the primary purpose of this study was to test whether the achievementgoaltheory was transferable to the context of educational leadership. furthermore, the aim was to develop measures of principals’ achievement goals for leading. although the study did not succeed in confirming all the hypothesized dimensions of achievement goals, it found a clear distinction between principals’ mastery goals and performance goals. Given the clear factor extraction and the findings in sense of correlations with significant organizational constructs, a main conclu� sion is that that the goaltheory may be a useful framework for studying leadership motivation. More specifically, the study suggests that the achievementgoaltheory can be expanded to cap� ture important aspects of educational management. With respect to measures, this study does not represent a complete validation of new applications of scales, but it gives directions for further development work. In that sense, this study represents a contribution to the field, both conceptually and methodologically.
In this sense, achievementgoal constructs represent a combination of gen- eral goals or purposes like mastery or superiority (cf. these two goals in Ford’s 1992 taxonomy) as well as more specific criteria or targets by which performance will be judged (e.g., progress or self-improvement vs. higher grades than others). Beyond this type of integration across different levels of analysis, achievementgoal constructs such as mastery and performance goals are assumed to reflect an organized system, theory, or schema for ap- proaching, engaging, and evaluating one’s performance in an achievement context. In this way, the term ‘‘goal orientation’’ is often used to represent the idea that achievement goals are not just simple target goals or more gen- eral goals, but represent a general orientation to the task that includes a num- ber of related beliefs about purposes, competence, success, ability, effort, errors, and standards. For example, in many discussions of mastery and per- formance goals, there is a list or table of the different ways that competence or success is defined, how ability and effort are used, how errors are judged, and general standards for evaluation of performance (see Anderman & Maehr, 1994; Maehr & Midgley, 1991; Pintrich & Schunk, 1996). From an achievementgoal perspective, it is the integrated and organized nature of these different beliefs about competence and purpose that provides the theo- retical utility and power of the achievementgoal construct. In contrast, it is not clear that target goal or general goal perspectives assume that the differ- ent elements about purpose, competence, and standards operate in an inte- grated and systematic manner. An important question for future research on goals concerns the nature of the integrated system and how and when it operates to influence achievement.
A MANOVA was conducted to determine whether a relationship existed between self-reported ability level and achievementgoal orientation. Unlike the chi-square test of independence, which examined the categorical groupings for both of the respective variables to assess association, this multivariate analysis utilized the continuous variables associated with task and ego goal orientation as dependent variables. With unequal sample sizes in the two levels of self-reported ability, a Box’s M test of equality of covariance matrices was conducted to satisfy the assumption of homogeneity of variance. This test revealed a non-significant result (F [3, 646352.4] = 1.64, p > .05), indicative of failure to reject the null hypothesis of homogeneity and proceed with the MANOVA. Results from the analysis revealed a significant main effect for ability level, F (2, 225) = 12.62, p < .01, η 2 = .101. Despite the unequal sample size, the dichotomous nature of the ability level variable provided that the main effect would be the same for each criterion (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001). Follow-up univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA)
The findings regarding the benefits of goal orienta- tions for various learning processes were consistent over the years and suggested that among the three orienta- tions, the mastery orientation is the most adaptive per- formance goal in various learning environments . For example, it was found that university students ’ levels of mastery goal orientation predicted their performance of a task requiring long-term retention of information. Conversely, performance-avoidance was negatively related to performance on that task . Other studies found that students who reported holding mastery goals were more likely to use superior learning strategies such as deep information processing of new knowledge and elaboration (i.e. attempting to link the new information with old knowledge that had already been acquired) . This was also found in relation to those who held performance goals and tended to use inferior strategies such as memorizing . Such findings suggest that stu- dents who are orientated toward self-improvement will not just attempt to memorize the learning materials; rather they will strive to achieve better understanding of said materials, will make them more personally mean- ingful, and remember them for longer periods of time after learning.
