Since PMAP2DAT does not have the function to discern this phase correlation when selecting energy peaks, a separate analysis algorithm was written in MATLAB to produce radial current measurements from range spectra. The MATLAB algorithm uses the phase correlation property of peaks to discard peaks that are due to spurious internal noise. PMAP2DAT is still used to batch- process the range time-series into range spectrum .dat files.
The primary results obtained from ADCPs are temporally averaged velocity measurements that are weighted over a range cell for various points throughout the column of water. Parameters obtained from these ADCP measurements are those relating to the distribution of velocity within this vertical column. Mass transport can be directly estimated from such velocity distributions and can be related to logarithmic profiles to obtain boundary layer parameters (Smith, 2002; and Lueck and Lu ,1997). Other research using vessel mounted ADCPs to investigate mean river flows has suggested that average velocities and turbulence intensities can also be accurately estimated (Muste, 2004). It has been shown that surface parameters such as wave particle velocity (Apell, 1991) and significant wave height (Rowsell, 2002) can be determined from ADCP data. Additionally, bottom tracking capabilities and returned back- scatter signal strength have been used in sediment dynamics studies to estimate parameters such as bed load and suspended load (Kostaschuk, 2005). Furthermore, Schott (1989) reported a correlation between returned echo amplitude from the surface and wind strength. This has again been revisited by studies in monitoring sea surface conditions using ADCPs by Visbeck and Fischer (1995) and Zedel et al. (1995).
The paper is organized as follows. First, the study area is described based on previous knowledge and on a litera- ture review; then, in Sect. 3, the ADCP settings and quality control procedure are described, along with the explanation on how to compute the mean volume backscatter strength from the ADCP data. Data collected by means of CTD casts, moored profiling systems, net samples, and additional sys- tems and methods are described in the rest of Sect. 3. The presentation of the results and their discussion (Sect. 4) starts with the characterization of the water column in the Cor- sica Channel (thermohaline properties, stratification, oxy- genation, depth of the chlorophyll maximum) and the de- scription of the acoustic backscatter and vertical velocities on the daily and the seasonal scale. The zooplankton com- munity composition in summer 2015 is described afterwards and put in relation to the acoustic observations of the same period. The section concludes with a lagged correlation anal- ysis of the backscatter data and a time series of primary pro- duction in the area to look for the timing of primary produc- tion blooms vs. secondary production blooms. Finally, the conclusions are drawn at the end of the paper.
MCL sets the minimum acceptable correlation value. During operation, the ADP transmits a series of pings. The results are averaged into an accumulator and stored at the end of the aver- aging interval. MCL lets you set the correlations level, below which the raw samples are not included in the average. A lower MCL means more data will be accepted, a higher MCL means more data will be rejected. When given without an input argument, MCL returns the current setting. Caution: Turbulent flows can cause low correlation values, which are due to the natural variability of the flow and may be acceptable for data collection.
of turbulence sampling by the VDCP is initially studied in terms of velocity spectra compared to point samples, and as with the wave case the phase relationship is observed. Associated with the Von Karman turbulence model is an analytical expression for the cross-correlation of points separated in space which is a function of wave-number as presented in equation 22.214.171.124. Therefore, VDCP sampling of the turbulent ﬂ ow ﬁ eld is a ﬀ ected by beam separation and wave-number. Plotting the ratio of the two longitudinal velocity spectra (the spectra of the VDCP sampled sub-surface velocities and the spectra of the point sampled sub-surface velocities) against the phase di ﬀ erence, as was done for irregular waves, the result is identical for any chosen depth. In Fig. 13 mid-depth (−15 m) is plotted, demonstrating that best sam- pling accuracy is achieved when frequency components sampled at each beam are in phase (dϕ = kdx ).
For queries that return a small number of features, using the more complex Index Seek and Bookmark Lookup, instead of an Index Scan operation, is much more efficient. The SQL Server Index Tuning Wizard can help you determine if commonly executed queries would benefit from column indexes. After examining the query, close SQL Query Analyzer and SQL Profiler.
