The Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) and TCLP methods from overburden samples collected from the coal mine in Kasai were undertaken to predict pre-mining acidminewater quality. Maximum potential acidity (MPA), acid neutralization capacity (ANC), net acid generation (NAG), net acid producing potential (NAPP) and ANC/MPA ratios were determined on the Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) protocol. Most of the samples from KS-10, KS-11 and KS-12 show the pH of NAG of overburden ranges from 5.53–7.86 negatively net acid neutralization potential (NAPP). The ANC/MPA ratio varied from 1.09–26.60 and is classified as non-acid-forming except at an interval depth of 7.00–9.00 m in KS-12, where it is classified as uncertainty. The potentially acidminewater detected in KS-39 at an interval depth of 16.00–36.00 m was classified as potential acid forming (PAF), indicated by a positive NAPP, a low ratio of ANC/MPA (below 1.0) and high dissolved metal iron.
Total sulfur content in the Penn Mine sediment was deter- mined to be 6.06 ± 0.12 wt%. Approximately 7% of the total sulfur was extracted in a dilute bicarbonate-carbon- ate buffer (pH 10, extraction carried out under anoxic con- ditions), a sulfur fraction associated with soluble sulfates. Total organic carbon concentration was 0.85 ± 0.05 wt%. Powder X-ray diffraction indicated the dominant presence of quartz and muscovite with minor amounts of pyrite in the mine sediments. Based on the identification of pyrite in the diffraction patterns it is likely that most of the total sulfur content is associated with sulfides, pyrite in partic- ular. SEM analysis of the sediments (Figure 1) revealed the presence of spheroidal ZnS precipitates. An hypothesis for the formation of similar ZnS spheroids in an under- ground mine environment with near-neutral pH (a car- bonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposit in Wisconsin, USA) was presented by Labrenz et al.  and Labrenz and Banfield , who considered nanometer-sized ZnS grains in bac- terial slime of SRB to be produced by aerotolerant microbes as a mechanism for H 2 S regulation. Concentric
This study uses the method of mini-scale project in the area that had been carried out in laboratory on company laboratory of PT.Jorong Barutama Greston in coal mining business on July-August 2012, which is located in District Jorong, Tanah Laut County, South Kalimantan Province – Indonesia. Acidminewater that is used for this research came from the void M2W Pit mining area of PT. Jorong Barutama Greston taken using a water truck and stored in a 10,000 liter capacity reservoir in the study area. Land PAF (Potential Acid Forming) derived from the same mine site with mineacidwater sources were taken from the mine site using a dump truck and dumping at the sites as much as 5 tons. Types of plants used in Figure 1. for phytoremediation consists of 5 types of plants, namely: 1. Purun Rat (Eleocharis dulcis), 2.Rumput Umbrella (Cyperus odoratus), 3. Water Plants(Hydrilla Vercilata), 4. Kale Water (Ipomea aquatic), 5.Kayapu (Pistia Stratatiotes). Each plant water into phytoremediation media taken from locations around the mine / original habitat depicted in Figure 1.
Meteoric inflow and groundwater flows are monitored in terms of providing make-up water such as seepage recovery and decant return at both KCGM and BGM for the duration of mine operations. Therefore, strategies are in place to manage a site’s environmental performance regarding water use and discharges in relation to specific mine and metallurgical processing. They include the provision of a site-wide water balance to make available effective monitoring of water flows based on establishing best practise towards operational goals in water management. The inclusion of key performance indicators to be put in place to define and measure progress towards minewater usage and management, then ultimately achieving environmentally sound water recycling and reuse (Loh, Deegan and Kite, 2000). Ongoing monitoring programs assist with providing
Abstract: Inflow groundwater plays a vital role in maintaining an environmental cycle. Water quality assessment is needed for identifying disturbance or contamination of this. In this research, twelve water samples were collected from in and around Maddhapara Granite Mine, Bangladesh during August 2017 to reach in a decision, that is the untreated mine discharged water able to contaminate the groundwater or not. The samples’ heavy metals i.e., Zn, Ni, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Cr were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer in laboratory, where the average highest value was 123.05 mg/L of Fe. Cr and Cu in those samples were under detection level and Pb concentration was 1.13 to 7.63 mg/L, which surpassed the World Health Organization (WHO, 04) drinking water guideline values of Pb is 0.01mg/L; Ni and Zn were also above the WHO standard. The concentrations of all heavy metals are inversely proportional to the distance of sampling point from the mine. Hence, this study uncovers that the use of granite mine wastewater without any treatment for irrigation purpose has grown the danger of heavy metals contamination in groundwater in future and causing an influential venture for the environment in the longtime term.
