The term ‘initial state’ which was largely neglected from the mid 1970s to the early 1990s refers to the unconscious linguistic knowledge L2 learners start with. Differences between child L1 and child L2 acquisition, the issue of L2 initial state and the extent of L1 influence have been addressed in a number of studies since then (Eubank 1996, Hawkins 2001, Schwartz &Sprouse 1996, Vainikka and Young Scholten 1994, 1996a, 1996b; 2005,). These studies are mainly concerned with L1 influence in adult L2 acquisition but there are also studies dealing with L2 children in this regard (Haznedar 1997, Lakshmanan 1993/1994, Lakshmanan 1994, Lakshmanan and Selinker 1994, Unsworth 2005) There are many proposals regarding the acquisition of functional categories in child language. According to the maturational hypothesis, child grammars initially project only lexical categories and functional categories develop maturationally (Guilfoyle & Noonan 1992, Lebeaux 1989, Ouhalla 1991, Platzack 1990, Radford 1990, Tsimpli 1992). Syntactic properties related to functional categories are absent in the speech of children and early grammars are different from adult grammars. Radford’s (1990, 1992, and 1995) ‘small clause’ hypothesis is based on this hypothesis. Early studies in the domain of CP in child L1 English, by e.g. Brown (1968), Klima, and Bellugi (1966) stated that auxiliary emergence and inversion appears in yes/no questions before wh-questions. Moreover, inversion was found to be more productive in affirmative wh-questions compared to negative ones. According to Brown (1968), the reason behind the inability to invert subject and verb is due children being limited in their transformations used in utterances. They are able to do wh-fronting, but not subject-auxiliary inversion. Two decades later, Radford (1990) argues that children’s early questions lack a CP system. He found no evidence regarding auxiliary movement to C or Wh-phrase movement to the Spec CP:
One view of second language acquisition holds that adult SLA and Child language development are the same in being guided by the UG. This is sometimes called the „full access‟ hypothesis. Under this view, one would predict that naturalistic second language (12) positive evidence must also be able to result in successful learning by adults in these cases (Epstein et.al 1996). The „full access‟ view thus leads to the expectation of successful learning of these UG-governed aspects of the target language by adult l2 learners possibly from quite early stages of acquisition, and native- like performance by non-natives is certainly to be anticipated. Variants of the full-access view suggest that the initial state for SLA is the first language (L1) grammar. If this is the case, then SLA will differ from child language development in ways which are partly the result of this initial transfer. (SC Wartz and Sprouse, 1996). Other view of SLA would suggest that the mechanism that guides child language acquisition is not available to adult language acquisition or interfered with by other factors. If UG does not guide adult language learning as it does child language development, then, success in these areas should not be achieved(Vroman, 2000).
Lee (2007) studied the relationship between textual enhancement and topic familiarity on the one hand and acquisition and comprehension of passive voice on the other hand. Participants in this study were 259 high school students. He tried to measure his learners’ acquisition and comprehension of passive voice. The texts applied in this study were different in terms of the way the target forms were typographically enhanced and also the degree of familiarity of the content. He came to the conclusion that textual enhancement was effective on the acquisition and comprehension of the target forms. Simard (2009) examined the impact of different formats of textual enhancement on learners’ intake of plural markers in English as a second language. The subjects in this study were grade eight native speakers of French. Seven experimental groups received different textual enhancement versions of the same text. An unenhanced version of the same text was used for the control group. A multiple-choice recognition test and an information transfer test were applied. The results indicated positive impacts for textual enhancement. Different formats of textual enhancement had different effects on learners’ intake.
