A total of 300 IMA members completed question- naires, including 96 accounting managers, 103 non- supervisory accounting staff, and 101 accountingservice users. The majority (64%) were men. The size of orga- nizations varied greatly: 21% of respondents worked for organizations with less than $10 million in revenues. At the other extreme, 15% worked for companies with rev- enues of more than $20 billion. Seventy-two percent worked for public or private corporations, while 22% worked for governmental or not-for-profit organizations. Respondents represented many different functional areas, including sales and marketing, administrative ser- vices, customer service, production, engineering and construction, procurement, and research and develop- ment. Slightly more than 50% of respondents had one to five years of experience in their current positions, and 19% had six to 10 years of experience. In sum, the variety of organizations and the breadth of individual backgrounds were considerable.
Trust in Accountants on A Company’s Decision to Use Outsourced AccountingService
Trust in this research means the trust put in the provider of outsouced accounting services, where the trust in this case requires the owner/manager to expect that the outsourced accountant service providers (1) have the expertise and ability, (2) are reliable to fulfill their legal obligations, (3) have consistent attitude, (4) and will charge a cost which matches the accounting activities they provide (Everaert et al., 2006; Kamyabi & Devi, 2011d, 2011b). TCE theory supports the view that when there is trust, it is possible to lessen the formal control mechanism and the company is more likely to outsource their accounting function to make it run (Kamyabi & Devi, 2011d, 2011b). A previous study also supports this, finding that when trust is present between companies, it can reduce the transaction cost since it can limit uncertainty and opportunism, reduce business risks, and be a source of competitive advantage (Blackburn et al., 2018). This statement implies that the higher the trust in outsourced accountant service provider, the more likely the SME owners/managers to prefer using outsourced accountingservice to perform their accounting function. This is supported by previous studies which find that trust has a significant positive correlation with outsourced management accounting (Blackburn et al., 2018; Hafeez, 2013; Kamyabi & Devi, 2011a, 2011b).
These are just a few of our many accomplishments we have enjoyed over our brief history. During the past year alone, we accomplished many firsts from developing paperless processes that provide real-time finance and accounting support and the direction DFAS is headed in the future. Each year brings renewed expectations from our customers, partners, stakeholders, and workforce. The needs of our customers are changing and DFAS must respond without any interruption in service. Our mission and vision reflect this mandate.
As also reported in fiscal year 2004, DFAS’ core financial management system, the Electronic Business Accounting and Management System (e-Biz), did not substantially comply with Federal financial management system requirements, including OMB Circulars A-127, Financial Management Systems and A-130, Management of Federal Information Resources, as they relate to information system security requirements. DFAS did not satisfy certain provisions of OMB Circular A-130, Appendix III, Section (3), which requires agencies to implement and maintain a program to assure that adequate security is provided for all agency information collected, processed, transmitted, stored, or disseminated in general support systems and major applications. Specifically, there was no alternate processing facility for e-Biz. The production and performance copies of e-Biz are both housed at the same site at the Defense Enterprise Computing Center (DECC) Columbus.
The AccountingService-Learning Project
Financial accounting is usually taught by teaching the principles first and then applying them to the preparation of financial statements. The focus is on completing the different stages of an accounting cycle. Exercises and cases are given to students to deepen their understanding of the concepts and the accounting cycle. However, these approaches are often limited insofar as answering more practical business-oriented concerns, such as the setting up of an accounting system and the trading-off of data accuracy versus recording effort. The teacher can probably discuss these concerns in class, but the answers to these concerns become more real to the students if they can explore the concerns themselves. Setting up a simple accounting system for a microenterprise with no formal accounting system provides the students an opportunity to interact with the owner/manager as well as the few employees of the enterprise. The owner/manager is most likely someone with minimal formal business education, and almost no accounting background at all. Any business records kept are minimal. Exploring the various issues in setting up the accounting system would fulfill the intellectual outcomes of the service- learning project.
