Achievement and Attainment of Millenium Development Goals (MDGs)in the Developing nations

Top PDF Achievement and Attainment of Millenium Development Goals (MDGs)in the Developing nations:

Council conclusions on the Millennium Development Goals for the United Nations High-Level Plenary meeting in New York and beyond - Supporting the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. 11080/10, 15 June 2010

Council conclusions on the Millennium Development Goals for the United Nations High-Level Plenary meeting in New York and beyond - Supporting the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. 11080/10, 15 June 2010

18. The EU takes development objectives into account in non-development policies that are likely to affect developing countries and is committed to support them in achieving the MDGs through its wider political agenda. The EU will continue to enhance PCD, and encourages all other partners to take a similar approach, and in this regard considers useful a global High- Level Event to address policy coherence for development, to be prepared in the framework of relevant international and multilateral fora.

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Quality Education for Girls: Implications for achieving Sustainable Development Goals in Developing countries

Quality Education for Girls: Implications for achieving Sustainable Development Goals in Developing countries

Abstract— The Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) were overtaken by events and were replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on 15 th Sept. 2015. Countries adopted a set of goals to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all and part of a new development agenda. Seventeen (17) SDGs were adopted. The concept of SDGs was born at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development at Rio de Janeiro in 2012.(Murphy, 2010) Girls’ education reduces poverty in all its forms (SDG no. 1) and ends hunger through achieving food security (SDG no.2). Quality education for girls reduces fertility rates hence slows population explosion; lowers infant and maternal mortality rates and improves health and nutrition and well- being of families (SDG No, 3). Educated mothers ensure better prospects of education for their children (SDG no.4). Despite the strides made, 57 million children in the world are still out of school. Gender equality (SDG no. 5) can also be achieved by empowering more women and girls. Increasing access to education for girls is expected to bridge the gap and bring about gender parity at all levels of representation. Today gender disparities still exist. More importantly, women need to be educated to ensure that they all access clean water and get better sanitation for all (SDG no. 6). A total of 663 million people worldwide are still without water. Education is a prime mover of social, cultural and economic development of any nation hence it raises economic productivity (SDG no 12). The education of girls today is widely recognized as the most effective development investment a country can make. Women are the foundation of life due to their multiple and critical roles in the family. Their education therefore acts as a springboard for sustainable development hence the best strategy to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. A cost-benefit analysis has revealed that women’s education has enormous social returns(Kizerbo, 1991). Seven of the seventeen SDGs will be addressed in this review.
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The Impact of United Nations Millennium Development Goals on Sub-Saharan Africa

The Impact of United Nations Millennium Development Goals on Sub-Saharan Africa

Since 1992 when Ghana re-embarked on democratic principles of governance, several strides have been made towards reducing poverty and promoting national development. From the preparation of Ghana Vision 2020 and subsequent poverty reduction policy frameworks (GPRS I & II) and lately, the Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda, different programs have been implemented towards human development. The ramification of this has been the declined of poverty levels between 1990 and 2006 by 50 per cent. The Ghana Statistical Service (2008), according to the National Development Planning Commission ([NDPC] 2010: 9), indicate that “the overall poverty rate has declined substantially over the past two decades from 51.7 per cent in 1991/92 to 28.5 per cent in 2005/2006, indicating that the target could be achieved well ahead of the 2015 target of 26 per cent... and the proportion of the population living below the extreme poverty line declined from 36.5 per cent to 18.2 per cent over the same period against the 2015 target of 19 per cent.” Several factors have been attributed to this including political and macro stability that have been enjoyed in Ghana for over 20 years. A mixture of social and economic interventions has ensured this attainment. The NDPC (2010) explains that the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP), Capitation Grant, and the Ghana School Feeding are examples of government run programs that have yielded dividends in reducing poverty levels in the country. In addition, the agency identifies that the introduction of Microfinance and Small Loans Scheme (MASLOC) by government, the National Youth Employment Program (now Ghana Youth Employment and Entrepreneurial Development Agency) and the commercialization of agriculture through financing, irrigation for rice, mango, cotton farming in the north and improved land administration to promote large scale agriculture have complemented the social efforts. Rural and urban road construction and the general improvement in roads such as the increase in the rehabilitation of roads from 65.4 per cent in 2007 to 76.0 per cent in 2008 are all factors that have successful facilitated the achievement of halving population in poverty by half.
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The Millennium Development Goals Report asdf UNITED NATIONS