The mechanisms implemented in MOSAIC build knowledge of sentence structure by learning sequences from the input and generalising across those sequences. MOSAIC is therefore often regarded as a usage-based model of language learning (cf. Goldberg, 1995; 2006; Lieven, Pine & Baldwin, 1997; Pine, Lieven & Rowland, 1998; Tomasello, 2000; 2003, MacWhinney, 2004). However, although the mechanisms implemented in MOSAIC are certainly consistent with a usage-based analysis, it is important to recognise that MOSAIC is a relatively simple distributional analyser, with no access to semantic information, which is not sufficiently powerful to acquire many aspects of adult syntax. MOSAIC is therefore not itself a realistic model of the language acquisition process. What MOSAIC does provide, however, is a powerful means of testing hypotheses about the relation between cross-linguistic variation in children’s early language and cross- linguistic differences in the language to which they are exposed. For example,
One of the most interesting issues in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) is grammar, with conflicting views on how to teach it Celce-Murcia (1991). Since attention has a crucial role in language learning, much of SLA research has centered on investigating what methods or what kinds of activities lead learners’ attention to specific linguistic features. Some studies in focus on form paradigm (Doughty, 2001; Wong, 2003) concluded that directing learners’ attention to form during meaning-oriented activities facilitates acquisition of both form and meaning in an integrated way. Moreover, most of these studies have focused on the target forms explicitly or implicitly and have confirmed that explicit instruction is more effective than implicit one in teaching grammatical structures (Fotos and Ellis, 1991). In addition, it seems that all researchers are in agreement that no second language acquisition can happen without input. According to Van Patten and Cadierno (1993), instruction should alter how language learners perceive and process input instead of changing how learners produce output because input is more likely to become intake in this way. Ellis (1997) also argues that manipulation of input is more effective in integration of intake into learners’ implicit/declarative knowledge and its subsequent acquisition. Hence, the present study looked into how different explicit and implicit input-based approaches namely processing instruction (PI), consciousness-raising tasks (C-R), and textual input enhancement (TE) vary in promoting acquisition of the embedded “WH” questions by Iranian EFL learners. Even though this study conducted in a foreign language setting, the terms acquisition and learning were used interchangeably because as stated by Ellis (2008), second language acquisition refers to the acquisition of any language after the acquisition of the mother tongue despite the role it plays in the community and conscious or subconscious processes involved in studying or picking it up.
Both the interrogative yang and declarative bahawa complementizers are specified with the D feature. The D feature of Malay yang requires that wh-phrases be arguments. In addition to the two overt complementizers, Malay also has a null complementizer which lacks both the wh, and the D features. Based on the analysis, we accounted for the way the relevant complementizers select an Argument versus a non-Argument as specifiers. We also showed how this choice of Argument specifier affects the way wh-questions are formed in Malay. The analysis in the paper contributes to the gap in the body of literature in generative Malay linguistics, particularly with regard to wh-question formation. Additionally, the findings will have implications for research in the process of acquisition of English as a second language (L2) by first language (L1) Malay speakers, with regard to wh-questions in this case. In other words, such knowledge can help us to explain the influence the L1 of standard Malay speakers has on the way they acquire English as an L2.
Learning to write is a challenge for primary school children. This study explored whether WH-Question could be used as a tool to increase word and sentence count and also for detailed Question was used during intervention to provide a guide to students, enabling them to generate complete sentences and to combine sentences prior to writing. ned in view during writing, providing visual support for producing more complex written sentences, as well as for organizing the sentences. The research was carried out in a rural school on a group of respondents from the average achievement group with minor exposure to the usage of English. They were relatively weak in many areas of the language including grammar, structure and vocabulary. In this research, repetitions come into practice. Fun activities such as Question were also used to make them familiar with the techniques of writing especially in pre-writing stage. In conclusion, it is hoped that the research suggested above would throw some light on the different learning strategies used by students. Consequently, teachers may have to explore and make adjustments to the ways in which they teach writing
tantamount to eliciting a verbal response from the addressee and people rarely leave long gaps between turns (Brazil, 1981; Sacks, 2004; Sacks, Schegloff, & Jeffer- son, 1974; Schegloff, 2006; Stivers et al., 2009). Combin- ing the proposal of minimising gaps between turns (Brazil, 1981; Sacks, 2004; Sacks et al., 1974; Schegloff, 2006; Stivers et al., 2009) and the purpose of asking a question, we can suggest that listeners need to be made aware of the purpose of the speaker to have enough time to process the sentence and prepare a response. Early awareness of the purpose of the speaker facilitates and accelerates sentence processing and response preparation. In other words, the earlier the listeners can predict the syntactic structure of the sentence the more time they will have to prepare a response. The results of the perception study by Shiami- zadeh, Caspers, and Schiller (2017a) suggest that the prosody of the pre-wh part of a sentence can help predict sentence type (wh-in-situ questions vs. declara- tives) in Persian in the absence of the wh-phrase at the sentence-initial position (see Section 1.1.2). The result of that perception study raises a new question: where in the pre-wh part does the relevant distinctive prosodic information become available to feed the process of sen- tence type prediction?
