According to Pearson (1985), one of the considerations that a teacher needs to regard as important alongside the students‟ prior knowledge, the assignment, and the classroom setting, is their strategies. Previous studies have demonstrated that excellent readers are equipped with strategies which they aptly use (Sidek, 2010). Poor readers need to know what they lack, so that they too can make progress. With better awareness of metacognitive reading strategies, students become empowered and are able to take steps before, during and after reading to help themselves gain a better understanding of a text. This is especially helpful when learning a second language (McKeown & Gentilucci, 2007). Malaysian English language teachers could enlighten their charges with metacognitive reading strategies, as studies have shown that primary school students seem to have the most difficulty in understanding a text, while their secondary counterparts do not know the process for reading (Chandran & Shah, 2019; Ghaffar & Aziz, 2019). Although inconclusive, there is some research that shows higher awareness of metacognitive reading strategies is linked to better reading scores among those who study English as a second or foreign language (Batang, 2015; Guo, 2018).
important part, so that students can understand the material provided by the teacher. There are some media usually used in teaching learning process. They consist of visual media, audio media and audio-visual media. Picture is a good media for teaching reading. It is one of the visual media because it can be seen and performs a meaningful description. Harmer (2001, p. 135) states picture is extremely useful for a variety of communication activity, such as describe and draw activities. Celce-Murcia & Hilles (1998, p. 73) said that that pictures are kinds of visual instruction materials that might be used more effectively to develop and sustain motivation in producing positive attitudes toward English and to teach or reinforce language skills. Wright (1989, pp. 2–10) stated in his book that there is essential contribution of picture such interest and motivation, a sense of the context of the language, and specific reference point and stimulus. He also deeply discussed that picture play an important role in helping to discipline some class activities, making the subject which students are dealing with become clearer, and even illustrating the main idea not forms of an object or action which are particular to a culture.
The use of the metacognitive strategy in the current classroom actionresearch has shown to be a successful strategy to improvereading comprehen- sion skills of analytical expository texts. Through the implementation of the strategy, the students were easy to identify topic, main idea and supporting detail- ed information in the text; and to recognize the source of information to answer the comprehension ques- tions in the reading instruction. The metacognitive strategy also motivated them to link the author’s opin- ion in the reading texts with their real life situation. Furthermore, it was easy for the students to identify the content of analytical expository texts, especially the topic, main idea and supporting ideas by employing the strategy in readingcomprehension activities and it could improve their readingcomprehension result as indicating of the improvement of their skills. More- over, in the current study, the improvement of the students’ comprehension in reading was also triggered by the teacher’s modeling in applying metacognitive strategy in readingcomprehension instruction. It is then modeling was really helpful to help the students understood how to apply the strategy in the reading process.
REAP is a technique for helping reader read and understanding a text, REAP is an acronym for Reading, Encoding, Annotating and Pondering, there are four steeps of reading in REAP: a). R: Read on your own words, b). E: Encode the text by putting the gist of what you read in your own words. C). A: Annotate the text by writing down the main ideas and the author„s. d). P: Ponder what you read by thinking and talking with others in order to make personal connections, develop questions about the topic, and/or connect this reading to other reading you have done message (Allen, 2012). REAP is an acronym for Reading, Encoding, Annotating, Pondering. In addition, they also say that this technique starts from the premise that readers best when asked to communicate the ideas gleaned from a passage they have read The REAP technique consist of:
Guba and Lincoln (1989) equate credibility with internal validity, transferability with external validity, dependability with reliability, and confirmability with objectivity. In qualitative research, credibility refers to a correspondence between the way the respondents actually perceive social constructs and the way the researcher portrays their viewpoints (Mertens, 1998: 80). In ensuring the credibility of my research, I made use of peer debriefing. My supervisor posed searching questions to help me confront my own values and to guide the next steps in my study. Also, progressive subjectivity was evident in my research in that I monitored my own developing constructions and documented the process of change from the beginning of the study until the end. Initially, when I started with the formulation of my research question, I did not believe in or allow the practice of learners discussing (in class) that which they struggle to comprehend, in their mother tongue. I have undergone a complete mind-shift with regard to this. I also made use of member checks, which is listed as the most important criteria for establishing credibility (Mertens, 1998:182). This criterion required of me to verify with my participants the constructions that developed as a result of data collected and analyzed. At the end of my intervention I asked my participants if they agreed with the data generated and findings I came across in working with them. It should however be mentioned that agreeability needs to be seen within the context of power relations; they would tend to want to agree with me as I was seen as a teacher figure. Transferability was ensured by giving a thick description (the contextualization of the school).