quality parameters as per references cited above. Concentrations of total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, bicarbonates, silica, pH etc. were tabulated separately for coal, manganese, limestone, dolomite, iron, stone–metal mining sectorshas been compared with regard to dissolved ions’ concentrations, relative ionic strengths, probable composition of residues during water use.
Discharge of sewage and industrial waste into water tends to increase the sulphate concentration. Sulfides formed as a result of acidmine runoff from coal or other mineral extraction and from industrial sources may be oxidized to form sulfates, which are less toxic (ky.gov/nrepc/water/ramp/rmso4.htm). The permissible limit for sulphate in drinking water is 200 - 400 mg/L, according to Indian Standard, IS 10500 - 1991. In the present study, sulphate is present in the range of 121-187 mg/l. The variation of total sulphates with distance is shown in Fig. 9.
Abstract: Sambayourou is one of the main tributary of Mouhoun River in southwest Burkina Faso. Its watershed is part of area affected by mining operations from Poura gold mine in 80s. Investigations on surface water, ground-water and soil from Sambayourou watershed reveal that enormous volume of mine wastes from Poura old gold mine is causing acidmine drainage (AMD). This latter is characterized by a red-brick color, a low pH (2.9) and high contents of arsenic and heavy metals: arsenic (753 ppm), iron (4948 ppm), zinc (51 ppm), copper (38 ppm), cobalt (7 ppm) and lead (4 ppm). The oxidation and acidification of the mine wastes have also resulted in the pollution of some groundwater with concentrations of arsenic and lead beyond acceptable standards. Arsenic is the most polluting element of surface water and ground-water. Concerning ground-water contamination, arsenic come from both mine wastes and host rocks. To assess soil contamination, geo-accumulation indexes (Igeo) and enrichment factor (EF) are used. The use of the index of geo-accumulation is based on seven descriptive classes for increasing geo-accumulation index values. The different values of enrichment factor are divided into five groups corresponding to five categories of contamination. According to geo-accumulation values, the soil in Sambayourou watershed is strongly contaminated by arsenic. This situation is confirmed by enrichment factor which indicates a very high enrichment in arsenic. The very high enrichment in arsenic can derive from erosion of host rocks of ores mineralization which contain sulfide minerals as arsenopyrite (FeAsS) and/or from pedogenesis processes. However, mine wastes are assumed to be the main sources of arsenic contamination of soil in Sambayourou watershed.
The results indicate that the operational phase is the predominant stage responsible for the majority of the environmental impacts attributed to both systems. Within this stage, the energy consumption is generally the greatest contributor, with chemical use representing the second-highest environmental burden. A detailed investigation of both water treatment processes reveals that the desalination process has a greater overall environmental impact than the mine-water reuse process, mainly due to the increased energy requirements. As the results indicate that plant impacts are highly dependent on the electricity supply source, further investigations of the substitution of fossil fuel–based energy with renewable energy were undertaken. It was calculated that the use of solar or wind energy could significantly reduce the climate change effect (i.e. reduce GHG emissions) of using seawater and mine-affected water to levels that are comparable to conventional water treatment processes currently employed in the eThekwini Municipality. Other technological developments should also be considered to reduce the energy and chemical usage of the system and can bring environmental improvments, in particular for the desalination plant as it is still in the planning process. In particular for this plant a pre-treatment stage and an overall optimization with regard to chemical usage should be investigated, as well as replacing chemicals with high environmental burdens. For long-term future developments of the RO processes for the production of potable water, the use of alternative sources of energy (solar and wind) should be promoted.
