Active Perception

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Information-Theoretic Active Perception for Multi-Robot Teams

Information-Theoretic Active Perception for Multi-Robot Teams

lenging problem that encompasses many different areas of robotics research. For example, robots must be capable of autonomously navigating to various parts of an environment. This requires robots that are capable of planning paths that do not collide with obstacles or other robots and using controllers that can generate inputs to actuators such that robots follow those paths. Navigation also requires that each robot is capable of determining where it is in space, a task known as localization. Depending on whether or not the robots are op- erating in an environment whose essential structure is known, robots may also need to solve the mapping problem, which requires them to build a detailed model of the environment they are in. In addition to all of these tasks, active perception problems require robots to estimate external quantities such as the location of a lost piece of medical equipment or the exact geometry of a building. As much as possible, a team of robots must effectively coordinate its actions.
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Active Bayesian perception and reinforcement learning

Active Bayesian perception and reinforcement learning

Active Bayesian perception also accumulates belief for the ‘where’ (horizontal position) and ‘what’ (cylinder diameter) perceptual classes by successively tapping against a test object until reaching a predefined ‘what’ belief threshold. In addition, it utilizes a sensorimotor loop to move the sensor according to the online marginal belief estimates during the perceptual process (Fig. 2; left loop). The active perception method considered here uses a ‘fixation point’ control strategy, such that the marginal ‘where’ beliefs are used to infer a best estimate for current location and thus a relative move towards a preset target position on the object. For the present data set of several cylinder diameters over a range of horizontal positions, the typical behavior for active Bayesian perception with fixation point strategy has the sensor orienting quickly to the fixation position within a few taps independent of starting placement (Fig. 4A; example fixation point at 8 mm; decision threshold 0.95). The reaction times to reach the belief threshold have a positively skewed distribution (Fig. 4B) reminiscent of that obtained from behavioral/psychological experiments with humans and animals. Note that active Bayesian perception leads to greatly improved mean reaction times and perceptual acuity com- pared with passive methods for estimating cylinder diameter (cf. results in [7]). For the decisions shown in Fig. 4, the mean absolute error was ∼0.7 mm, much better than ∼2 mm for passive perception. Note also that active perception has an added benefit of aligning the sensor onto the same point of the object whatever the relative initial positioning, in effect compensating for an unstructured environment.
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Mirroring cannot account for understanding action

Mirroring cannot account for understanding action

Abstract: Imitation, deliberation, and mindreading are characteristically human sociocognitive skills. Research on imitation and its role in social cognition is flourishing across various disciplines. Imitation is surveyed in this target article under headings of behavior, subpersonal mechanisms, and functions of imitation. A model is then advanced within which many of the developments surveyed can be located and explained. The shared circuits model (SCM) explains how imitation, deliberation, and mindreading can be enabled by subpersonal mechanisms of control, mirroring, and simulation. It is cast at a middle, functional level of description, that is, between the level of neural implementation and the level of conscious perceptions and intentional actions. The SCM connects shared informational dynamics for perception and action with shared informational dynamics for self and other, while also showing how the action/perception, self/other, and actual/possible distinctions can be overlaid on these shared informational dynamics. It avoids the common conception of perception and action as separate and peripheral to central cognition. Rather, it contributes to the situated cognition movement by showing how mechanisms for perceiving action can be built on those for active perception. The SCM is developed heuristically, in five layers that can be combined in various ways to frame specific ontogenetic or phylogenetic hypotheses. The starting point is dynamic online motor control, whereby an organism is closely attuned to its embedding environment through sensorimotor feedback. Onto this are layered functions of prediction and simulation of feedback, mirroring, simulation of mirroring, monitored inhibition of motor output, and monitored simulation of input. Finally, monitored simulation of input specifying possible actions plus inhibited mirroring of such possible actions can generate information about the possible as opposed to actual instrumental actions of others, and the possible causes and effects of such possible actions, thereby enabling strategic social deliberation. Multiple instances of such shared circuits structures could be linked into a network permitting decomposition and recombination of elements, enabling flexible control, imitative learning, understanding of other agents, and instrumental and strategic deliberation. While more advanced forms of social cognition, which require tracking multiple others and their multiple possible actions, may depend on interpretative theorizing or language, the SCM shows how layered mechanisms of control, mirroring, and simulation can enable distinctively human cognitive capacities for imitation, deliberation, and mindreading.
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Perceiving Music – One of Fundamental Activities at Mass School

Perceiving Music – One of Fundamental Activities at Mass School

3. Active perception, rationalizing and emotional experience of an artistic work is not based only on the certain artistic abilities (in this case – musical rumor) and the capacity of the artistic experience (in the perception of music – musical-auditory notions), but is also determined by such individual qualities as quickness of associative thinking, speed and wealth of the fantasy images. Associativeness and imagination, besides being prerequisites for the complete perception of the artistic image, through active participation are also unfolded and developed into an artistic apperception.
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A SOLID case for active bayesian perception in robot touch