Pearson correlation between lighting evaluation and satisfaction of thermal and acoustic environments is shown to be significant (p<0.01), and the correlation coefficient R is 0.250 and 0.219 respectively. Fig. 4 shows the voting results of thermal and acoustic environment at different lighting satisfaction level. When the lighting evaluation changing from “dissatisfied” to “satisfied”, the dissatisfaction rate of thermal and acoustic is reduced by 34.47% and 17.74% respectively. The result shows that good lighting satisfaction can raise people’s evaluation of thermal and acoustic environment in shopping centers.
---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - Recently the coastal and ocean ecosystem/morphology shows great variability because of different phenomenon such as natural process and anthropogenic activities. In order to predict and ascertain the changes and variability, it’s necessary to be aware of the advanced technology. But, in oceanic environments the technology to be applied for research is little complex compared to the terrestrial environment because of the ocean nature & dynamics such as waves and other complex process such as the wind circulation, Coriolis force by earth rotation, evaporation, sinking of water in high latitude and so on. Further such process shows the dynamic change in past and present shoreline, near-along shore current circulation pattern and ocean hydrodynamics. The objective of this paper is to study the measurement techniques of ocean physical process and changes in the geo-morphology by circulation, wave parameters, bottom stress and suspended sediment concentration using new sensor technology. Measurement of near bottom velocity profiles, water particle velocity, pressure, optical and other parameters including velocity profiles, temperature, salinity, sediment size classes, sonar images and profiles will give the hydrodynamics and Sediment transport. Also by using such sensor based instruments for turbidity, pressure & continuous near bottom wave characteristic, bottom velocity etc., it gives sufficient dynamic parameters. The acoustic and optical type of sensor instrument discussed here can be used to measure all the dynamic parameters of ocean for suitable applications.
Despite the ubiquity of hearing aids in Western society, and an abundance of scholarship (Bennion, 1994; Berger, 197o; Dillon, 2012; Goldenberg, 1996; Kranz, 1941; Sandlin, 1995; Schaub, 2008; Simko, 1986; Tate, 2013; Tobin, 1997; Valente, 2002), existing research has largely neglected to reflect on the phenomenological effects of these prosthetic technologies for the ear, in particular their influence on the construction, perception and experience of acoustic space. That is to say, literature has overlooked, first, how hearing aids alter the user’s perception of sound, and second, the ways in which these prosthetic devices have evolved to facilitate and modify the perception of acoustic space. Largely undertaken within the fields of medicine and audiology, such research has primarily focused upon thresholds of auditory acuity and hearing loss, approaches to matching the most suitable aid to the patient, and the capacity for hearing aids to amplify and reproduce certain acoustic frequencies. Indeed, as previously noted in Chapter Two, Bregman (1990) observes that “if you were to pick up a general textbook on perception written before 1965 and leaf through it, you would not find any great concern with the perceptual or ecological questions about audition” (p. 1). While phenomenologist Don Ihde (2007) briefly touches on the embodied experience of wearing hearing aids in his study of the phenomenology of sound, his discussion is brief, limited to his own experience of digital hearing aids prior to 2007.
computing provides resources and computing infrastructure on the urgent demand from consumers in different sectors. Meanwhile, the consumers can use the services and applications on the cloud through internet. There are many factors that make cloud computing an attractive technology, but energy consumption is a fundamental criterion for battery powered devices and needs to be care-fully considered for all mobile cloud computing scenarios. While energy can be a challenge for mobile cloud computing, it is also as an opportunity. Mobile cloud computing is therefore a fruitful area for further research. While the most energy efficient setup for many current mobile applications is local computing, there clearly are workloads that can benefit from moving to the cloud. The vastly superior computing resources available in the cloud open also interesting possibilities for completely new applications. Identifying these new applications is one interesting topic for future research .
it can be noted by looking at the spectra, the comparison is in a good agreement for the MSEWC reproduced fre- quency range (0.15–0.3 Hz). In the depth-integrated model- ing the reproduction of frequencies out of this range, and relative to the second and higher hydro-acoustic mode, in- creases the computational time without providing a relevant improvement in the wave simulation. From the complete 3- D simulation it is possible to notice clearly that the hydro- acoustic signal during its propagation vibrates at the nor- mal frequencies of the water layer where it has been gen- erated, around 2 km. The Capo Passero observation site is at a water depth of about 3 km, deeper than the earthquake lo- cation and close to it; therefore the frequency spectrum at CP of Fig. 9 shows five peaks, which are relative to the first five hydro-acoustic modes that occur at the normal frequen- cies f (n) = 0.19, 0.56, 0.9, 1.31 and 1.69 Hz, accordingly to Eq. (4). Traveling far from the generation area the pressure perturbation loses this peaked frequency spectrum around the cutoff values, as can be noted at point P, around 350 km far from the earthquake.