There are four industries in the agricultural sector that are potential to be developed namely flower, poultry, livestock and other agricultures (A rifTe/ al., 2012). The waste from these agriculture industries can be turned into organic com post or fertilizers which in turn can be used to treat acidmine drainage (AM D) especially in case o f sulphate content in the effluent. For example, enhancement o f agriculture products has indirectly contributed to the high demand for the use o f organic fertilizers. If chicken farm waste is directly use as an organic fertilizer without any particular processes, it will cause environm ental problem (Arifin et al., 2006). Organic compost or organic materials can be used in the remediation o f mining effluent water pollution especially in reducing the sulphate content (Zagury et al., 2006; Riefler et al., 2008).
metal cations are presents hexaaqua complex ions with six surrounding water molecules in the solution and they passed the channel of zeolite in this form. Since the adsorption phenomena depend on the charge density of cations, the diameter of hydrate cations is very important. The charges of the metal cation are the same (+2). In ideal conditions; the smallest cations should ideally be adsorbed faster and in larger quantities compared to the larger cations, since the smaller cations can pass through the micropores and channels of the zeolite structure. Therefore Mn 2+ ions (the biggest diameter) have the minimum adsorption for the all tests, and Cu 2+ ions (the least diameter) have maximum adsorption. Furthermore, adsorption should be described using hydration enthalpy, which is the energy that permits the detachment of water molecules from cations and thus reﬂects the ease with which the cation interacts with the adsorbent. Therefore, the hydration enthalpy is the stronger if the cation is more hydrated and the possibility of interaction with the adsorbent is less. Also, divalent cations with low hydration energies are sobbed preferably compared to cations with high hydration energies: ¹2010, ¹1955 and ¹1760 kJ mol ¹1 for Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Mn 2+ , respectively.
Agriculture and domestic users also suffers intensely as it spoils the soil condition which makes it difficult in proper crop production. Drinking water is being polluted even in the inhabitant area far from the plant. Thus it may act as a pestilence specter. Physio-chemical environment inconsistency provides an impact on downstream aquatic flora, fauna, and fisheries that debates the water quality. If aquatic fauna is affected severely, it could upset the ecological balance. A total of six aquatic fauna species were recorded from the study area. Out of six aquatic faunas one is endangered and one is threatened. A total of eight aquatic floras were recorded from the project area. Besides the danger to life and property, large amounts of sediment and poor-quality water may have detrimental effects many miles downstream from a mine site after a flood.
Figure 8 clearly shows that the trend of the Mn concentration is similar to that of the Fe concentration (Figure 7). The optimum result (87.7% of Mn reduction) by the phytoremediation process was also obtained by V2 (500 g of water hyacinth). The lowest reduction in the Mn concentration, as shown in Fig. 8(A), was that by 1000 g of water hyacinth. However, the Mn concentrations for V1 to V4 are lower than that of the control. These results show that the capacity of a biomass greatly influences the optimal adsorption of heavy-metal contaminants. The water hyacinth has a unique characteristic in that it can grow and proliferate despite extreme conditions. Moreover, the water hyacinth grows very fast in water with a pH in the range of 5.5–7.0 . In addition to its extremely fast growth and proliferation rate, water hyacinth also readily covers the water surface, which means sunlight and oxygen cannot easily penetrate this covering to promote photosynthesis underwater . As such, we strongly agree that 500 g of water hyacinth is the optimum mass given the capacity and volume of the reactor as a function of its growth time.
In the old Ngwenya Iron Ore Mine, the rocks that were exposed during the mining operations on the walls of the pit are exposed to attack by water containing dissolved oxygen. If the rocks in contact with such water contain pyrite or metal sulfides, an acidic effluent would be pro- duced. The main Fe compounds that are found in the Ngwenya Mine ore are haematite and pyrite. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to investigate the Quarry Dam for AMD pollution. AMD would increase the dis- solved heavy metal load in the water hence rendering them labile to contaminate the environment. No previous study on AMD has been conducted and documented in Swaziland hence the necessity of this work. The objec- tive of this study was to investigate the occurrence of acidmine drainage phenomenon in the old Ngwenya Iron
PRC was similar for each element at sample sites in January (Figure 9) but in November (Figure 10) this was not the case; this could be due to the complex interplay of redox reactions favouring the removal of certain elements over oth- ers, for example (Equation (8)) reacts iron hydroxide with copper ions in acid to produce solid copper and ferric iron ions and water, removing copper from the water column but adding iron back in. but if this was the case then the inconsis- tent PRCs should be visible in January. A more likely explanation is that No- vembers results were anomalous but as samples were not collected in triplicate this cannot be verified.