A SOLID case for active bayesian perception in robot touch

In this paper, we demonstrated that active Bayesian perception with a sensori- motor control loop between the perceptual beliefs and the motion of the sensor can robustly and accurately solve problems of Simultaneous Object Localiza- tion and IDentification (SOLID), or ‘where’ and ‘what’ objects are in the world. Whereas active perception gave an efficient and accurate solution to the SOLID problem in unstructured environments, passive perception could be inaccurate and non-robust under uncertainty about object location.

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Active Control for Object Perception and Exploration with a Robotic Hand

Active Control for Object Perception and Exploration with a Robotic Hand

Active object exploration: For the object recognition process with active perception, the robotic hand per- formed an exploration around the object to have an initial belief of the object being explored, similar to passive perception. Next, the robotic hand was actively moved, based on the proposed intrinsic motivation approach, towards interesting places around the object to improve perception. The active exploration process was repeated until the belief threshold was exceeded to make a decision. Similar to passive perception, the objects to be recog- nised were randomly drawn from the testing datasets with 10,000 iterations for each belief threshold in the set of values {0.0, 0.05, . . . , 0.999}.
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Development Of Hand Gesture Glove To Control Robot Arm

Development Of Hand Gesture Glove To Control Robot Arm

LIST OF FIGURES 2.1 Talon Device Overview 8 2.2 The Overall Design for Interactive Perception Filter 10 2.3 Passive Noise Filtering 10 2.4 Active Perception Block Diagram 11 3.1 Methodol[r]

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5 ladders of active learning: an innovative learning steps in PBL process

5 ladders of active learning: an innovative learning steps in PBL process

Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an educational strategy where learning is driven by a problem and students work in teams to learn more about the problem, conduct a research, communicate to each other, apply many essential skills and enjoy the fruits of active learning. The lecturer or teacher is not the one who controls the learning process. Instead, he or she plays the role of a facilitator and motivator to guide the students along the learning path (Savin-Baden & Major, 2004, Savin-Baden, 2003). PBL has proven to be a successful educational strategy in many different study domains all over the world and it was used as a strategy for development in the globalized higher education (Kolmos & Graaff, 2007, Du, Graaff & Kolmos, 2009). Because of its popularity, PBL has been accepted as one of the most powerful student-centered learning approaches that enable many institutions to make a significant change in teaching and learning approach. Some institutions have been successfully adopted PBL and their faculty members and students have enjoyed the benefits from the adoption.
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Does an Active Journalistic Role Conception Rectify Questionable Reporting Practices? Answers from a Representative Survey of
Journalists in Germany

Does an Active Journalistic Role Conception Rectify Questionable Reporting Practices? Answers from a Representative Survey of Journalists in Germany

Journalists’ attitudes toward reporting practices are relevant because methods of newsgathering can have an impact on the amount of information accessible to the public. A journalist’s contribution to transparency, however, may sometimes require problematic reporting practices like claiming to be someone else or badging and harassing sources. In such cases, journalists have to decide whether the end justifies the means. Theoretically, it has been argued that the feeling of not having achieved an active role can lead to feelings of mental distress, a cognitive dissonance, which can be reduced by utilizing questionable reporting practices in order to play the pursued active role. Moreover, journalists’ political leanings are arguably related to the acceptance of questionable reporting practices, as they can be indicative of the journalists’ ambition to change society.
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The acceptability of nanocarriers for drug delivery in different contexts of use: perceptions of researchers and research trainees in the field of new technologies

The acceptability of nanocarriers for drug delivery in different contexts of use: perceptions of researchers and research trainees in the field of new technologies

An invitation to participate in an anonymous web-based questionnaire study was sent via email to 1,320 active researchers and graduate research trainees in the field of new technologies. The questionnaire was available online from 4 September 2013 to 15 March 2014 (192 days). By the end of this period, 585 of persons contacted had accessed the questionnaire (44.32% access rate), and 214 had completed it (16.21% response rate meeting quality criteria). Average completion time (excluding extreme values) from access to the last question was 25 minutes 38 seconds ( ± 14 minutes 47 seconds; minimum 11 minutes 7 seconds to maximum 89 minutes 32 seconds). Respondents (n = 214) identified themselves as researchers (71%) or graduate students (29%) in the fields of the natural sciences (67%) or the social sciences and humanities (33%). Male respondents accounted for 63% of the sample. Sixty-six percent of the respondents were from Europe (France = 58%; Belgium = 5%; Switzerland = 2%; Italy = 1%), and the rest from Canada.
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Simulation Analysis of Multi satellite Joint Detection Activity Target Capability