Abstract. The aggregation of plankton species along fjords can be linked to physical properties and processes such as stratification, turbulence and oxygen concentration. The goal of this study is to determine how water column proper- ties and turbulent mixing affect the horizontal and verti- cal distributions of macrozooplankton along the only north- ern Patagonian fjord known to date, where hypoxic con- ditions occur in the water column. Acoustic Doppler cur- rent profiler moorings, scientific echo-sounder transects and in situ plankton abundance measurements were used to study macrozooplankton assemblages and migration patterns along Puyuhuapi Fjord and Jacaf Channel in Chilean Patagonia. The dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy was quantified through vertical microstructure profiles collected throughout time in areas with high macrozooplankton concentrations. The acoustic records and in situ macrozooplankton data re- vealed diel vertical migrations (DVM) of siphonophores, chaetognaths and euphausiids. In particular, a dense biologi- cal backscattering layer was observed along Puyuhuapi Fjord
Sea-level rise presents a looming problem for estuarine management and barrages of various types are part of the tool-kit of possible mitigation strategies. Evidence from existing installations shows that the morphological impacts of total exclusion barrages (TEBs) can be severe and few if any meet their design goals. We applied a previously developed regime model (FORM) to four existing TEBs (Moncton and Windsor in Canada, Tees Barrage in the UK and Le Châtelier in France), and demonstrated how it effectively modelled regimes before and after barrage installation. The model demonstrated a downstream non-linear „bathymetric migration‟ as a new regime is established with the barrage at the head of the remnant estuary. Linear regression results showed a high correlation (R 2 ~ 0.85) with a trend- line slope > 0.9 (when y intercept was forced to zero) between widths of the before and after regime states for the simplest of the systems (the Petitcodiac); whereas the Tees was still in transition. Analyses of the other two systems is mostly qualitative but were consistent with the results from the Petitcodiac. The model predicted similar adverse morphological change for each of the barrage scenarios which was confirmed by the observed changes. Although all would act to mitigate sea-level rise in the headponds, tidal range increases in the remnant estuary would exacerbate sea-level rise.
Abstract. Vertical profiles of temperature, humidity and wind up to a height of 1500 m a.g.l. (above ground level) were measured with the automatically operating small unmanned research aircraft M 2 AV (Meteorological Mini Aerial Vehicle) during the LITFASS-2009 (LIndenberg- To-Falkenberg: Aircraft, Scintillometer and large-eddy Simulation) experiment. The campaign took place in July 2009 over the heterogeneous landscape around the Me- teorological Observatory Lindenberg – Richard-Aßmann- Observatory in the eastern part of Germany. Due to a high vertical resolution of about 10 cm the M 2 AV data show de- tails of the turbulent structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). One profile took about 10–15 min allowing for a continuous monitoring of certain phases of ABL develop- ment by successive ascents and descents during one flight (50–60 min duration). Two case studies of measurements performed during the morning and evening ABL transition periods are discussed in detail. Comparison of the aircraft- based temperature, humidity and wind profiles with tower, sodar/RASS, wind profiler/RASS, radiosoundings and mi- crowave radiometer profiler measurements show good agree- ment taking into account the different sampling strategies of these measurement systems.