Job interviews are resourceful to address discourse of flexibility and thus it helps learners of English aware of it critically. However, this relationship between questions for a job interview and the discourse of flexibility needs further exploration due to its limited number of studies on it (Chun, J.2016; Campbell- Avenell, Z.2017; Dunford, R. et. al 2013). This paper contributes to this area of inquiry by employing critical discourse analysis in investigating construction and negotiation of flexibility through an exercise of a job interview. Data are drawn from three sets of job interview exercise conducted in 2016 with 24 students of English Study Program of Madiun State Polytechnic. Two stages of analysis are carried out. Firstly, the patterns of questions in the job interview is presented and distributed. Secondly, the process of questioning and answering and their relation to the discourse of flexibility is analyzed. Findings and discussion reveal that the patterns of questions not only function for asking new and contextual information but also for evaluating interlocutor’s knowledge, for showing expectation, and as social control. The questions are closely related to flexibility discourse that involves the behavior of being highly responsive to any possible shift of regular format, target, and process to help make minor short-term steps in new budgeting and outsourcing. Negotiation of flexibility in the side of applicants is evident from the emerging patterns of the length of the declarative form of the reply, the adaptability of reply to the questions, and the degree of uncertainty of the reply.
In this paper we develop an approach based on lexical matching which we extend by taking into account the type of the question and coreference resolution. These components improve the per- formance on questions that are difficult to han- dle with pure lexical matching. When combined with BIUTEE, we achieved 74.27% accuracy on MC160 and 65.96% on MC500, which are signif- icantly better than those reported by Richardson et al. (2013). Despite the simplicity of our ap- proach, these results are comparable with the re- cent machine learning-based approaches proposed by Narasimhan and Barzilay (2015), Wang et al. (2015) and Sachan et al. (2015).
In (10), the empty category pro is in the subject position of the sentence, and the wh-adverbial “zenyang” (literally “how” in English) must follow the empty category pro, otherwise the sentence is not grammatical. As in its syntactic representation of (11) is indicated, the [+wh] feature of the adverbial wh-word “zenme” (literally “how” in English) is attracted by the the weak [+wh] specifier feature of the head C, and moves from complement DP position to the spec CP position to check the weak [+wh] specifier feature of the head C. Since the [+wh] feature of the wh-word “zenme” is moved to the spec CP position, the [+wh] feature of the wh-word “zenme” in the spec CP position agrees with the weak [+wh] specifier feature of the head C, and therefore, the [+wh] specifier feature of the head C is checked. Since the [+wh] specifier feature of the head C is uninterpretable, once this [+wh] specifier feature of the head C is checked, it is deleted. Since the [+wh] feature of the wh-word “zenme” in the spec CP position is interpretable, it goes into the logical form of the sentence, and thus the derivation converges. The [+wh] feature moved in the spec CP position takes the wide scope in the sentence.