Simulation Analysis of Multi satellite Joint Detection Activity Target Capability

In STK, the simulation time is set as 12 Nov 2018 22:00:00.000 UTCG to 13 Nov 2018 10:00:00.000 UTCG.The time step is 60 seconds.The detection area is divided into 342 points by grid analysis method, and each point represents an area of about 800 square kilometers, because the area is divided according to the grid.The perceptibility of each point is used to represent the detection ability of the satellite group to this kind of ship target.Finally, the average perception degree in the region is obtained.The simulation coverage figure obtained is as follows.
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Does the perception of neighborhood built environmental attributes influence active transport in adolescents?

Does the perception of neighborhood built environmental attributes influence active transport in adolescents?

In contrast to the consistent results in adults, the asso- ciation between neighborhood built environmental attri- butes and adolescents’ levels of PA is rather blurred [15,16]. Within this area, more attention has been given to environmental correlates of AT to school than to other forms of AT [17,18]. A number of studies among youth have found that higher levels of AT are associated with a shorter distance to school, higher residential density, the presence of facilities, safe roads, mixed land use, the presence of cul-de sacs and the presence of fa- cilities to assist active travel [17,19]. Nevertheless, based on the existing evidence, no definite conclusions can be drawn concerning the contribution of neighborhood built environmental factors in explaining other types of AT in adolescents, like AT during leisure time or to other destinations besides school [17,20].
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Associations between Parental Perceptions of the Neighbourhood Environment and Childhood Physical Activity: Results from ISCOLE-Kenya

Associations between Parental Perceptions of the Neighbourhood Environment and Childhood Physical Activity: Results from ISCOLE-Kenya

The statistical analyses presented in this article were computed using SAS (version 9.3; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Sample sizes and percentages of child-level and parental-level factors, including parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment, are reported in Table 1. Univariable analysis was used to investigate associations between parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment and child active school transportation (self-reported), sufficient activ- ity levels (self-reported), and meeting MVPA guidelines (directly measured) as reported in Table 2. Multivariable modeling using a forward selection approach was completed using variables that were significantly associated with child physical activity outcomes but yielded no significant results.
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Phenylthiocarbamide Taste Perception among HIV- Infected Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

Phenylthiocarbamide Taste Perception among HIV- Infected Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

The PTC tasting sensitivity of the HIV-infected patients on Nevirapine, Lamivudine, Zidovudine combination therapy was not significantly different from that of the control group. However, the PTC tasting sensitivity of the HIV-infected patients on Tenofovir, Lamivudine, Efavirenz was significantly different from that of the control group. These implied that while the use of Nevirapine, Lamivudine, Zidovudine combination therapy did not tamper with PTC tasting significantly, the use of Tenofovir, Lamivudine, Efavirenz combination therapy considerably affected PTC tasting sensitivity. Since a significant higher proportion of those on Tenofovir, Lamivudine, Efavirenz combination therapy turned out to be non-tasters of PTC, it is possible that non-tasters might find the Tenofovir, Lamivudine, Efavirenz combination therapy more compatible to their body chemistry compared to Nevirapine, Lamivudine, Zidovudine combination therapy. This is open to investigation and may help in the determination of the choice of combination therapy to adopt for newly HIV-infected cases. In addition, further investigation, preferably a longitudinal one (conducted before and after initiation of HAART) can further help to clarify if it is the medication or the HIV infection itself that is responsible for the alteration in PTC taste perception.
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Recognition of dance-like actions: memory for static posture or dynamic movement?

Recognition of dance-like actions: memory for static posture or dynamic movement?

regions during action observation, suggesting that both motion and form processes do contribute to action perception (e.g. Grossman & Blake, 2002; Peelen et al., 2006). If processing format influences retention in VWM it can be expected that while memory for action and form will largely differ, some retention of form will also occur after action observation. This is to say that after observing a dynamic body movement, the observer will have both snapshot memory of the embodied forms and dynamic memory of the forms in motion. In Experiment 1, a change detection paradigm with manipulation of study format (movement, posture) and test format (movement, posture) investigated whether participants could correctly identify an action based only on a single static image. If so, this suggests that when observing dynamic dance-like actions, static images of posture are encoded and support recognition.
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PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF ENGAGEMENT IN ACTIVE LEARNING THROUGH PEER TEACHING AND PEER ASSESSMENT

PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF ENGAGEMENT IN ACTIVE LEARNING THROUGH PEER TEACHING AND PEER ASSESSMENT