The aim of this research is to examine the impact of AchievementGoal motivation Theory on students’ academic success. Research asserts that possesing mastery-learning oriented motivation has a positive impact on students’ academic achievement. This study may be useful for students, teachers and administrators in the identi�cation of college students who are considered at risk for math failure or students who are on the verge of dropping out of college. The research applies a quantitative method of study. Quantitative data have been analyzed using El- liot’s AGQ (AchievementGoal Questionnaire). In the case study of a private Suleyman Sah University, Turkey, the focus of the AGQ has been derived from the central research question: How and why applications of AchievementGoalTheory affect students’ success in mathematics at university? In order to identify students’ goal orientation, Elliot’s AGQ was given to 53 students who were selected randomly in math classes. Their course exam results were compared to their motivational types. Based on the quantitative data analiysis, the research suggests that the best way to change one’s thinking during a testing situation (and hence reduce or elminate one’s anxiety) is to intentionally change one’s performance goal and performance-avoidance goal into only a mastry-learning goal.
Considering that language learning is a multidimensional phenomenon, not only are language learners, but also language teachers and material developers, required to play their roles properly in order for language learning to be facilitated and optimized. Therefore, teachers should be helped to realize the importance of efficacy beliefs, motivation, and goal-setting theory and the role they have in student learning so that they can convey this importance to EFL students. Hence, teachers are expected to be acquainted with the factors affecting students’ motivation and self-efficacy, striving hard to increase the students’ learning through boosting their motivation and their sense of self-efficacy. In doing so, teachers can design some other activities and tasks to spur students to pick challenging, realistic and specific goals. Moreover, based on the results of the current research, teachers can rely on the goal-setting theory as an effective strategy to identify self-efficacious and motivated students in classrooms. Furthermore, through comparing the results of this study with other similar studies, it is possible to figure out whether there is a universal pattern in picking the goal by students or not. To boot, the findings of the study might be fruitful for material developers to design new textbooks and other educational materials with exercises and activities truly addressing the goal choice, motivation, and efficacy beliefs of text users. In conclusion, the present study takes a great step in our understanding of the effect of goal-setting theory on learners’ motivation and self-efficacy.
Present study results contribute to the existing literature on the roles of parenting in academic achievement of Turkish children in the 21 st century. One strength of this study is that extremely limited research has been conducted on Turkish parenting, autonomy support, and academic achievement. However, this study has limitations that could be improved upon in future studies. First, the small sample size reduces statistical power to detect potential effects and study results that were approaching significance could be significant and meaningful findings. Future studies need to replicate findings with a larger sample that provides appropriate statistical power to detect hypothesized effects. A qualitative or mixed method methodology may also provide greater meaning to help interpret and understanding study results within Turkish cultural framework.
MSLQ. The primary instrument used to collect quantitative data used in this study is a modified version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991). This modified version of the MSLQ contained 10 items from the motivation subscale and 20 items from the learning strategies subscales, including subscales regarding resource management. After reviewing various tools used to assess self-regulation and goal orientation (i.e., motivation), the MSLQ was selected for use in this study as a primary assessment tool as it was the most widely used in studies investigating self-regulation, contained several subscales that were of interest in this particular study (namely motivational dimensions and resource management) as they are important to online learning, and its easy translation into an assessment that can be modified to address self- regulatory issues related to online learning.
Wright and colleagues  further expand on contra- dictions and conflicts of interest in intersectoral action by examining the circular economy (CE) and its poten- tial positive and negative health impact. CE counters the traditional model of “take, make and dispose” and calls for cyclical use of materials. Implementation of CE in LMICs is often driven by poverty and unemployment and can impose health risks including exposure to hazardous and toxic work environments, conditions, emissions, and materials, as well as infectious diseases. Despite these challenges, CE has the potential to con- tribute toward SDG achievement, especially by mitigat- ing climate change and reducing poverty in LMICs, insofar that it is contextualized and implemented appro- priately. That policymakers, industry, and health sectors must define the mechanisms to protect vulnerable popu- lations from potential negative health impacts is an im- perative is clear—and such decisions must be made with full agency from the public to move toward responsible consumption and production (SDG 12) and positive syn- ergies for other SDGs.