Licensed under Creative Common Page 349 perspective, formal education and training, provide only a small part of what was learnt at work. Most of the learning described to the researchers was non-formal, neither clearly speciﬁed nor planned. It arose naturally from the challenges of work. Effective learning was, however, dependent on the employees‘ conﬁdence, motivation and capability. Some formal training to develop skills (especially induction training) was usually provided, but learning from experience and other people at work predominated (Armstrong, 2009).Theories may be learnt in the classroom but the significance of those theories can only be meaningful if supported by experimental learning. There have been debates about the advantages of on-the-training over off-the-job training as a result of its practical aspects. Let‘s take an example of practising lawyers and medical doctors who initially learnt the theoretical aspects of their jobs in classrooms but the classification of them been outstanding performers is as a result of apprenticeship and pupillage experience which was not studied in the classroom. Alternative perceptions brought forward the significance of off-the-job over on-the-job training but in real sense, both are important and complement each other. Both elements are vital for knowledge acquisition, utilisation and competitive advantage.
That CMWQs in adjunct CMWQ languages are bi-clausal is also suggested by the typological generalization (already mentioned in Section 4.2.) that small coordination is only observed in multiple fronting languages. Since adjunct CMWQ languages are not multiple fronting, they cannot form their CMWQs via small coordination. The latter point can be made even more strongly for one of the three adjunct CMWQ languages, Italian, as Haida & Repp (in press) rightly point out. Since this language cannot form multiple questions of any sort, including cases where some wh-phrase appears in situ (Calabrese 1984), the option that two wh-phrases originate in one and the same clause does not arise for this language (but see Moro 2011 for possible counterarguments). Yet, CMWQs with coordinated adjuncts can be formed without a problem:
Castilian Spanish yes-no questions are not syntactically distinguished from declaratives. According to Face (2004), a raised F0 peak of pitch accents and a ﬁnal F0 rise are the prosodic characteristics of yes-no questions in Castilian Spanish. A further prosodic feature that disambiguates yes-no questions from declaratives in this language is the presence vs. absence of the pitch accents; in declaratives every stressed word is associated with a pitch accent, while in questions only the ﬁrst and the last stressed words are associated with pitch accents. Face (2005) designed a study employing gating paradigm to investigate whether the acoustic cues of prosody allow for correct perception of the sentence type. The results of his experiment showed that native speakers can correctly distinguish declaratives from yes-no questions in 95 % of the cases when the ﬁrst prosodic distinction (the height of the initial F0 peak) occurs. Participants could perform with 100 % accuracy when the ﬁnal rise was made audible.
‘Today Mom prepared what Grandma will take at its appropriate time in the next weeks.’ This sentence would be used in a context like the following. Imagine Grandma is getting worried about having a lot of medication to take, at different times of the day, and having it all mixed up. To put her mind at ease, Mom prepared Grandma’s morning and evening medication for the next few weeks, putting it in separate boxes so that Grandma doesn’t get confused. In this context, it is clear that for each medicine Mom prepared, there is an appropriate/unique time for it to be taken. Crucially, (18) cannot mean that today Mom prepared what Grandma will take at some random/non-unique time in the next weeks, with the wh-phrase când ‘when’ acting as an existentially quantified expression. Nor can it mean that today Mom prepared what Grandma will take at that one specific time in the next weeks, with când acting as a free pronoun over instances whose reference is contextually determined. Both these meanings are logically possible and natural. In fact, they can be conveyed by a single wh-FR with an indefinite (‘sometime next week’) or a referential (‘on Sunday’) temporal expression in place of ‘when’, as shown in (19).
Previous empiricist computational models that dealt with learning linguistic phenomena typi- cally focused on auxiliary fronting (and sometimes on a couple of other problems – see Clark and Ey- raud 2006). MacWhinney (2004) also describes ways to model some other language phenomena empirically, but this has not resulted into a compu- tational framework. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first empiricist computational model that also deals with the problems of wh-questions, relative clause formation, topicalization, extraposi- tion from NP and left dislocation.