it is just not possible to differentiate between nonlocal and local companies in Dubai. Second, by studying the service sector separately, we capture its importance in terms of its contribution to Dubai’s gross domestic product (GDP). The reason also relates to the fact that the service sector has been studied less than the indus- trial sector when it comes to the use of standard costing. A plausible explanation for this might be the perception that standard costing is not appropriate for the service sector and the claim that service companies distance themselves from it. Therefore, we address the following questions:
The emphasis on contribution margin might lead to bidding errors. Much of the rotating bankruptcy situation in the US airline industry can be attributed to this. Until recently their major costs were capital commitments to aircraft and airport facilities. It was very easy to bid down the price to fill seat capacity to maximize the short run contribution margin. The variable costs for this service are a small portion of the total economic cost. Over time though the infrastructure has to be paid for regardless of how positive income from operations is. The proponents of service science will need to consider this financial metric. Accounting departments have a natural propensity towards variable costs because it reduces financial risk. Decreased profits from diminished margins at higher volumes are less of a problem than negative cash flow in an accounting paradigm. Plans to move towards more fixed costs will run into a headwind from accounting. The value proposition will have to be more comprehensively documented than an equivalent cost reduction proposal to invest in cost cutting. Another possible solution is to tie into an emphasis the accounting literature that views utilization as a way to increase valuation.
According to this line of research “MO forms the core of an organizational culture” (Ledwith and O’Dwyer, 2009, p. 653)and fosters people’s behaviour accordingly. Interestingly, previous studies did not consider the person-organization fit since they did not analyze the specific characteristic of the service developed and its interrelation with MO. The PE theory considers “the compatibility between an individual and a work environment that occurs when their characteristics are well matched” (Kristof- brown et al., 2005, p. 281). According to this approach, people actively search for work situations that best fit the bundled combination of the outcomes they seek. It is reasonable to presume that people will derive greater satisfaction from, and will pursue opportunities that provide, the outcomes they appreciate the most, or, conversely, fewer satisfaction from the things they appreciate the least. Using the assumption of inertia as a general guide to human behaviour (Shapero, 1982) and the “PE” lens (Fitzsimmons and Douglas, 2011; Kristof, 1996; Kristof-brown et al., 2005), it is reasonable to imagine that relatedness could affect the connection between MO and NSD.Related products or services represent incremental innovations that involve minor adjustments to the current products or services offered by the firm. Conversely, unrelated products or services differ substantially from the already provided ones and involve radical innovations. Researches on the relationship between MO and innovation show inconclusive results. On the one side, MO seems to inhibit the development of radical innovations because customers describe their needs in terms of familiar products and services (Atuahene-gima, 1996). On the other side, Lukas and Ferrel (2000)found that MO becomes a source of new ideas for the development of unrelated products and services especially when firms are customer oriented, while inter- functional coordination increases the development of new related services. In addition, other studies do not find support in the relationship between MO and the degree of newness of products and services offered by firms (Vega-Vázquez et al., 2012). According to this premise our research question could be summarized as follows:
An important feature of service organizations is the significant level of human participation in the production process (Auzair & Langfield-Smith 2005). Even as advances in technology replace personnel with machines (as in the case of ATM machines or online services in banks) there will be greater involvement of customers in operations through self-service. Accordingly, accounting perspectives acknowledge that establishing a financial value for competitors and customers are elements of “new management accounting”. Having the appropriate management accounting system is no more a viable option for businesses if they are to sustain in the long term. Furthermore, a more strategically oriented management accounting system integrates customers with internal processes as a reaction to more competitive and uncertain market environments (Cadez & Guilding 2008). The customer related accounting evident in extant literature as part of the SMA approach includes the customer profitability analysis (Roslender & Hart 2002), which involves the application of activity-based costing principles designed to identify the costs of doing business with specific customers more accurately. Consequently the information leads to the identification of ways in which customers may be made more profitable, information claimed to enable businesses pursue the quest for superior performance.
The SERVQUAL scale (Parasuraman, Berry, and Zeithaml, 1988) measures five dimensions of service quality using two similar 22-item sections that record customers’ expectations and perceptions, respectively. The five dimensions of service quality measured by the SERVQUAL scale encompass tangible aspects (service personnel and physical facilities appear neat and professional), reliability factors (ability to meet deadlines and produce error-free results), responsiveness (prompt service, employees willing to help immediately), assurance levels (adequate technical knowledge, secure transactions, inspires confidence), and empathy factors (gives personal attention, operates at convenient hours). Because of concerns regarding the length of the scale and research results showing that perceived performance alone is an accurate predictor of quality and satisfaction (Cronin and Taylor, 1992; Teas, 1994), we used only the portion of the instrument measuring clients’ perceptions regarding service quality in the current research. The 22-item SERVQUAL scale used in this research is set forth in Exhibit 1.