There was strong positive correlation between peer assessment and teacher assessment. This adds to dependability of peer assessment. The researchers conclude that peer assessment may be used at university level at least in complementarity to teacher assessment of their students’ learning. Students’ engagement in active learning through peer-teaching and peer-assessment at university level is found effective. Learning becomes more interactive, reflective, independent and autonomous. The students feel empowered and more confident in their learning; thus recognizing their growing maturity. The peer teaching gives them confidence and depth in knowledge, especially in local context. The students consider peer teaching and peer assessment helpful for improving their competence and confidence for learning. Fellow students actively listen and discuss with the dual purpose of learning and assessing.
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Examining Children's Perceptions and Use of Their Neighbourhood Built Environments:  A Novel Participatory Mapping Approach

Examining Children's Perceptions and Use of Their Neighbourhood Built Environments: A Novel Participatory Mapping Approach

From the research and systematic review, there emerges no singular manner by which to address barriers to active and safe travel to school. A systems approach takes the collaborative and broad approach necessary to consider active travel as the complex issue that it is. Similar to the ecological classification of physical activity by van Loon and Frank (2011), active travel is affected by multiple individual factors as well as a variety of proximate environmental features. A systems approach to understanding this issue allows for an open discourse that is sure to yield more comprehensive results. Priorities can be made on what needs attention first. Instead of merely assigning resources to a perceived problem, a systems approach allows for more pressing issues to emerge from discussion. In doing so neighbourhood shortcomings become more manageable, and stakeholders will not be overwhelmed with trying to tackle any issues all at once. A systems approach affords a coordinated response to a problem that can affect real and meaningful change in the lives of students who could potentially travel actively to and from school. This would be a marked improvement over how issues relating to active school travel are most often handled; internally within the school, using only school resources.
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Parental safety concerns and active school commute: correlates across multiple domains in the home-to-school journey

Parental safety concerns and active school commute: correlates across multiple domains in the home-to-school journey

Despite its potential health benefits, rates of active com- muting to school (e.g. walking and bicycling) have plum- meted over the last four decades in the U.S. In 2009, only 12.7% of elementary and middle school students walked or biked to school compared with 47.7% in 1969 [12]. Sev- eral reasons for this sharp drop in active commuting to school (ACS) have been identified by parents with school- aged children (5-18 years old), including distance (62%), traffic-related danger (30.4%), weather (18.6%), crime (11.7%), and school policy (6.0%) [13]. For WTS, two of the most frequently reported barriers are long distance [14–18] and safety concerns [19–21]. Addressing the dis- tance barrier, while being the most influential factor pre- dicting the school travel model choice, is difficult as it requires multi-faceted environmental interventions involv- ing policy changes in land use, school siting, attendance zone, etc. [22]. In comparison, environmental changes to alleviate safety barriers to WTS may be more readily implementable.
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Information Technology and Aesthetics: Passive and Active Dimensions

Information Technology and Aesthetics: Passive and Active Dimensions

We can see how the difference between a perception and a conception plays itself out in the following example. Consider works performed in a manner different from the original context for which they were intended. For example, consider a musician performing a composition created by another musician where the other musician’s work is considered a work of art. Consider an extreme case, for example, the elementary school child who plays a composition and who faithfully executes each and every note of the composition. The same composition, also faithfully executed by a master musician, may be considered a work of art, yet the schoolchild’s effort is not. The reason for this is that the child has not yet made the shift from perception to conception. The schoolchild is still working at a definitional stage, defining the notes and carefully reproducing them without fully comprehending the active power of the theme released by the notes. The master not only perceives the notes and the melody; but, conceives the full power of the theme of the music and thus is able to render the playing of the music with the full active vigor of that conception.
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An investigation into perceived motion paths by means of the Slalom Illusion

An investigation into perceived motion paths by means of the Slalom Illusion

Underestimation of motion paths has previous been observed using linear and circular trajectories (Sinico et al., 2009; Nakajima & Sakaguchi, 2016). The explanations offered by these authors are rooted in a vector summation of the motion speeds and directions within the motion integration window, whereby motion signals around the extremities of the motion path, where the motion direction reverses, cancel each other out. As a result, the motion path appears smaller than it physically is. Indeed, this could also be a plausible explanation for the current experiments. An additional role might be played by the instruction to the participants to follow the dot with their gaze. When observers engage in smooth pursuit eye movement to follow a moving stimulus, the extent of the eye movement when compared to the extent of the stimulus trajectory is comparable in the horizontal direction, but reduced in the vertical direction (Rottach et al., 1996). If the perception of the trajectory is biased by the eye movements following it, an underestimation would likely occur. Indeed, Sinico et al. (2009) report a reduced illusory shrinkage of the motion path under conditions of constant fixation, compared to conditions where participants were instructed to follow the trajectory with their gaze.
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