activity-based business modeling

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Managing Workflow Processes through Access Control Policies

Managing Workflow Processes through Access Control Policies

Bussler is the first researcher who proposed a policy-based task assignment architecture [20]. It is further be expanded to the resource query language RQL proposed by HP lab [21]. The access control language described in the paper is quite similar to the RQL. RQL is a SQL-like language and is able to specify three types of policies: qualification, requirements and substitution policies. The functions of requirement and substitution policies are similar to the ones described in the paper. A qualification policy is used to state the type of resources, which is qualified to do an activity type. TAPL provides a few new features. First, a ―when‖ clause is provided to represent current allocation status and process status. Second, functions are introduced to express complicated resource allocation conditions. Third, a new type policy, i.e., scenario policy is introduced to confine the search scope according to some important criteria, for example, the separation of duty in workflow. In addition to these differences in the policy language, we also present an architecture for organizational access control modeling and enforcement to support dynamic business processes. Furthermore, a policy search algorithm and enforcement
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A MEASUR and RUP Combined Business Modeling Method

A MEASUR and RUP Combined Business Modeling Method

Abstract—Business modeling is a primary task in the information systems development lifecycle. Although both MEASUR (Methods for Eliciting, Analyzing and Specifying User’s Requirement) and RUP (Rational Unified Process) provide their own Business Modeling Method (BMM), each has obvious merits and demerits. To keep the merits and avoid the demerits at the same time, in this paper, a MEASUR and RUP combined BMM is devised based on the comparison of the two BMMs respectively from the semantics, pragmatics and social world of the semiotic framework. The method proposed consists of three activities in sequence. Unified Modeling Language (UML) Use Case Diagrams (UCD) are employed in the first activity “UML UCD Modeling” to model business functions concerning with the social world since they are the only formal result modeling business functions in both BMMs. The extended UML Activity Diagrams (AD) are employed in the second activity “Extended UML AD Modeling” to model both norms and communications concerning with both the social world and the pragmatics since UML AD can model communications directly and obviously but norms cannot and therefore make the analysis of purposes in communications much easier. In addition, it is easy to extend UML AD with the deontic operators to express the same meaning as norms following the simple rules. The Ontology Charts (OC) are employed in the third activity “OC Modeling” to define meanings of terminology used in business models and concerning with the semantics since ontological dependencies are modeled directly and clearly in OC but not defined in UML Class Diagrams.
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Business Process Modeling Based on Norm

Business Process Modeling Based on Norm

In the activity diagram, the swimming lane will group the process by role. The swimming lanes have many diff- erent uses, including prompt the place of the action or indicate the role of the action. In the activity diagram, the lane is a vertical rectangle and those activities that belong in the rectangle. The top of rectangle is the name of the corresponding organizational units or roles and activities can be placed on the implementation of the organiza- tional unit. Through the lane, the role-based business process model and organizational model can be com- bined. Then insert the norm by [#], thus the role and the corresponding norm has clearly shown in the diagram. In order to make business processes more flexible and va- riable, we extract some important norm that the role cor- responding and realize it in the process. As a result, we
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Ontological Foundations for Strategic Business Modeling: The Case of Value, Risk and Competition

Ontological Foundations for Strategic Business Modeling: The Case of Value, Risk and Competition