English has become the most dominate language in the world. As David and Dan (2002) asserted, it is the language of travel, tourism, science, and technology. This universal acceptance and the need for good communication skill in English has created a vast requirement for teaching English around the world. This fact has put a tremendous pressure on educationalists to cope with this demand and to attempt to equip teachers with modern teaching methods and approaches. As society advances, science and technology develop and the Internet emerges, the traditional teaching of English has been greatly challenged by many new ways In Iran. According to educational policy of Iran since 2011, communicative language teaching is used for teaching English in high schools. So English as a language is a communicative tool and the crucial goal of learning English for Iranian students is the future use of English for communication. If the students only emphasize learning the language traditionally instead of using it, then the result will become the failure of English teaching in Iran. The traditional English teaching is teacher-centered and students only passively accept what the teacher has instructed. What’s more, the content is boring, so it is quite difficult to stimulate students’ interest in English learning. In traditional English teaching mode, students may review the text only through textbooks, reference books and notes after class. It is easy to lose information. Now teachers in Iran are confronted with many issues, such as how to raise students' interest in English learning, how to increase the efficiency of teaching during class. Multimedia for teaching assumes to be a good answer to the above questions. In the multimedia teaching, with eyes looking, ears listening, mouth speaking, hands writing, brains keeping in mind, students develop interest to learning which in turn is expected to enhance academic effectiveness (Li, 2009). Multimedia teaching can create a practical English using environment, in which students can enhance their ability to use English.
The SAGA questionnaire is expected to improve healthcare provider-patient communication and treat- ment outcomes in clinical practice and be useful for assessing goalachievement in clinical trials. Multiple language iterations should help communication between patients and physicians in different countries, which could lead to more consistent assessment and treatment of the LUTS that are most bothersome to individual patients. Time spent to ensure that patients are able to understand each question being asked, especially consid- ering the variations among languages, is expected to help guide physicians with treatment decisions. The measurement properties of the translated versions will be presented at upcoming international research symposia.
In interpreting the results of the present findings, several plausible explanations exist. First, the path model indicated that mastery goals predicted positive deep strategy in a positive way. This result is parallel with previous studies (Bartels & Magun-Jackson, 2009; Pintrich & Garcia, 1991; Pintrich et al., 1993; Elliot & McGregor 2001; Tickle, 2001). Tickle (2001) concluded that students who adopt deep learning strategies are motivated by mastery- oriented goals. Those who adopt surface level learning are motivated by pass only aspirations and hence, develop minimum effort learning strategies, often dictated by rote learning, only what is necessary. An important assumption in goal orientation theory is that mastery goals, reflecting their desire to increase competence and skills, are the most adaptive patterns of learning among motivation orientations. Students who pursue mastery goals are concerned with developing their ability over time and acquiring the skills needed to master a particular task. When individuals with mastery goals experience failure they interpret the event as providing information regarding their effort in that particular situation and attribute failure to a lack of effort or ineffective strategy use (Dweck, 2000). Chan and Lai (2002) found that students who scored higher on learning goal orientation were more likely to cognitively engage in deep strategy. Those who pursue mastery goals tend to seek more challenges and have higher reported use of effective learning strategies than individuals who pursue performance goals (Middleton & Midgley, 1997; Pintrich, 2000b; Wolters, 2004).
We further examined the items of physical and psy- chological demands individually, as presented in Table 1, with a score of 3 representing a neutral value. We ob- served that the scores of all the training demand items were lower than the neural value, except for that of the item measured as “Intense work concentration (Item 4)”; nevertheless, the scores of the 6 items of psychological demands (mean 2.35–3.01) were higher than those of the 4 items of physical demands (mean 1.94–2.09). Studies have argued that the pace and intensity of the clerkship experience were new for medical students in clerkship, resulting in such students feeling mentally and physically exhausted [41, 42]. Moreover, Wenrich et al. indicated that medical students had higher expectations of preparing themselves for gaining skills required in clinical practice, compared with clerkship faculty, in terms of basic clinical cognitive and technical skills such as communication skills, history taking, system review completion, full physical exam execution, oral case presentation, and write-up completion . We might suggest that hospitals conduct an orientation at the be- ginning of clerkships for medical students who initiated their clinical training about what to expect to reduce their first-contact shock. Such an orientation could in- clude information about the clarification of skill expecta- tions that might alleviate student anxiety about their clerkships and enhance their learning . Moreover, the needs of effective time management training for ensur- ing reduced stress and anxiety in medical students have been verified in the 1st year of the clerkship . More attention should be devoted to the 1st-year clerk- ship of medical students; in particular, emphasis should be placed on psychological job demands, considering the circumstances of core specialty training (ie, internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, and psychiatry) compared with those involved in the required specialty training (ie, emergency medicine, family medicine, and other subspecialties of internal medicine and surgery), which were indicated to place Table 3 Buffering (moderating) effect of the clerks ’ achievement
"Ihe Moon, I say, viiich is a secondary planet, that hath in it such a complication of Motion, such intricacies and perplex'd Anomalies, that unto this very Day we are' scarce able to bring it under Numbers, altho' it be so harrass'd (as it were) with Astronomical Researches. Hiis hath been a knot well worthy of, and vhich requir'd the acutest Wit to untie. Nor wanted it such a one at length when the famous Sir Isaac Newton set himself to it; who hath this to glory in, That in the Compass of a few pages, he hath brou^t more li^t into this dark and intricate Business, than all the Volumes of the past ages had done. ' So finally, the Moon had met its match. Or had it? When Whiston came to ejq>lain how the Moon's position should be calculated, he said that, no doubt Mr Newton's theory was very excellent, however as no-one had yet reduced it to a form in vdiich tables could be derived from it, he would give the rules as described by 'the famous Mr Flamsteed'. (Whiston, 1710,p.96) The abyss between theory and practice had not in fact been bridged.