The Millennium Development Goals Report asdf UNITED NATIONS

The achievement of universal primary education requires both enrolment in, and completion of, the full cycle of primary school education. Between 2000 and 2011, persistent early school leaving has slowed progress towards this goal in developing regions. During this period, the proportion of pupils in developing regions starting first grade who completed the last grade of primary education remained at 73 per cent. Between 2000 and 2011, progress was observed everywhere except in Oceania, sub-Saharan Africa and Western Asia. In Caucasus and Central Asia, Eastern Asia and Northern Africa, nine out of ten pupils who started primary school completed the last grade, bringing these regions closer to achieving the universal primary education goal. However, only three out of five pupils in sub-Saharan Africa, and only one in two pupils in Oceania, were able to complete primary school. Boys were at greater risk than girls of leaving school earlier. Children who are over-age for their grade are more likely to leave school early due to late entry, repetition or the rising opportunity cost of attending school. Other critical factors for early school leaving include travelling long distances from home to school, household poverty, the
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Stakeholders’ Participation in the Sensitization and Capacity Building in the Attainment of Sustainable Development Goals of Universal Basic Education in Rivers State

Stakeholders’ Participation in the Sensitization and Capacity Building in the Attainment of Sustainable Development Goals of Universal Basic Education in Rivers State

In its entirety, education is actually indeed a needed toll for societal and also personal development. The introduction of UBE in our nation was indeed designed to actually save our educational from decaying. The programme actually had wide spread acceptance during its introduction because diverse stakeholders viewed this programmes as that which intended to actually meet education needs in Nigeria. The programme was actually formulated in good light. Besides after UBE was introduce years back it seems to have recorded very little achievement. The UBE actually without doubt has much to contribute to our development. The SDGs outlined by United Nations see not attainable except a good education programme is kept in place. Besides, it seems that the SDGs might actually not be achievement without proper participation of all stakeholders to strengthen UBE programme for achievement of SDGs. Hence, is needful to really investigate stakeholders participate in sensitization and capacity building in UBE schools for the attainment of sustainable development goals in Rivers State and Nigeria in general.
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Empowering Women Mathematically for the Attainment of Millennium Development Goals

Empowering Women Mathematically for the Attainment of Millennium Development Goals

Gilmer and Milwauree (2001) in their work “ An African American Perspective, on Developing women in mathematics,state that mathematically oriented minds, especially women prefer brief, orderly, concise presentations of materials or directions. According to Uka(2006), anxiety and self- confidence are related to achievement. It takes an experienced and self- confident teacher (woman) to help her students (children develop self- confidence in mathematics. A teacher (woman) that is self-confident will also pass it on to her students (children) and thereby positively affecting their achievement . A child who has confidence in himself, is likely to achieve higher in mathematics, and by extension in all aspecst of life.
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NIGERIA SECONDARY EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS’ ATTAINMENT TOWARD VISION 2030

