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THE APPLICATION OF IFRS BETWEEN THE ACCOUNTING PROFESSIONALS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BENIN AND NIGERIA USING THE CONCEPT OF UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE

THE APPLICATION OF IFRS BETWEEN THE ACCOUNTING PROFESSIONALS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BENIN AND NIGERIA USING THE CONCEPT OF UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE

Population:A population, according to Kothari (2008) is considered to be any group of people, events, or items that are of interest to the researchers that they wish to investigate. Borg and Gall (2009) described the target population as a universal set of study of all members of real or hypothetical set of people, events or objects to which an investigator wishes to generalize the result. The population for this study is the accounting professionals in the Republic of Benin and Nigeria. The targeted population was accounting professionals that have skills and expertise needed to prepare and present financial statements. The accounting professionals without the skills and expertise needed to prepare and present financial statements were excluded from participating in this study. The participants are working in different organizations such as multinational companies (MNCs), national corporations, regional corporations, large companies, medium and small-sized companies, and different sizes of accounting firms; 200 respondents participated in the study. Of these, 100 survey questionnaires were delivered to the accounting professionals in Republic of Benin, and 100 survey questionnaires were delivered to the accounting professionals in Nigeria.

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THE IMPACTS OF PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION AMONG PUBLIC ACCOUNTING PROFESSIONALS IN MALAYSIA

THE IMPACTS OF PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION AMONG PUBLIC ACCOUNTING PROFESSIONALS IN MALAYSIA

People management is an important aspect of an organizational process in today’s global business environment. A well-managed business organization ordinarily regards their employees as the primary sources of productivity gains and financial gains. Presently, an employee is considered as the most valuable asset to every organization (Singh et al., 2011). According to Tella et al. (2007), employees served as a fundamental source of improvement and achievement of organizational goals. Thus, employee job satisfaction is a very important concept in an organization. In public accounting profession, employee job satisfaction has become a very crucial issue for employers recently. This is due to an increasingly worrying trend in employees’ turnover within accounting industries. Nowadays, public accounting professionals have played a major role in the era of globalization in helping business organizations to achieve sustainable growth (Yusof et al., 2011). Generally, accounting professionals such as accountants, auditors, tax advisors, and consultants offer a variety of services to their clients in all business activities, which include the daily bookkeeping and accounting services, auditing services, preparation of tax returns, consultancy services, and so forth (Said, Ghani, Hashim, Mohd Nasir, 2004). Due to this matter, the demand for public accounting professionals is rising. on the other hand, employees’ job satisfaction is very important to an organization because it will influence the behaviour of employees in positive ways. Employees’ job satisfaction is a result of some work outcomes, such as lower employee turnover intentions, greater organizational commitment, improved job performance, good working environment, better welfare services provided, and so forth. Consequently, the productivity and quality of works will be increased. These, in turn, assists the organization to achieve organizational goals and objectives.

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Exploring The Relationship Between Accounting Professionals And Small And Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

Exploring The Relationship Between Accounting Professionals And Small And Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

From the SME side, it would be very helpful to take the advice provided by accounting professionals in our questionnaire. They encourage SMEs to use professionals such as accountants and lawyers and to include accountants before engaging in projects, major purchases, etc. They suggest that SMEs seek advice before leaping, particularly considering tax consequences before starting to do something. They point out that failure to plan is planning to fail thus identifying the need for increased emphasis on planning. They also advise SMEs to be organized, to have quality book-keeping systems, and to fulfil information requests for filing requirements. According to the literature, the potential benefits of utilizing management accounting tools and techniques and the timeliness and accuracy of computerized record-keeping are not always captured by SMEs.

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Does economic rationalization decrease or increase accounting professionals’ occupational values?

Does economic rationalization decrease or increase accounting professionals’ occupational values?