smartphones embedded sensors. The “SmartRoadSense” system introduced by Alessandroni et al. (2014) aimed to monitor road surfaces via smartphones. They developed a model in this study to calculate an index for the pavement roughness from the captured data via the system . Finally, they color-coded pavement sections on a map to prioritize the pavement rehabilitation . Douangphachanh and Oneyama (2013, 2014) estimated road conditions by utilizing VIMS component as a reference for calculating a pavement roughness index. They collected the data by the AndroSensor application installed on smartphones to determine pavement profiles and compute IRI [16, 17]. Islam et. al. (2014) numerically double-integrated acceleration data and processed them via computer software, Proval [18, 19]. The study was conducted in three different sites to gather pavement profile and acceleration data with both an inertial profiler and a smartphone mounted on a vehicle . The outputs revealed that the smartphone devices were able to measure IRI with an acceptable accuracy compared with an inertial profiler . Zeng et al. (2015) calculated the pavement roughness based on a normalized acceleration index. Data gathering was accomplished by utilizing two tablets mounted on a vehicle. The tablet sensors captured acceleration data in three dimensions, GPS coordinates and vehicle speeds . They declared that the proposed index could correctly detect deficient pavement segments at a high precision of 80 to 93 percent . Hanson et al. (2014) attempted to correlate the pavement roughness captured by smartphones and a conventional profiler. They employed eleven different segments on one kilometer stretch of a secondary highway in New Brunswick, Canada and came up with the conclusion that there was a good correlation between the output of the profiler and the smartphone .
To this end, we present NG-meta-profiler, a col- lection of pre-configured pipelines based on the domain-specific language NGLess (Next Generation Language for less effortful analysis). Although NG-me- ta-profiler can be used as a standalone tool, the syntax and semantics of NGLess have been designed to be simple and human readable, allowing users to read or create their own pipelines, even without deep bioinfor- matics and programming knowledge. In other scientific contexts, domain-specific languages have been empiric- ally found to increase productivity and user satisfaction [15, 16]. At the same time, NGLess is designed to enable perfect reproducibility of the computational process, an increasingly important concern [17–19].
In  an MLP classifier is designed to discriminate between normal and pathological samples in the MEEI database. The network consists of a 26-neurons input layer (26 acoustic descriptors computed by MDVP software and stored in the database with the speech samples), one hidden layer and 1-neuron output layer (normal or pathological). The average correct classification rate is 94% when HNR, VTI, and ShdB are used as input features. The authors of  are also interested in the discrimination between normal and pathological samples in a database of 5 spanish sustained vowels (100 normal samples and 68 pathological samples). Each vowel is treated by a neural network which takes as input classic parameters and others extracted from the bicoherence. The decision from the 5 networks are then combined to decide if the input sample is healthy or not. The correct classification rate is 94.4% for the classic parameters and is increased of 4% when the others ones are added. A similar study is conducted in , in which the same classifier than in  is applied to two sets of features extracted from the database presented in the same paper. The two sets of features consist on classic parameters and classic parameters plus non-linear features inspired from the dynamic system theory (the correlation dimension and the largest Lyupanov exponent). The author shows that using this latter configuration of features leads to a correct classification rate of 93%.
The movements of the head and beak of songbirds may play a functional role in vocal production by influencing the acoustic properties of songs. We investigated this possibility by synchronously measuring the acoustic frequency and amplitude and the kinematics (beak gape and head angle) of singing behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Z o n o t r i c h i a a l b i c o l l i s) and the swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana). These birds are closely related emberizine sparrows, but their songs differ radically in frequency and amplitude structure. We found that the acoustic frequencies of notes in a song have a consistent, positive correlation with beak gape in both species. Beak gape increased significantly with increasing frequency during the first two notes in Z. albicollis song, with a mean frequency for note 1 of 3kHz corresponding to a gape of 0.4cm (a 15˚ gape angle) and a mean frequency for note 2 of 4kHz corresponding to a gape of 0.7cm (a 30˚ gape angle). The relationship between gape and frequency for the upswept third note in Z. albicollis a l s o was significant. In M. georgiana, low frequencies of 3kHz corresponded to beak gapes of 0 . 2 – 0 . 3 cm (a 10–15˚ beak angle), whereas frequencies of 7–8kHz were associated with flaring of the beak to over 1cm (a beak angle greater than 50˚). Beak gape and song amplitude are poorly correlated in both species. We conclude that cranial kinematics, particularly beak movements, influence the resonance properties of the vocal tract by varying its physical dimensions and thus play an active role in the production of birdsong.