NIGERIA SECONDARY EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS’ ATTAINMENT TOWARD VISION 2030

nation is referred to as less develop or developing country; hence, its people are so addressed accordingly. Nigeria with the population of 192,718,549 as of Monday, September 11, 2017, (United Nations, cited in worldometers, 2017); is no doubt most populated country in Africa. Nigeria is ranked number 7 th in the world in terms of population. The nation comes after China, India, United States, Indonesia, Brazil and Pakistan in that order. Thus, 1 out of every 7 black people on the planet is a Nigerian (United States Central Intelligence Agency, 2017). Lagos, Nigeria is considered as a mega-metropolis, and the world‟s fourth largest city, after Mumbai, Seoul, and Jakarta respectively. The demographical pattern of Nigeria shows that its median age is 18 years. That is, children ages 18 and under constitute more that the half of all the population. With the nation‟s rapidly growing population and subsequent projection, there is every tendency that Nigeria‟s population may rise to 398,507,704 by 2050 (see Worldometers This has put Nigeria in a tight corner of its future survival, especially, that the population which needed to be trained with quality education have their future jeopardized with the type of education provided for them by the government. Nigeria‟s educational system is suffering from neglect and gross underfunding. The resultant effect is the disconnection between the nature of education acquired and its practical application for sustainable development.
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A Panel Analysis of Microfinance's Relevance for Achievement of the Millenium Development Goals. Does Gender Matter?

A Panel Analysis of Microfinance's Relevance for Achievement of the Millenium Development Goals. Does Gender Matter?

According to United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) six out of ten of the world’s poorest people are women. Haughton and Khandker (2009) define poverty as following: “Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, and comprises many dimensions. It includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. Poverty also encompasses low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, and insufficient capacity and opportunity to better one’s life”. Human Development report (2010) reports that 1.44 billion poor people are living on less than $ 1.25 a day. Figure 1 shows the evolution of the percentage of the population living under $ 1.25 a day in different regions of the world between 1981 to 2005. It illustrates that although extreme poverty rates have been declining across many regions of the world in recent decades, high poverty rates still exist, especially in South Asia and Sub Saharan Africa.
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Implementation of Bioenergy Systems
towards Achieving United Nations’ Sustainable
Development Goals in Rural Bangladesh

Implementation of Bioenergy Systems towards Achieving United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals in Rural Bangladesh

Abstract: This research presents a conceptual model to illustrate how people living in rural areas can harness bioenergy to create beneficial ‘community-driven’ income-generating activities. The research is contextualised within the rural developing areas of Bangladesh where people live in abject poverty and energy deficiency. The research methodology applied in this study aims to determine the basic requirements for implementing community-based anaerobic digestion (AD) facilities and illustrate how an AD facility positively impacts upon the lives of rural communities directly after its installation. The survey results demonstrate that implementing a biogas plant can save 1 h and 43 min of worktime per day for a rural family where women are generally expected to for cook (by the long-term tradition). In addition to the positive impacts on health and climate change through adoption of clean energy generation, this time saving could be utilised to improve women 0 s and children’s education. The research concludes that, by providing easy access to clean bioenergy, AD can change people’s quality of life, yielding major social, economic and environmental transformations; key benefits include: extending the working day; empowering women; reducing indoor air pollution; and improving people’s health and welfare. Each of these tangible benefits can positively contribute towards achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. This work demonstrates the potential to increase the implementation of AD systems in other developing world countries that have similar geographic and socioeconomic conditions.
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Implementing the United Nations’ sustainable development goals for water and beyond in Australia: A proposed systems approach

Implementing the United Nations’ sustainable development goals for water and beyond in Australia: A proposed systems approach

-agencies -of-government mechanisms have been initiated, but this has not resulted in sustainability issues becoming an equal priority with other policy issues (Dovers and Hussey 2013). This lack of cross-agency integration on specified actions prevents full understanding, monitoring and planning of consequences across diverse applications of sustainable development (Le Blanc 2015). Indeed, the framing and understanding of the SDGs can affect which administrative portfolio has carriage of the issues and thus how the SDG is operationalised (Dovers and Hussey 2013). For example, in Australia, responsibility for achieving and reporting on the SDGs as a whole are formally assigned only to the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, and the Department of the Environment and Energy (UN 2016). Instead, commentators suggest that the SDGs could best
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Teachers' Achievement Goals: A Mixed Method