The study aimed to investigate the effects of cohesive devices or discourse markers on the learners' perception and readingcomprehension as well as their writing ability. A total of 28 EFL students participated in the study. They were divided into two groups and both groups took a pretest. While the control group received no treatment the experimental group was exposed to the materials rich in discourse markers during six sessions. An independent samples t-test was conducted. After taking the immediate posttest, the results indicated that there was a significant difference between their mean scores. Taken together, the findings suggest that it is beneficial to employ discourse markers or cohesive devices since this would enable learners to comprehend texts better.
Limitations in teacher knowledge and practice with respect to informational text may contribute to null effects on readingcomprehension, not only in the REAL project but also in other recent interventions. In a large-scale study at fifth grade, James-Burdumy et al. (2010) found no effect on readingcomprehension for supplemental reading curricula, all of which targeted reading to learn. Remarkably, these programs, with titles such as Read for Real and Reading for Knowledge, also did not lead to increased use of informational text. It seems likely that the lack of improvement in readingcomprehension and the failure of teachers to increase the amount of informational text in their instruction are related. Although the nature of the instruction itself is of course important, not just an increased use of informational text (Purcell-Gates, Duke, & Martineau, 2007), teachers who have difficulty including more informational text may also have difficulty providing optimal instruction on such texts. Further research on what will assist teachers to increase their use of and facility with informational text may be particularly important if the Common Core State Standards effort is to be successful. The standards, in various stages of implementation across most states in the US, call for a 50-50 mix of literary and informational text in elementary school, both in grades K-2 and in grades 3-6 (Coleman & Pimentel, 2011a; 2011b).
This study was completed in a school where Professional Learning Communities (PLC) were currently implemented. The PLC groups meet weekly with like grade bands to discuss spe- cific requirements set forth by the district. As a team, grade levels work together to set goals throughout the year, that will impact student growth. Action plans including different strategies, practices, and strategic interventions are noted. Data is shared giving teachers the opportunity to collaborate, plan, and reflect effectively together.
The research methodology had a major limitation: the transcribing software. The nature of the videos of gameplay posed a problem for transcribing: only having written text, with said text appearing and disappearing at different intervals made it difficult to find software that would be able to transcribe the text well enough to use as a foundation for the full-text rendering. The transcribing software used to acquire the video game text was Videoindexer.ai, a recent (May 2018) online tool developed by Microsoft. Although the tool was able to recognize most words, some fantasy words (such as region names such as Analand, Baklands, etc.) were replaced by similar-looking words; the software would wrongly recognize letters and make new words. A common mistake the software made was changing Baklands into ‘Badlands’ or ‘Bad iands’. Another limitation this transcribing tool had, was the repetition: because the video game text moved upwards with each new choice, it often stayed on screen for a longer period of time, especially with participants that took their time reading. This resulted in the text being repeated at different stages in the transcription, often cutting sentences in half. The correction of these limitations was time-consuming.
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS Conclusions
After conducting the research, the researcher get some conclusions as: 6WXGHQW¶V UHDGLQJ FRPSUHKHQVLRQ RI QDUUDWLYH WH[W WR WKH WHQWK JUDGH students of SMA Negeri 10 Pontianak in academic year 2014/2015 LPSURYHG E\ XVLQJ 6WRU\ 0DS 7HFKQLTXH 7KH VWXGHQW¶V PHDQ VFRUH LQ WKe first cycle was 69.45 and the mean score of second cycle was 77.66. (2) Teaching readingcomprehension on narrative text by using story map technique positively help the students to organize their ideas into a map which help them to intergrate the concepts and idea from the story. (3) Story map technique enable the students to store information in their personal schema more efficiently and facilitates to recall the story elements more completely and accurately. (4) The research was done in two cycles. In the ILUVW F\FOH WKH VWXGHQW¶V UHDGLQJ FRPSUHKHQVLRQ ZDV DYHUDJH WR JRRG DQG WKHUH DUH WZHQW\ VWXGHQWV FRXOGQ¶W SDVV WKH PLQLPXP VFRUH ,Q WKH VHFRQG F\FOH WKH VWXGHQW¶V UHDGLQJ FRPSUHKHQVLRQ ZDV DYHUDJH WR JRRG DQG WKHUH are six students could not pass the minimum score of English subject in the VFKRRO )LHOG QRWHV FRXOG KHOS WKH WHDFKHU LQ LGHQWLI\LQJ WKH VWXGHQW¶V problem and helped the teacher to find the solution by designing the activity for the next meeting.