and external factors that may influence strategic decisions, Porter’s Five Force Analysis (Porter, 2008b), which evaluates the competitive landscape of industries, and the Business Model Canvas (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010), which provides a generic frame for enterprises to describe and communicate their business models. The vast majority of the tools and techniques, however, share a common lim- itation: they are built on top of informally defined theories about the economic and social reality. This means that they put forth a number of concepts with- out accurately characterizing them. Thus, practitioners have to make their own interpretations about the key concepts proposed in such tools, which may result in distorted usage, and subsequently, them not obtaining the expected results (Jarzabkowski and Wilson, 2006). This issue, in fact, is pervasive in the field of management sciences, as evinced by the sheer number of publications discussing conceptual and definitional issues regarding many important notions (e.g. strategy (Mintzberg et al., 2005), strategy practice (Jarzabkowski and Paul Spee, 2009), business model (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2004; Timmers, 1998), competitive ad- vantage (Powell, 2001), risk (Aven et al., 2011; Kjellmer, 2007), value and value co-creation (Bowman and Ambrosini, 2000; Boztepe, 2007; Sánchez-Fernández and Iniesta-Bonillo, 2006), competition (Gur and Greckhamer, 2018), brand (Grassi, 1998), personas (Junior and Almeida, 2018), customer loyalty (Dick and Basu, 1994), market and industry (Nightingale, 1978), service (Nardi et al., 2015)). In most cases, the story is roughly the same. A new concept is proposed without be- ing properly characterized. It nonetheless becomes popular among researchers and practitioners, who then start to argue about what the concept really means and how it should be used. This leads to a number of (often conflicting) definitions, which end up hindering communication and adoption of the proposed concept in practice.
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Business Process Modeling. The Business-IT Divide

Business Process Modeling. The Business-IT Divide

At the time of writing, BPMN 2.0 has just been released. A quick study of its new features shown in figure 29 reveals that the focus has been placed on adding more detail to the specification in order to make the models more suitable for execution. This is great news for the IT stakeholders who are concerned with the technical support of BPM projects, but means little for the business stakeholders who should be in charge of the actual design of the model. In fact, we believe that this development of BPMN makes the standard less suitable for the business stakeholders. We argue that if BPMN continues on this road, it will become a visual programming language and business ownership of BPMN models will be lost. Business stakeholders might still create initial versions of their processes, but IT will be burdened with the task of fixing these models until they are executable, at which point the business stakeholders will no longer understand the models. To summarize, the whole notion of collaborative process modeling is effectively lost.
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Business sector analysis : the case of South African motor body repair SMMEs

Business sector analysis : the case of South African motor body repair SMMEs

This chapter presents the results and analysis of the survey data. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of business model and technical capability, managerial and entrepreneurial constructs on business performance of MBR SMMEs. The target population was MBR SMMEs, operating in Gauteng, that are registered by either SAMBRA or CRA. The researcher had planned to distribute the survey questionnaire through data bases of both SAMBRA and Collusion Repair Association (CRA). However, after there were changes in the leadership structure of both SAMBRA and CRA, the researcher was denied use of either of the data base. The researcher then used a register of Gauteng MBR workshops that had a total of 318 workshops, (CarautoInsurance, 2011). This register constituted the sample frame of this study. The response rate from the random survey was low and the researcher adopted the convenience sampling method. The convenience sampling method was used because the major activities of MBR SMMEs are homogenous in nature, their business activities are the same, and hence they will not be difference in the results from those that would have been obtained from a random sample, (Creswell and Clark, 2011). The targeted MBR SMMEs were easily accessible, were operating in Gauteng and were willing to participate in the study. The register of panel beaters in Gauteng that was used for this study did not differentiate companies on the basis of the level of repairs done or automotive body to which the company belonged to. However, the research instrument asked respondents which automotive body they were registered with and the types of repairs the business was carrying out. The number of companies that completed the questionnaire were 127. Out of the 127 questionnaires received only 106 were considered valid, and they represented a response rate of 33 % of the sample frame. Most of the invalid questionnaires had a lot of missing information and even after the researcher had made numerous follow up with the respective respondents, vital information remained scarce, hence they were not considered for this analysis.
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Research on Flexible Business Process of Bank Modeling Based on EPC

Research on Flexible Business Process of Bank Modeling Based on EPC

With the intense competition in the banking sector, financial products are continuously developing. The existing process model is facing tough challenges. The users of business process have been changed. Not only has it referred to the huge amount of ordinary users but also the personalized demands. The banks are required to complete the business process reengineering under risk and time constraint, which are imposed on frequently updated demand. At present, the business process design of domestic banking is mainly based on the traditional hierarchy structure which has many defects such as the complexity of information review, the lack of coordination among departments and so on. In the aspect of information system development, the construction of data centralization and all kinds of business system is completed. But a multitude of problems exist about the lack of flexibility of business process. They are mainly due to the independent among business functions, be in capable of data information exchange.
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DESIGN OF ARCHITECTURE ENTERPRISE MODEL INFORMATION SYSTEM ACADEMIC AND STUDENT ADMINISTRATION BUREAU USING TOGAF ADM