During 2014 getsix ® Group joined HLB International,
a leading network of independent professional accounting fi rms and business advisers with member fi rms well-established in Poland, and world-wide mostly ranked among the top 12 nationally. Once we realised the importance for an alliance in Poland with member fi rms, we set-up HLB Poland. This makes us even stronger, even more fl exible with a combined staff of over 210, covering all areas of accounting, auditing, payroll, HR, along with advisory, tax and fi nancial services, complimented with a fully developed and sophisticated range of technical IT solutions.
For an item to have stand-alone value to the customer, the element (product or service) must either be sold separately by any CSP or the customer could resell the delivered item or items on a stand-alone basis . Considering that most, if not all, elements being provided by a CSP will consist of services, CSPs generally satisfy this requirement by demonstrating that different services are sold separately, either by the CSP or another service provider, rather than by demonstrating a customer’s ability to resell the element . For example, many cloud offerings involve consulting or other implementation services that enhance the value received by the customer by tailoring the service offerings to the customer’s needs and operating environment . The CSP may provide implementation services separately through follow-on arrangements, or other service providers may offer implementation services on a stand-alone basis, either of which could satisfy this stand-alone value criterion .
Transactional work is in its own way a form of commodification of the accounting function, even more so when it concerns specific functions such as Accounts Payable and General Accounting. Commodification is akin to making services become a commodity which, if compared to a product, is something easily available in the market at low costs. Commodification has even reached the professional field of accounting whereby it touched the traditional work of external certified public accounting firms and their expansion into the jurisdictional domain of internal auditors using a dramaturgy of „„world-class services‟‟. This was a major inflection point in inter-organizational power relations in the professional arena (Covaleski et al, 2003) and involved a study on integration of sociology of professions, institutional theory and outsourcing literatures. This change was revolved around a contested transformation of the professional field of accounting that was intended to be global in its reach, which was the outsourcing of internal audit services to external public accountants, and in particular the Big Five international public accounting firms.
When you look for an accounting firm in China, it is usually not hard to find one. From small local firms to the "Big Four", all are available. However, in today's competitive and ever changing business environment, what you need but hard to find, is ingenuity, versatility, and creativity. That is the difference between ordinary accountants and entrepreneurial professionals. Russell Bedford Hua-Ander is a team of such professionals and we are ready to serve you.
(Fall, Winter, Spring)
ACCTG 301 Intermediate Financial Accounting 1 (3:3:0)
Prerequisites: ACCTG 202
This course builds upon the principles learned in ACCTG 201 and 202. The course is designed to give students an in-depth introduction to fi nancial accounting standards and the framework underlying those standards, the measurement and reporting of the elements of the fi nancial statements, and the use of the time value of money concept in accounting. Students will be expected to demonstrate profi ciency in applying technical concepts to selected homework problems. Students will also be expected to use the tools of the trade to research assigned case studies.
There are many debates regarding the adoption of IFRS. Some researchers (Rashid, Saputri, Abdullah, Baba & Abdul-Hamid, 2017; Mulenga, 2016; Uthman & Abdul-Baki (2014) stated that adoption of IFRS has increased the value relevance of accounting information and thereby recommend strict compliance with IFRS standard. Nevertheless other researchers (Khanagha, 2011; Kousenidis, Ladas & Negakis, 2007) have other view of the IFRS adoption. Kousenidis, Ladas & Negakis (2007) stated that there is no need for adoption of IFRS in Greece. Khanagha, 2011 recorded that adoption of IFRS did not improve value relevance of accounting information in UAE. The debate of the value relevance is continuous as the standards affects individual countries differently, Mulenga (2016) stated that the discrepancy and inconsistencies in the result of different researchers from different countries is attributable to differences in standards and requirements in different countries. Value relevance of financial information of Pre and post IFRS adoption in Nigerian DMBs differs significantly (Pavtar, 2017). Pavtar (2017) discovered that there is no significant impact of post IFRS earnings per share and book value per share on the share price of DMBs in Nigeria while post IFRS volume of shares issued significantly affect the share price of DMBs. Value relevance of earnings and book value information in the implementation phase of IFRS is higher than the early adoption phase of IFRS, but the value relevance of cash flow information in the implementation phase of IFRS is lower than the early adoption phase of IFRS in Indonesia (Prihatni, Subroto, Saraswati & Purnomosidi, 2016). Adoption of IFRS has decreased the value relevance of accounting information in the listed insurance firms (Muhammad, 2017). Earnings per share, dividend per share and book value of share indicated an increase after the adoption of IFRS and positive relationship with market per share (Muhammad, 2017).