In the light of the above issue, one of the problems found related to readingcomprehension is that many English learners find it difficult to comprehend English texts. They get troubled when they encounter unfamiliar words. In this state, readers begin to panic and stop reading to look them up in dictionaries and it interrupts the normal reading process. It actually destroys their chances to comprehend much of the text. The relationship between knowledge of word meanings and comprehension has been documented by researchersand admitted by students. Many of them admit that sometimes they do not understand what they are reading because the words are too hard for them.
After giving the treatment in the experiment class, the researcher prepared to collect post-test data in experimental and control classes. Based on the analysis of post-test data, the value of t counted is 1,801. Using the level of significant 5 %, the value of t table is 1,685. After comparing the post-test data, the value of t counted was bigger than t table . It could be stated that Short Story was effective to improve student’s readingcomprehension.
Speed reading is one of techniques that can be used to improvereading habits of the students to read quickly. By applying this technique, the students can get many advantages. Klaser in Browning (2003:1) presents four positive points in learning read faster. The first one is the amount of time you will save when you're able to double your speed. The second advantage is that readers are able to concentrate better which leads to greater comprehension. Thirdly, with the increase in potential speed and comprehension, academic grades tend to rise as well. And lastly and most importantly, students will enjoy the act of reading more, which promotes greater extensive reading, an added area for increasing reading speed and comprehension . Therefore, by using this technique, it can help the readers, not only save their time but also the reader can improve their comprehension and can get much knowledge.
On the other hand, the interviews revealed that RAS had less impact on higher level text difficulties the students had with the learning material. However; 80% of students ticked it as an effective strategy for low proficient students during the survey. Further, maximum said yes during an interview for the same. So, this was the vital reading strategy which was badly needed for the students to improve their reading proficiency (Mokhtari & Reichard, 2004). Many of the students 80% ticked that RAS was effective for readingcomprehension as a skill. During interviews, the teachers also recommended this strategy to improve Saudi students readingcomprehension skills (Al-jarf, 2007). It is similar to Qanwal and Karim (2014) findings that RAS help struggling students to build comprehension skills by reasoning, background knowledge, fluency, attention, and ability to process information. Both the teachers agreed that the impact of reading aloud strategies on readingcomprehension skills of low proficient Saudi students was effective. Findings of their interviews are the same as (Lei, Rhinehart, Howard, & Cho, 2010; Schoenbach, Greenleaf, Cziko, & Hurwitz, 1999) expressed RAS a successful approach to helping students improve their literacy, helping students build readingcomprehension skills. Findings also reveal that students’ inferences they had through their predictions help them to understand the thinking of multiple-choice answers in the reading passage without failing to give correct answers regarding a logical question. Here students used RAS for evaluations at the highest text level of Bloom’s taxonomy which were obvious from their preferences about whatever they encountered in the reading passages where they read, thought and synthesize themselves to a certain decision during and after reading (Bloomfield, 2012; Greene, 2001). All in all, this pilot study provided a clearer picture while meeting its objectives and the necessary amendment was made for the instruments before the final study.
The data were collected through a set of tests that covered items testing the students‟ readingcomprehension and their genre knowledge about six different genres- explanation, exposition, discussion, review, and narrative. Each genre consisted of two texts. For genre awareness, there were six questions for each text; so, there were sixty questions altogether. For readingcomprehension, there were eighty questions (8 questions for each text). The tests were conducted in four different times, with a range of two weeks. Genre awareness and readingcomprehension tests were divided into three sets; each set consisted of four texts of different genres. They were given in three different times. The students‟ answers were checked and scored 0-1. The correct answer was given score 1, half correct answer was 0.5, and wrong answer was 0. The total correct answers were summed in order to show a student‟s reading awareness and readingcomprehension. The total number of students who could answer a certain question was also counted in order to show the questions that were easy or difficult for the students. After that, a qualitative analysis was done by looking at the students‟ ability and problem of each text and test item. Finally, the findings of the three sets of data were compared to see and explain how one was related to another.