DESIGN OF ARCHITECTURE ENTERPRISE MODEL INFORMATION SYSTEM ACADEMIC AND STUDENT ADMINISTRATION BUREAU USING TOGAF ADM

Abstract: Information systems and technology have become very important components for the success of businesses and organizations (Setiawan, 2018). Information systems can help all types of businesses to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of business processes. These factors cause many organizations to implement information systems by only paying attention to momentary needs. So that the copy information overlaps and the system platform is different from one another, which is not in accordance with the mission and purpose of the application of information systems. One of the main causes of these different platforms is due to lack of planning and without thinking about the main key in the process of developing information system [1]. In this study a case study of the design of an enterprise architecture model of the information system of the academic and student administration bureau (BAAK) was designed by applying the TOGAF ADM method. Stages - The stages of the Togaf ADM methodology are translated into enterprise architecture modeling namely architecture vision, business architecture, information system architecture and information technology. This research is limited to the main business processes based on mapping using the value chain and only reaches the Opportunities and Solution phase in TOGAF ADM with a sample of research at a private university in DKI Jakarta. The purpose of this research is to overcome the problem in the old system where some of the processing is found to be still managed manually. This research produces a blueprint of information system architecture in the form of application candidates for each sub-organization that is arranged based on the priority level of needs so that the implementation process is in accordance with the desired and does not interfere with the performance of the information system both running and being built. This research also serves as a reference for the foundation of the development of the SI architecture in the management of universities to be able to improve services. In this study, there can be seen a gap in business processes where in running a business at BAAK UNU has not used IT as its main requirement and also processing academic operational data still using standard applications such as Microsoft Office.
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Business Process Improvement in Organizational Design of e-government Services

Business Process Improvement in Organizational Design of e-government Services

BPM is the discipline of defining and outlining business practices, processes, information flows, data stores and systems. (Sparx 2007) BPM is an important part of understanding and (re-)structuring the activities and information flows within an organization. The emphasis of BPM is on how the work is done within an organization. It is an important tool in understanding the activities an organization undertakes and the kind of information it needs to successfully engage in those activities (Sparx 2007). There are numerous business process modeling techniques developed in the last decade. Some examples of these techniques are Petri Nets, Event-driven Process Chains, Workflow Nets, Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Business Process Modeling Notation (Weske 2007). These techniques are based on different views on processes. Some aim at modeling processes from an IT perspective (such as UML), while others are based on a business perspective. In the project we used elements from both UML and Testbed (Telematica Institute) to satisfy both the IT and business stakeholders involved in this project. One of the main goals of modeling the business processes is to create transparency in how the work is currently done (as-is situation) within an organization. This is also the basis for the process analysis in the optimization phase.
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Using UML and Petri nets for visualization of business document flow

Using UML and Petri nets for visualization of business document flow

and when we can to analyze important features of system. These features then could serve to system (process) optimization. In general, it is accepted that when we use higher and complicated type of Petri- net we can model more accurate the real system (in our case it is business document fl ow) but its analysis is more diffi cult. In any cases it is possibly to make the analysis by computers and to describe Petri-net into suitable format that enables its reading and running in program. To this purpose it was created special language OPMNL. OPNML (Object Petri Nets Markup Language) (Jedlička, 2004) belongs to a group of XML languages and they are useful for analysis. In this approach we don’t need OPMNL. We need only the model of real process and its objects as a documents and the common goal of contribution is the visualization of complexity of process.
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Intelligent Agent Business Development Systems   Trends and Approach