This academic medical center was chosen for several reasons. A site was needed that included multiple care areas such as medical-surgical units, outpatient clinics, emergency departments and intensive care units. The studies in the literature primarily focused on a single unit or disease process. A variety of different patient care settings provides data to generate variability in the categories thus resulting in a theory that is transferable to diverse care sites. It was important not to limit the site to only one area, such as emergency departments, as “all sites yield comparable data” (Glaser, 2001, p. 131). Second, collaboration is an integral component to being successful both in teaching and in research (Houldin, Naylor, & Haller, 2004). It was hoped that the staff at this center could explain not only if collaboration takes place but also how and why.
Most of the studies which have been carried out have tended to investigate the student variables such as socio-cultural background, gender, attitudes, self-efficacy and motivation level, and their influence on academic achievement among secondary school students (Filmer, 2005; Lee, Zuze and Ross, 2005; Harri and Petteri, 2012; Filmer, Mutua, 2014). Teacher education researchers have extensively researched on curriculum and instruction while the constructs of self-regulated learning techniques have been left for educational psychologists who have observed a close relationship between self-regulation and its predictive properties on academic achievement (Wang, Wang and Li, 2007; Zimmerman, 2008). In Kenya, performance among students at the KCSE mathematics examinations has been poor for many years (Barmao, Changeiywo, and Githua, 2015). In Baringo County, Kenya the average mean score over a period of 10 years (1999-2008) was 16.013 (Mbugua, Komen, Muthaa and Nkonke, 2012).
Proper adoption into the rapid changes in technology including technical and scientific writing skill will ensure that ICT and technical writing skill will proliferate into all classroom activities being scientific in nature and subsequently into a general all round digital techniques in information presentation operations. It is predicated that there will be many benefits for both the learner and the teacher. ICT with technical writing skills will also require a modification of the role of the teachers, who in addition to classroom teaching will have other skills and responsibilities in information communication management and control. Many will become specialist in the use of distributed learning technique the design and development of shared working spaces and resources and visual as well as real guides for students who use electronic media in relation to technical and scientific means. Ultimately, the use of ICT will enhance the learning practice experiences for teachers, students as well as for other intended learners, helping them to operate, think and communicate creatively. This no doubt enhances national development. ICT keyboarding will also prepare our children and/or all categories of learners for successful live and skilled career in an increasingly technological world as the present global digital dispensation. The goal education for all no matter how delayed, must definitely be achieved at the long run.
with the results of the present analysis for the random- ized group that received combination therapy. Combining HCTZ with other ARBs has also been shown to result in comparable levels of goal rate achievement. The com- bination of HCTZ 12.5 mg/day with either candesartan 8 mg/day or valsartan 80 mg/day resulted in approximately 49% of hypertensive patients achieving 140/90 mmHg with each combination, 19 although a more recent analysis
Based on our study results, patients who did not achieve the LDL-C goal had a higher cholesterol level at baseline and had comorbidities for which a lower LDL-C goal should be established; therefore, these patients should have been treated with statins at a high dose or needed high-potency statins to achieve the LDL-C goal. The adverse effects of lipid-lowering drugs, including myositis and hepatitis, are commonly found in patients with advanced CKD, particularly those exposed to a high statin dose or potency. Therefore, it is likely that clinicians prescribed a low dose or a statin of low-to-moderate potency to prevent or ameliorate these adverse effects, which could explain the lack of achievement of the LDL-C goal in this group of patients.