The only high content of Mn was from a borehole from Mine Road, Enyigba with a concentration of 0.41 mg/l, which is only 1.03 times the WHO (2011) maximum permissible limit (0.4 mg/l) for water quality (Table 4). Pollution from mining activities is particularly difficult to deal with because it lasts for decades after mine closure (Bolucek, 2007) but monitoring the metals in water is important for safety assessment of the environment and human health in particular (Kar et al. 2008). In Trezebionka (Poland), where intensive mining activities took place, the mines and ground waters were reported to be characterized by higher contents of heavy metals including Cd, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn and Mn. These polluting heavy metals originated from mining and extraction activities in the area (Gajowiec and Witkowski, 1993). The groundwater was naturally enriched in heavy metals but previous mining activities resulted in highly polluted and toxic groundwater at the vicinity of the mines by Pb, Cu, Cd and Mn. In the historical mining areas of Montana and Colorado, ore-related metal concentrations in many stream reaches draining the mined areas have elevated concentrations of Cd, Pb, As, Cu and Zn that normally exceed the allowable levels for aquatic life (Nimick et al. 1999).
The piece of investigation was carried out to study the surface water quality and physico-chemical characteristics of Hindusthan Lalpeth Coal Mines (HLCM) surface water Chandrapur district,(M.S) during the period October 2011 to March 2012. Chandrapur district is located in the eastern edge of Maharastra in Nagpur Division, the coal mining industry has to dispose of millions of litres of water everyday to dig out coal from this mine . The water is the main source of various water supplies in the thickly populated coal field and general use. Chandrapur city is surrounded by many other major and minor coal industries. In this study, water samples from Hindusthan Lalpeth coal mine were collected and analyzed. Attempt is made to reflect the impact of mining on surrounding water quality of these areas. Various physico-chemical characteristics of the minewater were analysed with respect to different parameters like Temperature, pH, TDS, DO, Chloride, Fluoride, Turbidity, Hardness and metal like Fe, to get clear picture of quality parameter in HLCM water of the Chandrapur town. This investigation reveals that mining activity, markedly pollute the minewater. Minewater is of highly complex nature and of widely varying composition and nearly neutral or slightly alkaline in nature. By observing the result it can be concluded that the parameters which were taken for study the surface water quality such as Turbidity, Chloride, Alkalinity, COD, Total Dissolved solids are more than that of permissible limits. Where as Total Hardness , Fluoride, Iron is less than permissible limit. And Dissolved Oxygen is almost same as per WHO standards.
Water is precious and fast becoming a scarce natural resource which is required to be conserved, augmented and harvested by applying suitable conventional as well as innovative techniques. Water harvesting is a technique of developing surface water resources that can be used in dry regions to provide water for livestock, for domestic use, and for agro forestry and small scale subsistence farming. Water harvesting systems may be defined as artificial methods whereby precipitation can be collected and stored until it is beneficially used. The system includes: 1) a catchment area, usually prepared in some manner to improve run off efficiency and 2) a storage facility for the harvested water, unless the water is to be immediately concentrated in the soil profile of a smaller area for growing drought-hardy plants. A water distribution scheme is also required for the systems devoted to subsistence farming for irrigation during dry periods. Mining activities disturb groundwater aquifers. Underground mining disturbs deep aquifers whereas opencast mining disturbs both shallow and deep aquifers. In order to extract coal, large quantity of water accumulated at the pit bottom is required to be pumped out to the surface. Therefore coal mining areas are always subjected to acute water crisis unless suitable care is taken to ensure the proper water supply and in this context, rain water harvesting is one of the most appropriate technology to conserve the water management in the study area. With these concepts in the background, the present study has been carried out in context with the Chasnalla Group of Mines, ISP, SAIL.