Intelligent Agent Business Development Systems Trends and Approach

Intelligent agent technology can be leveraged to enhance enterprise modeling as well as offering new techniques for developing intelligent applications and smart technical infrastructure services. An agent-oriented perspective allows us to develop rich and expressive models of the enterprise the foundation for adaptive, reusable business software. An agent-oriented approach such as the Knowledge Analysis and Documentation System (KADS) supports richer representation of the problem domain and tends to be more rigorous and mature compared to BPR and OO. A method like KADS entails little commitment to design in early modeling phases and allows alternative implementation paths. On the down side, methods like KADS are not widely known outside the artificial intelligence community. They tend to be weaker on infrastructure issues and lack the diversity of commercial tools found in the object technology world. Traditional artificial intelligence is knowledge-base centric and can result in monolithic design.
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BUSINESS PROCESS MODELING AND SIMULATION

BUSINESS PROCESS MODELING AND SIMULATION

GPSS model is the process-oriented description of the system behavior. In other words, it is a formalized presentation of the temporal operations sequence as the content of the business process. In contrast, the BP IDEF3 model is less formal because it is closer to the conceptual system description. Therefore, converting the BP IDEF3 model to the GPSS program may be ambiguous. The nature of the ambiguity arises from the following factors. The IDEF3 and the GPSS models have different expressive power. The formalism of the descriptive IDEF3 model does not assume a strict reflection of the information about the organization of the system in question. The basic element of the IDEF3 model is an activity, i.e. a box with inputs and outputs. The fact of the activity start driven by some event (arrived client, received order etc.) has to be associated with the arrival of a transaction since the GPSS statements cannot be executed unless there are no arriving transactions.
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The Research on Enterprise Process Management Based on ARIS

The Research on Enterprise Process Management Based on ARIS

Over the years, Group Company launches the process management and information system improvement which has laid a solid foundation for enterprise management. Group leaders require to propose process management energetically, to clear out the responsibility of each position and department by the way of graphically, and indicate the process points of risk control as well as related institution, organization responsibility and control standard in a graphical way, by which to connect institutional procedure and totally change the previous method of program management. Therefore, a project team was built to use the present ARIS process management platform to solidify and deepen the pre-project achievement(the business process of the Group Company has been successfully completed), according to the demand of expressing the all businesses macroscopically and detailing all job specifications in microscopically, to establish a process management system which long-term stable operation. Based on the above requirements, the Group Company developed relate pilot research and exploration, selected an area of it to go on research on the combination of process, internal control and institution procedure.
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PROJECT MICROMANAGEMENT: PRACTICAL SITE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF WORK FLOW

PROJECT MICROMANAGEMENT: PRACTICAL SITE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF WORK FLOW

However, all forms of resource modeling incorporated in activity-based scheduling (aggregation, accumulation, allocation, smoothing and leveling) concentrate on the demands[r]

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Cloud computing for enterprises Best Practices

Cloud computing for enterprises Best Practices

Cloud computing introduces a new model of IT procurement and planning. Once a service is commissioned, there should not be any need of proactive planning. There should not be any CAPEX in the budget. The provider will automatically take care of all the new upgrades which are in demand. This makes the ente rprises “reactive” in approach and poses a danger of not refining their IT needs systematically with the changing business goals over the time. Enterprises need to adapt to the changes quickly by proactively analyzing corporate strategies and making those changes in the acquired cloud solutions.
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Exploring Maintainability Assurance Research for Service- and Microservice-Based Systems: Directions and Differences

Exploring Maintainability Assurance Research for Service- and Microservice-Based Systems: Directions and Differences