Teachers' Achievement Goals: A Mixed Method

Abstract In this study, the first aim of the research is to adjust the scale of teachers' achievement goals to the Turkish culture. The second aim of the research is to get point of view about their achievement goals within the qualitative questions prepared by base on scale items. The mixed method has been used in the survey. The qualitative and quantitative data has been obtained in accordance with the aims of the research. In the first step of the survey, it has been worked on scale adaptation. In the second step, the questions of interview have been prepared by basing on scale items of the qualitative survey and asked to the teachers. In accordance with scale adaptation study, The Scale of Teachers' Achievement Goals, developed by Papaioannou and Christodoulidis in 2007, has been translated to Turkish. The Turkish form of the scale has been carried out on 235 teachers and examined via the reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The reliability co-efficient of the scale has been found as .73. The interview method has been used for the qualitative data in the research. In accordance with views of experts, it has been put into a final form to the interview form. Determined by maximum variation sampling, one of aimed sampling methods, 25 teachers who work in different socio-economic schools status and subjects with different demographic variables have made a working group. The data acquired in the wake of face-to-face meetings has been analyzed by using content analysis. According to views of teachers, it has been stated that student behaviors, the culture of the school, professional properties, personal and environmental factors encourage teachers to success.
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Statistical Study of Rainfall Pattern in Gombe Metropolis, and its Implication on the Attainment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Statistical Study of Rainfall Pattern in Gombe Metropolis, and its Implication on the Attainment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Abstract- This paper examines the statistical rainfall pattern in Gombe metropolis and its implications on the attainment of sustainable development goals (SDGs). Adopting statistical tools commonly used to describe climate such as mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, standardized coefficient of skewness and kurtosis, linear trends and Standardized Anomaly Index were used to examine the recent trends and pattern. The trend of rainfall in the study area in the last three decades shows that inter-annual fluctuation responsible for dryness and recent wetness in the study area. The results of the standardized anomaly index, 3- year running moving average and the linear trend revealed that rainfall total is increasing in the study area; the increase in the annual total is predominantly as a result of the increase of August and October, which are critical months for agricultural production in the area. The research recommend that there is need for total commitment and integrated approach towards attainment of SDGs and monitoring rainfall trend as its plays a significant role in the interface of economy, means of livelihood, poverty index and attainment of food security for the benefit of the present and future generation.
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The Potential of Bai Salam in Islamic Social Finance to Achieve United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals

The Potential of Bai Salam in Islamic Social Finance to Achieve United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals

Poverty is one of the core challenges faced by the United Nations. In September 2015, a total of 193 countries signed a global political agreement known as Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). The core purpose of SDG is to achieve eradication of poverty in all forms without compromising on growth of economies and promoting a sustainable future for people and planet by 2030. There are 17 interconnected Sustainable Development Goals, and these goals should be implemented as a whole rather than in a fragmented manner (Le Blanc, 2015). United Nation recognizes that alleviating poverty, overcoming inequality, creating sustainable economic growth, preserving the planet, and promoting good health are linked to each other and are interdependent. The main focus of this paper is the first SDG: end poverty. While the world as a whole may be on the right path to achieve SDG-1, the current pace is much slower than what is required to achieve this ambitious goal of having less than 3 percent of world’s total population living under the poverty line by 2030. Pogge and Sengupta (2015, p. 572) criticised that the SDG Agenda “does not fulfill its self- proclaimed purpose of inspiring and guiding a concerted international effort toward global development and the eradication of severe poverty”.
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Assessment of Water Supply Situation in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria: Implications for the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals.

Assessment of Water Supply Situation in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria: Implications for the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals.

The UNCH Habitat (1998) identified urban problems throughout the less developed countries to include environmental degradation, inadequate shelter, infrastructure, water supply, sewerage and employment. Estimates from the WHO indicates that 25 percent of all urban dwellers in developing world do not have access to safe water supplies and 50 per cent do not have an adequate sanitation. In addition, the UNDP World Bank water and sanitation programme indicate that by the year 2000 more than 600m million urban people will lack adequate sanitation and 450 million will lack safe drinking water (Urban Age, 1992). In much of the world polluted water, improper waste disposal and poor water management cause serious public health problems. Some water related diseases such as malaria, cholera, typhoid and schistosomiasis harm or kill millions of people every year. According to Water org (2010) 443 million school days are lost each year to water-related illness. A child dies every eight seconds from contaminated water with total deaths record of over 5million people every year (Ushman, 2003). Overuse and pollution of water supplies are also taking a heavy toll on the natural environment and pose increasing risk for many species of life (Ifabiyi, 2000). Shortage of portable water supply for domestic use has become a perennial problem in many Nigerian towns and cities. In November 2001, it was reported that
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The Upsurge of Poverty: Obstacle to the Achievement of the Millenium Development Goals in Nigeria.