Our research is not without limitations. Value theory pro- poses that choices between a few generic values motivate human action (Schwartz 1992). Choices between a more differentiated set of work values that shape behaviors in occupational and organizational settings can mediate the normative effects of these generic values (Ros et al. 1999; Meglino and Ravlin 1998). We measured accountants’ val- ues using the measures of the generic value types introduced by Schwartz (1992). While Schwartz’s (1992) value meas- ures have been widely used in value socialization research and have been found to exhibit good predictive validity and reliability, they provide a generic operationalization of the values that are conventionally recognized as the key values of accounting professionalism (Duska and Duska 2003). Future research could triangulate the measurement of these generic values with the measurement of the value conflicts manifested in accounting work, for example, in terms of the pursuit of the public interest as opposed to self-interest in client assessment. Future research could also develop a more nuanced understanding of the cross-national variations in accountants’ values by examining whether the negative effect of economic rationalization on self-transcendence val- ues is stronger for accountants who are less concerned with openness to change. Research could also examine the mod- erating effect of cultural values on the relationship between the economic rationalization and accounting professionals’ values.

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Do Building Up of Values Matter? An Analysis of Ethical Values of Accounting Professionals and Unethical Reporting Practices in Accounting

Do Building Up of Values Matter? An Analysis of Ethical Values of Accounting Professionals and Unethical Reporting Practices in Accounting

Accounting scandals have shaken the confidence of the investor in the companies. Large number of people lost their money in these scandals. All these scandals were attributed to false, misleading, or untruthful accounting. This undermines the role of accounting professionals who did not report material manipulations in the financial results of the company. The study attempted to find an association between ethical values of accounting professionals and their choices in ethical dilemmas in their profession. Correlation scores in this study revealed that there is a statistically significant low degree of positive correlation between value assessment ratings and ethical dilemmas in scenarios. Similarly, the correlation coefficients computed between scenario ratings and formal ethics education indicates that the latter would be important in preventing the instances of unethical reporting. Ethical value score of professionals were found to be more explanatory than formal ethical education. The study strongly recommends building up of rigorous ethical and fiduciary responsibility in the financial sector through various means. The auditors must be trained to become responsible, independent, and judicious while conducting audits. Professional bodies should encourage compliance with ethical reporting practices in accounting by both carrot and stick approach.

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AN INVESTIGATION OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCE IN THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS BETWEEN ACCOUNTING PROFESSIONALS IN NIGERIA AND THE REPUBLIC OF BENIN: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

AN INVESTIGATION OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCE IN THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS BETWEEN ACCOUNTING PROFESSIONALS IN NIGERIA AND THE REPUBLIC OF BENIN: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

The incomparability of financial statements around the world is an obstacle to the effective and efficient running of the integrated global financial markets. This study examined cultural difference in the application of the IFRS between the accounting professionals in the Republic of Benin and Nigeria. The study surveyed accounting professionals in the Republic of Benin and Nigeria to obtain their perception of application of IFRS. The study employed survey research design. Data were collected from Accounting Professionals from Nigeria and Republic of Benin using questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics, specifically two sample t-Test was conducted on the data collected. The research findings implied that the accounting professionals with similar cultural values apply IFRS similarly, while those differ in cultural values apply IFRS differently. The research findings also indicated that the chosen countries’ former colonial masters’ cultural values influenced the accounting professionals’ decision making process. The study thus recommends that a re-education for accounting professionals worldwide to focus on how the accounting professionals around the world can apply IFRS in a manner that serves the interests of the global marketplace. Consideration should also be made by MNCs to establish a screening department that would identify countries with similar cultural values when they need to raise capital.

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(Re)figuring accounting and maternal bodies: the gendered embodiment of accounting professionals

(Re)figuring accounting and maternal bodies: the gendered embodiment of accounting professionals

The women were aged between 26 and 45 at the time of the obtaining the narratives, and were spread geographically around the UK, although five of them worked for the same large accounting practice. All the women, except one, had one or more children and was, or had been, working in a professional accounting role at the time when they became pregnant. Some of the women were known to me, but the majority were obtained from ‘snowballing techniques’ (Bailey, 2000; Bailey, 2001), whereby they were referred to me through contacts. The women gave oral history accounts of their experiences as both a professional accountant and a mother, which lasted up to four hours. Notes of my immediate impressions of each participant were made immediately after each meeting in my fieldwork diary. The narratives were tape recorded with the permission of each participant and then transcribed. On receipt of the transcripts I listened to the tape whilst scrutinising the transcript to correct for any errors. The transcripts were read for a second time whilst listening to the tape, and annotated with significant examples of emotion, changes of tone and emphasis, ‘as emphasis, mood, intonation and so on, can crucially elaborate meaning’ (Jones, 1985, p. 58). Further analysis and annotation took place in subsequent readings by drawing out any references or inferences to the body or embodiment. Cross references could then be made between the comments and experiences of the participants, which were enhanced by ‘focusing on the ways in which different people relate their experiences according to the circumstances they found themselves in’ (May, 1997, p. 126). In this way I could use theory to make sense of experience in an ‘interpretative and synthesising process, which connects experience to understanding’ (Maynard, 1994, p. 24).