Maintainability Metrics and Prediction. Our second largest category consisted of 55 pub- lications. Since existing source code or object-oriented metrics are only of limited relevance for service-oriented systems, most publications in this category proposed maintainability metrics specifically designed for service orientation. Some researchers approached this by focusing on a single maintainability-related design property like coupling [62], complexity [63], cohesion [61], or granularity [1]. Others tried to assemble holistic metric suites, like the SOA design quality model from Shim et al. [70] or the metrics suite from Sindhgatta et al. [72]. Because most proposed metrics were of an architectural nature and therefore difficult to collect from source code, some publications also focused on metrics for specific service-based artifacts like SoaML [31] or BPMN [74] diagrams. To create an overview and to compare pro- posed metrics, other researchers conducted literature studies. Nik Daud and Wan Kadir [54] collected and categorized service-based metrics according to structural attributes, applied phase, or artifact. Bogner et al. [11] targeted only automatically collectable metrics and also analyzed the applicability of SOA metrics for microservices. A few publications also used metrics and various machine learning techniques to predict the future maintainability of services. Wang et al. [81] used artificial neural networks to build prediction models of several web service interface metrics. In a slightly different fashion, Kumar et al. [43] applied feature selection techniques and support vector machines to evaluate the prediction quality of object-oriented metrics for the maintainability of service-based systems.
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Modeling business process variability : a search for innovative solutions to business process variability
modeling problems

Modeling business process variability : a search for innovative solutions to business process variability modeling problems

To specify ambitions, a base process model must be used to apply changes on. This base process model can be a reference process model [37, 44, 91], the process model of one of the process variants within the considered domain, etc. However specifying a base process model that captures most of the commonality of the process model of the process variants shall lead to the specification of significantly less ambition rules: viewing the process model of the desired process variant shall thus be achieved by slightly modifying this base process model and thus applying few ambition rules. If by chance the chosen base process model is significantly different from the process model of the respective process variants: viewing the process model of the desired process variant shall thus be done by modifying greatly this base process model and thus applying a great number of ambition rules. Thus creating good base process models could be achieved by merging the process model of the respective process variants into one process model. In this research project the process model of a patient without disability as described in the healthcare running example shall be used as the base process model (Figure 17): this process model is relatively similar to the process model of the other two process variants and is thus a relatively good choice for a base process model. The choice was made to use basic EPC to model the business processes, as shall be explained in more detail later on in this subchapter.
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Business Rules Modeling for Business Process Events: An Oracle Prototype

Business Rules Modeling for Business Process Events: An Oracle Prototype

value with a number appended, and it (i) checks for the row in hotel_reserve_br_link table where the hotel_reservation table key value is null and the hotel_reserve_ruleid is same as the applied rule, and (ii) updates the hotel_reserve_br_link table with the new hotel_reservation primary key value. The purpose of the second database trigger is to store the primary key of the business process event table (EntityID) for the associated business rule (RuleID) as shown in Figure 9. The two database triggers generated by the prototype are listed in Appendix B. Once these business rule have been stored in the database along with their database triggers program units, whenever a new hotel reservation is created through a SQL insert statement, these rules will be executed through their associated triggers.
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Business rules specification and business processes modeling

Business rules specification and business processes modeling

Abstract: Up to date business is managed by large-scale different rules that regulate how the business acts and how it is structured. We find the rules in law, regulation, business policy document, procedures manual, system documentati- on, memoranda etc. These reference resources may provide the specific basis for a rule or offer a background, context or explanation of the business rule. in the recent years, it has been discovered that business rules constitute an entire body of knowledge that has not been adequately addressed in either the analysis or design phases of the information system develo- pment. Typically, business rules have been buried in the program code or in the database structures. The article deals with the business rules approach and rule technology and helps to identify the business and technical opportunities they afford to the company. it offers the business process model and its integration with business rules. This approach could provide business analysts with an essential approach to understanding, redesigning and communicating what really happens in the business processes (in agricultural area). it serves to understand the business impact of any change in small and medium- sized organizations. We use the UML notation and its business model extension.
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A Denotational Semantics Methodology (DSM) Approach for Business Processes Modeling

A Denotational Semantics Methodology (DSM) Approach for Business Processes Modeling

In our previous work on business process, we have provided the foundation for formalization based on the environment concept. The environment is defined as a set of observers whose values change according to the actions of tasks. From their values, observers are grouped to form a set of states. A state is defined as the characteristic of an environment from which the satisfaction of the goal associated to the business process is checked. In this paper, based on Denotational Semantics, we will highlight the semantics core features used in our modeling approach. By applying the resulting models in daily work, enterprises will improve their productivity and quality of service in order to deal with the competitive pressure of the network economy.
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