The Upsurge of Poverty: Obstacle to the Achievement of the Millenium Development Goals in Nigeria.

The paper highlights the upsurge of poverty and the challenges of achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria. A purview of the secondary data reveals that a significant proportion of Nigeria’s population is poor. This is a shocking paradox especially when viewed against its enormous wealth. Situating the discourse within the positive feedback and the culture of poverty framework, the paper maintains that poverty breeds poverty in Nigeria and this metamorphosed in a force of culture which is transmitted from one generation to another. This culture is further reinforced and sustained by bad governance, corruption, unemployment and impotent poverty reduction programmes. Given the rising poverty profile, the Nigerian government keyed into the Millennium Development Goals-a new global partnership to eradicate extreme poverty and its correlates by 2015. It is disheartening to note that, with several years of implementing the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria, poverty still persists. This no doubt, poses a threat to the realization of the Millennium Development Goals. The paper recommends, among others, the formulation and implementation of policies that can overcome the institutional constraints that militate against actualization of the Millennium Development Goals of eradicating poverty in Nigeria within the targeted time frame.
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MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN AFRICA, POLICIES AND ACHIEVEMENT STRATEGIES: AN APPRAISAL AND WAYS FORWARD

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN AFRICA, POLICIES AND ACHIEVEMENT STRATEGIES: AN APPRAISAL AND WAYS FORWARD

Many similar reports on the progress in achievement of the MDGs suggest that economic growth is a key requirement for improving standard of living in Sub- Saharan Africa. Such reports emphasise the fact that there is the need for a “big push” in public investment in education, health and infrastructure in order for the African countries to achieve the MDGs. OECD (2004) observed that many poverty reduction strategies papers (PRSPs) in Africa recognised the role that infrastructure plays in stimulating economic growth, particularly those aimed at improving productivity and reducing production costs in agriculture. Similarly, a joint report by the Breton Woods institutions (World Bank, 2005b) and the Bank’s Action Plan for Africa (World Bank, 2005c) had called for a doubling of spending on infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa. It appear a majority of these reports alluded to the fact that the achievement of MDGs in Africa remains far- fetched. This puts into test, the authenticity of the policies being recommended for the achievement of MDGs in Africa. This paper aims at appraising the MDGs in Africa in relation to the progress in their achievements. The guiding question would be: “ Are there identifiable practical policy initiatives for achieving the MDGs in Africa. The paper will address the answer to this question in a logical and reasonable manner. The rest of the paper is organised as follows: section 2 presents a survey of the relevant literature; section 3 discusses the methodology; section 4 is an overview of the development indicators in Africa; in section 5, we appraise the effectiveness of the recommended policies for attainment of the MDGs in Africa; and, in section 6, the paper concludes with some recommendations for the ways forward.
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The significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

The significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

course, this has been known for a long time by soil scien- tists, but identifying a suitable symbol for soils cannot be based on knowledge alone but needs to be easily accessible and to be able to somehow trigger the imagination of out- siders. From a practical point of view, soil organic matter contents are relatively easy to measure, most recently also by handheld proximal sensors allowing real-time monitor- ing of changes of soil organic carbon in time and space (e.g. Viscarra Rossel et al., 2010; Stoorvogel et al., 2015). Given the possible role of soils in climate mitigation, and their role in underpinning sustainable development, the lasting legacy of the International Year of Soils in 2015 should be to put soils at the centre of policy supporting environmental pro- tection, sustainable development, and the delivery of climate mitigation (Smith et al., 2015). An important challenge, and essential contribution from the scientific community, will be to provide the guidance and expertise needed to effectuate sustainable carbon sequestration. Given the complex inter- play of (local) factors that govern the carbon sequestration (potential) in the various soils and ecosystems of our planet, rigorous scientific underpinning is needed to devise tailor- made location-specific soil management schemes aimed at optimizing carbon sequestration whilst acknowledging other important ecosystem services. In addition, there is a need for cheap and reliable monitoring of (trends in) soil organic car- bon content.
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The Role of Communication in Disseminating the United Nations Sustainable
Development Goals in the Nigerian Agricultural System