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Marital Status, Religiosity, And Experience As A Predictor Of Ethical Awareness Among Accounting Professionals

Marital Status, Religiosity, And Experience As A Predictor Of Ethical Awareness Among Accounting Professionals

Accounting, as a human pursuit, has an ethical feature. There is a good deal of research in the area of ethics and accounting (Abdolmohammadi & Ariail, 2009; Alleyene, Devonish, Nurse, & Cadogan-McClean, 2006; Been & Bernardi, 2005; Bolt-Lee & Moody, 2010; Cheffers & Pakaluk, 2005; Duska & Duska, 2007); however, there is little research available on the relationship of personal factors to ethical behavior in the accounting profession. Factors, such as gender, religion, and work experience, may be related to a person’s ethical values (Keller et al., 2007), but, researchers have not investigated the relationship of marital status (now married, widowed, divorced, separated, never married), religiosity (dedication to one’s own personal faith), and the years of work experience (number of years participating as a working professional accountant) as an accounting professional to the ethical decisions that accountants make.

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Transforming identities: accounting professionals and the transition to motherhood

Transforming identities: accounting professionals and the transition to motherhood

to the majority in upper level management, most of whom are ‘masculine men’, and Crompton observes that male practices and institutions for excluding women from the higher levels of the profession, operated on the golf-course or in the bar, are so deeply ingrained that they hardly give rise to comment, representing ‘in a relatively unambiguous fashion the systematic exclusion of women from the acquisition of much organisational knowledge’ (Crompton 1987: 108). Nearly two decades later, the women in this study had reached senior manager or partner status, and had received some degree of accommodation by the firms to their new status as mothers with Deborah’s partnership fighting hard to retain her, but they were still subject to varying degrees of inequality, manifested in the lack of role models, derogatory comments, institutional long-hour culture, lack of understanding of childcare constraints, and in Judith’s case, apparent virtual constructive dismissal, such that her experience of employment was uncontrovertibly negative after she returned to work after maternity leave. Whilst the women in the study are not necessarily representative, these misunderstandings and experiences demonstrate that the accounting profession continues to reproduce these subtle inequalities.

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Valuing human resources: perceptions and practices in UK organisations.

Valuing human resources: perceptions and practices in UK organisations.

When asked to identify who in the organisation should drive the practice of valuing human resources, 50.2% of the respondents stated that the human resource function should drive the practice of measuring human resources with only 2.1% of respondents stating that this should be driven by the accounting function. 35.3% of the respondents stated that a multifunctional team should drive the practice of measuring human resources. Those respondents who identified the human resource function as the most appropriate function to drive valuation practices stated that this was because they had the knowledge, expertise and data to be able to do so. A few respondents also indicated that if the human resource function did not get involved in the valuation of human resources, there might be a threat to the human resource function and the danger that other functions such as accounting would perhaps "take over". Those respondents who stated that a multifunctional team including human resource and accounting professionals should drive the valuation of human resources indicated that this was desirable in order to obtain the expertise of both functions and to improve acceptance and understanding of human resource valuation across the organisation. There were no major differences between the responses of the three sector groupings.

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How Do Companies Adjust their Independent Directors after a Mishap  Evidence from Independent Directors’ Background

How Do Companies Adjust their Independent Directors after a Mishap Evidence from Independent Directors’ Background

Listed companies wish independent directors to be consultant rather than supervisor. This intention is one- sided romance to some degree because the Guidance requires at least one accounting professionals should be presented as an independent director. What’s more, listed companies cannot dominate the selection confronting with pressures from medium and minority shareholders, regulatory authorities and capital market. More and more challenges are heard these days focusing on the issue independent directors are not independent, with little awareness neither. The emergence of independent direc- tors system is to protect medium and minority share- holders, but what we can see is quite different from what we hoped. Lack of independence means independent directors are controlled and manipulated by majority shareholders. Meanwhile, lack of awareness means they cannot satisfy the general public as integrity and compe- tent professionals. Anecdotal evidence shows that inde- pendent directors will not only be challenged medium and minority shareholders, regulatory authorities, but also punished by law in serious circumstance after a mishap. Thus, listed companies will adjust independent directors after a mishap hoping to mitigate distress from capital market and medium and minority shareholders, hence, incentive compatibility happens.

