the other two options are available and may be considered under the proper circumstances.
All three structures should employ the use of a qualified intermediary to protect the tax deferred treatment on the exchange. Your attorney cannot act as an intermediary, but may initiate and complete the legal paperwork.
PREPAID EXPENSES AND CROP INSURANCE
Prepaid Farm Expenses:
As many of you are aware, cash basis farmers are allowed to pay for expenses for next year and deduct them in the current year. This can be a good tool to use in tax planning at year end. Prepaid farm expenses include the following items if paid for prior to year end: feed, seed, fertilizer, farm supplies, etc. that are not used or consumed during the year.
The human resources and innovation are considered a part of the concentric circles model that is able to generate competitiveness (Diaz-Chao et al., 2016; Boland, 2014).The ability of corporate governance as part of human resources to useaccounting information in general and the information provided by the managerial accounting in particular (Johnson, 1994) and create business strategies based on available knowledge and acquired experience (Bambarger, 1989) is a prerequisite to support competitiveness. Human resources can support competitiveness with the condition that one should not excessively prioritize a single initiative that supports change (Chaston & Mangels, 1997). Ensuring a reasonable level of staff competences by attracting, retaining and training of personnel with vocations contributes to the competitive potential of small and medium businesses in Mexico (Patlan-Perez &De Lara, 2012). Important in this view are the activity field, the ownership typology, the firm structure, the size, and age of the company. Competitiveness is also created by the IT staff, which, in addition to the competence, must have a solid technological process background and strong relationships with business management (Westerlund et al., 2017; Ross et al., 1996). Corporate governance can significantly improve the competitiveness of companies by managing relationships, building skills through training, supporting innovation, improving the business-government relationship and bringing an activity back home from an international location (Chuang & Huang; Husain et al., 2016; Wu & Chiu, 2015; Porter et al., 2013). Also, the ability to have continuity in business, to be flexible and adaptable, to provide future employment is landmark of company competitiveness (Kharub et al, 2017, Wayne Pace & Stephan, 1996).
Department of Information Systems & Decision Sciences California State University, Fullerton, USA
Business intelligence plays a crucial role to achieve competitive edge over competitors in the challenging economy we are in. Businesses using a business intelligence methodology are able to develop intelligence based information systems to gain useful business insight and make faster and more reliable businessdecisions. While many organizations are starting to usebusiness intelligence in many areas of their businesses and make substantial gains, they have not taken advantage of this in Human Resource Management area. In this paper we examine leading BI vendors to look into the business intelligence and data analytics features incorporated in their Human Resource Management modules.
Lean accounting has become increasingly important as more and more companies adopt the lean enterprise model or some variation of it. Cost and managerial accounting textbooks continue to use, almost exclusively, models based on standard overhead absorption, which if used in a lean environment will not accurately reflect the benefits from the movement to a lean enterprise and may distort the impact of the changes. Because of these developments, accounting students should be exposed to lean accounting models beyond a brief introduction in their basic cost and management accounting courses. This paper presents a model for teaching decision making in a lean company which uses value stream costing for such decisions as special orders and make-or- buy decisions. The use of these models in cost and managerial accounting classes will be of benefit to the future cost/managerial accountants.
However, such asset allocation shifting should only arise where it is of sufficient magni- tude to matter, i.e., (1) where plan assets tend to be larger relative to DBOs (generating larger returns, ceteris paribus), and (2) where expected rate of return assumptions tend to deviate more from discount rate assumptions. Regarding (1), German firms traditionally employ un- funded defined benefit plans (i.e., plans with no plan assets) as well as funded defined benefit plans. Consequently, the pre-treatment median funded status (i.e., fair value of plan assets as a percentage of the DBO) of the German treatment group is 62.8% (Table OA.5 in the Online Appendix), compared to 80.2% for Anantharaman and Chuk’s (their Panel A of Table 2) Ca- nadian treatment group. Regarding (2), we have compared pre-treatment ERRs and discount rates for the German and Canadian treatment groups. (Recall that separate ERRs are no longer available under IAS 19R post-treatment.) Whereas German treatment firms’ median ERR is 5.21%, Anantharaman and Chuk’s (their Panel A of Table 2) Canadian treatment firms use a median ERR of 6.27%; at the same time, median discount rates are nearly equal (4.69 versus 4.50%). The higher median deviations between ERRs and discount rates for Canadian firms suggest that the expected ERR-induced earnings impact of IAS 19R is larger for Canadian firms. We view these structural differences (1) and (2) between Canadian and German pen- sion plans as indicators that any ERR effect in Germany will differ from that documented by Anantharaman and Chuk (2017) for Canada.
Most documentation should be securely held by the business for a minimum of five (preferably seven) years, with each business having a clear policy on what is kept for what length of time.
Documents can be retained in either hard copy or in electronic form. Hard-copy files should be securely stored in a logical and systematic manner to facilitate retrieval. Access should be restricted to authorised personnel. Similarly, electronic files should be stored in a logical and systematic manner, with access restricted through the use of computer user identification and passwords. In addition, a system of regular back-ups of electronic files should be in place to avoid the loss of vital information.
The remainder of the exam will address quantitative concepts and an understanding of the techniques used to solve the problems, as well as quantitative concepts.
Some questions will reflect lessons from the videos and classroom activities.
• During each exam students will be allowed the use of the computer, the course textbook and all notes / handouts (OPEN BOOK / OPEN NOTES).