Reading is a complex cognitive process that improves with practice and exposure to the correct difficulty level of text, and results in a myriad of benefits to language skills. Because reading is such a natural and integral component of language acquisition, most native speakers of a language advance their lexicon through reading in their native language as soon as they are capable of it. While just as beneficial for foreign language study, reading in a second language is a much more daunting task. To become proficient readers, second- language learners have to work around their linguistic disadvantages. The correct level of text for a native speaker, who has years of acquiring language orally as a solid linguistic foundation for literacy, is not an ideal entry point for the second language learner, who generally studies the written and oral aspects of their target language simultaneously. Still, there is good evidence in the literature that learning to read in a second language can create higher motivation for learning the language (Hitosugi & Day, 2004; Mason & Krashen, 1997; Swaffer & Woodruff, 1978), help learners build a more diverse and rich vocabulary (Horst, 2005; Nation, 2013; Pitts, White & Krashen, 1989), and can be a largely autonomous way to improve language skills (Benson, 2011).
leadership theories such as creative leadership. As Stoll and Temperley (2009) identified in their study of creative leadership teams, there is a need in school leadership to think beyond the status quo and to seek solutions that have not been tried yet. Often, educational practitioners run to tried and true solutions rather than using relevant data to think differently about a problem. Creative leadership is another way of approaching change by using “out of the box” thinking to improve learning outcomes for students. Mainemelis, Kark, and Epitropaki (2015) conjecture that creativity in leadership is no longer just an add-on. Without creativity leaders have little success in moving their organizations to the next level. While readingcomprehension has been isolated in this problem of practice, improving reading will also help to improve students’ writing as they are intricately linked together. Improving students’ readingcomprehension will serve students as they engage in math as well since much of the focus of problem-solving rests on the ability to be able to read and comprehend what is being asked and then having the
the vocabulary words and major concepts. The students completed graphic organizers for comparisons. Next, the students reiterated the comparisons, and to finish students wrote summaries. During the Content program the teacher introduced the text to the students by discussing the vocabulary words and concepts in order to activate the student’s prior knowledge about the topic. Similar to the Text Structure program, students “mumble read” and the teacher “listened in.” When discussing and revisiting the text, the teacher reviewed the vocabulary words and major concepts found in the text, students completed graphic organizers highlighting main topics and subtopics, and at the conclusion of the lesson the students wrote summaries with the aid of their graphic organizers. The main focus of the Text Structure program was to emphasize the structure of the text as a way to assist in students’ comprehension, whereas the main focus of the Content program was factual information and associated vocabulary. In the No Instruction group, teachers were not provided a specific program to follow. Instead, they used content and strategies of their choosing. To ensure fidelity of the programs, teacher observation (excluding the No Instruction groups) occurred once per week for 45 to 60 minutes and recorded notes concentrated on how closely the teacher followed the lesson outline, time on the lesson, and student engagement. Another way the researchers ensured consistency was by providing all three groups with the same pre and post assessments. The pre assessment included four different measures: summary of a compare/contrast text, identification of clue words in paragraph, matrix (graphic organizer), and vocabulary. The post-
intervention studies with technology when used at least once per week and conducted for nearly a semester exhibited greater reading outcomes for students with LD, particularly in the pre- and posttest gains on assessments (Fitzgerald et al., 2012; Hall et al., 2015; Stetter & Hughes, 2011; Stodden et al., 2012). More specifically, studies found that using digital text increased oral reading and comprehension with technology used more than a minimum of 30 min per week (Stodden et al., 2012) and 3 to 4 days per week (Hall et al., 2015). Fitzgerald et al. (2012) implemented 40 sessions of online learning using a decoding reading strategy, resulting in significant readingcomprehension gains on standardized and curriculum-based tests. Consistent gains in all three studies were attributed to the increase in the exposure the students had to the digital text (Fitzgerald et al., 2012; Hall et al., 2015; Stodden et al., 2012). Students with LD need additional online instruction to learn the same content as their peers without disabilities (Fitzgerald et al., 2012). Along with additional exposure to digital text, evidence suggests that immediate teacher or computer feedback improves reading outcomes (Hall et al., 2015). When researchers provided feedback at the start of class, students were not able to implement changes and did not learn from their mistakes (Stetter & Hughes, 2011). Researchers suggested that immediate feedback along with additional exposure to digital text may increase reading outcomes (Hall et al., 2015; Stetter & Hughes, 2011) and more efficient learning (Hall et al., 2000).