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Effective Learning in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria-It’s Impact on the Accounting Profession

Effective Learning in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria-It’s Impact on the Accounting Profession

The guardians of education—teachers or lecturers—also contribute to the problem affecting the educational system in Nigeria. Teachers or lecturers are responsible for delivering instructions within the pillars of the accounting profession so as to ensure that the resultant factor is the provision of fine and well-trained accounting professionals. But teachers or lecturers are not to be blamed entirely for their contributions to the problems affecting the accounting education. The contributing factors such as funds—suitable teaching materials and educational amenities— to be made avail by the educational authorities are absent which will trigger the willingness to provide effective accounting education by instructors to students. This theoretical research will assess effective learning in tertiary institutions and its impact on the accounting profession in Nigeria.

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Exploring the Impact of Work Life Balance on the Employee and Organisational Growth

Exploring the Impact of Work Life Balance on the Employee and Organisational Growth

In order to reduce the waste of resources of health to minimum level, The most important sub-system of the system must take the necessary precautions in hospitals. Improving the quality of services provided in hospitals, ensuring cost control in hospitals, increasing competition, promotion of private initiatives are important elements which help these businesses to increase their effectiveness. Because of human health is a matter of priority in health services, the businesses which offer this services should think the economic priorities for second plan. This is a policy based on hospital establishments with income instead of providing added value to the costs without compromising on quality to ensure a minimum to decrease the cost, with the creation of the control system will be possible. The complex and the complex structure of hospitals also complicates the management of these enterprises. With the centrifugal organization structure and the separation of management in the responsibility fields, management of this complex structure can be provided more efficiently. The most important problems in India, in hospitals, professional management and cost control as a responsibility accounting system is a system that will produce a solution to the problem proposed.

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Performance Characteristics of the 10hp Induction Machine

Performance Characteristics of the 10hp Induction Machine

On the other hand, the electronic audit concept has been brought forward by carrying out the audit activities through electronic environment by means of electronic entries and documents. This study finds that the most significant impact of E-accounting is on the development of technology, which brings savings in time and cost of the user. E-Accounting is a borderless entity permitting anytime and anywhere banking. It has brought opportunities for companies to perform the accounting functions more effectively and efficiently. Adaption of e- accounting functions has brought a chance for the companies to progress towards paperless offices and also helps to reduce the cost of clerical works by providing sufficient space to store data and process information for management decisions in a friendly manner. Computerized accounting systems can be used by the companies in production thus it is known as user friendly accounting .Tools like electronic data interchange and electronic funds transfer can provide companies with opportunities to apply production system more effectively and save money.

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A Study on the Role of Audit Functions on Creative Accounting Practices

A Study on the Role of Audit Functions on Creative Accounting Practices

Renu and Aggarwal (2014) highlighted the creative accounting in negative sense with the help of creative accounting methods adopted by Enron Company and Satyam Computers, which led to the collapse of both of them. Yadav (2014) discussed the various aspects related to creative accounting. He found that “the creative accounting practices increase when managers want to boost the profit in case of unsuitable situation and suggested that such practices can be minimized by good corporate governance practices.” Patnaik et al., (2014) made an empirical analysis by undertaking a survey in some selected private sector undertakings in Kolkata, Bhubaneswar and Cuttack. They used questionnaire and Likert scale method and concluded that “window dressing practices are prevalent in majority of corporations and external auditors encourage such practices for their own interest.” Recently, Tassadaq and Malik (2015) in their empirical study collected the data through structured questionnaire from industrial sector of Pakistan. They concluded that “a company is involved in frauds or scandals because of several factors like unethical behaviors, agency problem and non- professional attitude.” The above highlighted reviewed studies are focusing on different dimensions of the creative accounting. So far, unfortunately, no detailed research study has been undertaken

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Taking stock of accounting ethics scholarship: a review of the journal literature

Taking stock of accounting ethics scholarship: a review of the journal literature