The Role of Communication in Disseminating the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals in the Nigerian Agricultural System

This paper explores the important role that communication plays in the dissemination of the United Nations Sustainable Developmental Goals (SDG’s) in the Agricultural Systems in Nigeria. The aim is to show that the inclusion of communication in its various forms and usage will boost and promote the proper dissemination and actualization of the sustainable development goals and its sub-themes. This has been done through a holistic discussion on the process, elements, forms, and proper use of communication and that of the information communication technologies (ICT’s) as vehicles. Feedback from information dissemination to various audiences and players within the agricultural system in Nigeria as well as the barriers and challenges that arise from this communication process were also examined. This study is anchored on the diffusion of innovation theory and adopted a quantitative approach. A sample size of two hundred and forty respondents within the Agricultural systems in Oyo and Ogun States in South-West Nigeria were purposively selected for a workshop on the United Nations SDG’s through multi-stage sampling. This paper concludes that communication is greatly required in the successful dissemination of the sustainable development goals in Nigeria’s Agricultural systems.
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Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Far from Achievement for Sub-Saharan Africa

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Far from Achievement for Sub-Saharan Africa

It was concluded that the achievement of Sustainable development goals remains a mere dream for Sub Saharan Africa unless serious interventions are made. Most Sub-Saharan African countries performed better on goals 11, 12 and 15. Those goals where serious attention is needed are goals 1-9, 16 and 17. Hunger can be eliminated when the productivity is improved; however, all the three nations show a very poor yield of cereals tonnes per hectare. The challenge which most sub-Saharan countries face is the high rates of HIV/Aids and lower rates of life expectancy. While global life expectancy in 2019 was at 72.6 years the average life expectancy for 61 years. Education and health should be a priority for governments. Unfortunately, Zambia and Rwanda spend less than 6% of their GDP on health and education as a result low rates of students’ complete lower secondary school, which affects literacy rates in the region.Some improvements have been made in the area of equality for example Rwanda has done better not only in the region but in the world. The country is among the first few nations in the world to have more than 50% of women in the national parliament. The country's women participation in the labour force was at 99.9% in 2019.Access to clean water and sanitation remains a challenge for sub-Saharan Africa with more than 50 per cent of the population has lacking access to clean in Rwanda and Zambia. Therefore interventions should be priority efforts like borehole sinking should be recommended. The following observations are made while perusing on the data: South Africa cases of murder are very high which makes people feel unsafe. The freedom of the press is not good in Rwanda and more children are involved in the labour force in Zambia.
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The quest for achieving United Nations Sustainability Development Goals (SDGs): Infrastructure and innovation for Responsible production and consumption

The quest for achieving United Nations Sustainability Development Goals (SDGs): Infrastructure and innovation for Responsible production and consumption

Tools such as the SDGs Industry Matrix (United Nations Global Compact and KMPG, 2016) and the step-by-step guide on incorporating SDGs into the business’ strategy (Anthesis group, 2019) can be useful for organisations to start conversations and mapping towards achieving their SDGs. For example, some opportunities for shared value can be identified, namely: sustainable products, sustainable production, low cost products and enterprise development. Also, some general tips for climate change profits (UN Global Opportunity Explorer, 2019: 37), such as: know your climate change facts and options, set targets and timescales, tackle barriers together, do not be late to the game and get the pricing right. So, can these tools, processes, etc. align to progressing SDGs that are in the language of the change makers?
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