The status of the accounting profession has been damaged over the last few years, partly because of the accounting scandals that have undermined confidence in it (for example Enron, WorldCom and Parmalat) and partly because of unease over the self-regulation of the profession, with many feeling that self-regulation amounts to no regulation. Regulatory developments and other initiatives, both domestically and internationally, offer some prospect of reducing the risk of further problems occurring. However, the most effective way forward would be for accountants to develop the ability to think and behave ethically, without necessarily having recourse to detailed regulations and standards. The findings of the research to date, particularly regarding the moral development of many senior accountants, are not encouraging. Understanding the behaviour of accountants when in ethically challenging situations and how best to develop the ethical maturity of accountants, especially those in key positions, would appear to be issues worthy of further research.

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Taking Stock of Accounting Ethics Scholarship: A Review of the Journal Literature

Taking Stock of Accounting Ethics Scholarship: A Review of the Journal Literature

The status of the accounting profession has been damaged over the last few years, partly because of the accounting scandals that have undermined confidence in it (for example Enron, WorldCom and Parmalat) and partly because of unease over the self-regulation of the profession, with many feeling that self-regulation amounts to no regulation. Regulatory developments and other initiatives, both domestically and internationally, offer some prospect of reducing the risk of further problems occurring. However, the most effective way forward would be for accountants to develop the ability to think and behave ethically, without necessarily having recourse to detailed regulations and standards. The findings of the research to date, particularly regarding the moral development of many senior accountants, are not encouraging. Understanding the behaviour of accountants when in ethically challenging situations and how best to develop the ethical maturity of accountants, especially those in key positions, would appear to be issues worthy of further research.

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Success of Forensic accounting over traditional auditing

Success of Forensic accounting over traditional auditing

a. Forensic accounting is the use of accounting skills to investigate fraud or embezzlement and to analyze financial information for use in legal proceedings. Where traditional accounting deals in the assessment of a business‘ funds and properly conveying that information to investors and management, a forensic accountant is called upon to investigate the flow of funds through a business to evaluate the path it takes and determine whether illegal transactions have occurred. b. A forensic accountant investigates a wide range of different crimes that relate to fraud, such as

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ACCOUNTING AND TAX REPORTING OF FINANCIAL RESULTS

ACCOUNTING AND TAX REPORTING OF FINANCIAL RESULTS

In addition, a number of differences in the formation of the financial result in the accounting and tax accounting derives from the right of the taxpayer to determine the income and expenses on the basis of two ways: either as payment or either according to transportation of goods, work and service. Given that the accounting data is generated based on an assumption of time certainty of economic activity (accrual), the application for tax purposes is face with difficulty with the formation of the tax base, especially in the part of the expenses, which are deductible .

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Understanding, predicting and influencing business students' accounting career choice

Understanding, predicting and influencing business students' accounting career choice

While accounting faculty are best suited to developing students’ skills and abilities necessary for an accounting career, professional accountants have an advantage when it conies to describing the nature, variety, work environment, challenges and rewards of practicing accounting (Mitrejean and Zarzeski, 2001). There is a substantial body of research that stressed the importance of professional accountants informing and influencing students’ perceptions and expectations of the AP (Byrd et al. 1989; AECC, 1993; Davis, 1993; Violette and Sanders, 2004). Cory (1992) has suggested that educators should consider asking practitioners to speak to students in introductory classes so that as yet undecided students may become aware of the dynamic nature of the AP and the vigorous, energetic personalities of its members. Accountants should participate in presentations and workshops aimed at attracting high school students and undecided college students into the AP. Hermanson and Hermanson (1995) added that accounting practitioners must speak to high school business clubs, high school and college honour societies, college business fraternities, and other high school or college groups that may contain likely recruits. Academics could try to include a greater number of guest speakers in their introductory accounting courses and promote the meetings and speakers of accounting clubs (Metrejean et al., 2002). The key is to take advantage of any opportunity to communicate with bright high school and college students. Personal stories or examples that illustrate the dynamic nature of accounting careers and the need for strong interpersonal skills will help to address the negative perceptions of the profession. Coleman et al. (2004) suggested that to attract students to the accounting programs, faculty members and program directors should attend career days and visit local high schools to discuss accounting in general and their accounting programs in particular, attend honours college events and offer promising students in principles of accounting courses personalized invitations to major in accounting.

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