A total of 20 adult male Wistar rats, obtained from the animal house of the faculty of basic medical sciences Delta state university, with an average weight of 150 g were used for this study. They were divided into four groups made up of five rats each, fed growers mash, obtained from top feeds, Sapele, Delta State, Nigeria given water liberally and acclimatized for a week. Daily consumption of 0.3 mg/ml, 1.3 mg/ml, and 2.3 mg/ml of ZDV, obtained from the pharmacy unit of central hospital Benin city. In consonance with the administration by Sikka et al.  was administered orally to
Adult male wistar rats weighing 176 grams – 210 grams obtained from the animal house of the Department of Zoology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, were used for the experiment. The animals were housed in separate metallic cages and acclimatized for two weeks before the beginning of the study under standard laboratory conditions (temperature: 25±1°C, humidity: 50±5% and lighting: 12 h light/ 12 h dark cycle) in the animal house of the Department of Anatomy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi. The rats were fed a standard chow diet ad libitum with free access to water. This study was approved and registered by the Committee of Animal Investigations, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University.
Isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity is a major concern in patients taking anti tuberculosis treatment and prophylaxis. It can result in elevated serum liver enzymes and hepatic failure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phyto- chemicals and ameliorative effects of aqueous extracts of Brysocarpus coc- cineus on serum liver enzymes in isoniazid (INH) induced hepatotoxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Thirty six (36) adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of six rats each and were treated orally for 30 days as follows: Group I: 1 ml/kg of distilled water; group II: Isoniazid (27 mg/kg); group III: Isoniazid (27 mg/kg) + Livolin forte (20 mg/kg); group IV: Isoniazid (27 mg/kg) + B. coccineus (200 mg/kg); group V: Isoniazid (27 mg/kg) + B. coc- cineus (400 mg/kg); group VI: Isoniazid (27 mg/kg) + B. coccineus (800 mg/kg). At the end of the experiments, the Wistar rats were sacrificed and sera ob- tained for liver enzymes assay, whereas the liver tissue was also harvested and used for histological studies. Tanins, saponins, alkaloids and flavonoids were quantitatively present at 2.29%, 18.05%, 23.24% and 18.99%, respectively. There was an increase in the serum AST and ALT in the isoniazid treated group, which was reversed by livolin forte and the aqueous extracts at a dose of 200 mg/kg, however the extracts increased the serum levels of AST and ALT at higher doses, which was however not significant (p > 0.05) when compared to the controls. There was evidence of a reduction in hepatocytes How to cite this paper: Andrew, K., Em-
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Eighty (80) male albino rats of the Wistar strain weighing between 180 gm – 230 gm were used for this study. The rats were procured from the animal house of the Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka. They were housed in standard wooden cages, under natural 12-hour light and 12 hour darkness, and fed with commercial chow. They were given water ad-libitum. The animals were handled according to the guidelines for the care and use of Laboratory Animals by the Research Ethics Committee of Delta State University, Abraka.
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of ginger on the testes of adult male wistar rats. Twenty adult wistar rats weighing 190-215g were used for the study. They were designated into four groups (A, B, C & D) of five animals each. Group A animals served as the control and were orally administered 0.2ml of distilled water; the experimental groups (A, B, C & D) received 0.3ml, 0.6ml and 0.9ml of aqueous extract of ginger respectively for twenty one days. After the last administration, both group A and the experimental groups were weighed, sacrificed under the influence of chloroform vapour and dissected. The testes were harvested, weighed and fixed in10% formalin for histological studies. The final body weight of groups C & D decreased significantly (P<0.05) compare with the control Group A. The mean relative organ weight of groups C & D animals increased significantly (P<0.05) when compare with the control group A while group B had similar mean weight with the control group A. Histological findings revealed necrotic changes in the interstitial tissues, loss of spermatide and multinucleated gaint cells in groups C and D. From this study, aqueous extract of ginger consumed at high doses may cause histopathological lesions in the testicular cells.
Dare et al (2011) carried out a research on the effects of the aqueous extract of Anacardium occidentale leaf on the pregnancy outcome of female Wistar rats. From observations made, there was no difference in behavioral changes noticed between the control group and experimental groups. There was no mortality, treatment-related signs of maternal toxicity, stress or abnormal behavioral changes observed within the experimental groups throughout the gestation period. The body weight of the pregnant rats in control and experimental groups, measured on the first, eighth and fifteenth day of pregnancy shows variations. However, Gestation periods of the experimental rats were observed longer than the control which is normally 21 days. The pups born to rats/dams treated with the leaf extract had low mean birth weight and less crown-rump length in the experimental groups compared to the control group. Therefore, they concluded that consumption of the leaf extract during pregnancy have serious implications.
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The result of this research is in conformity with the study done by Stohs and Bagchi, (1995) which showed that pretreatment with Moringa oleifera leaf extract shield the testes from a variety of toxic substances  . Also it corroborates with the study by Godson et al., 2012 which showed that Moringa oleifera leaf extract had a protective effect against the toxicity which was evidenced by improvement in sperm parameters of rats treated with chromium and Moringa oleifera leaf extract  . Also, it is in accordance with the studies by Varsha et al., 2013 who stated that the extract was also observed to be devoid of any adverse effects and acute toxicity 
Abstract- Carica papaya is a major type of fruit that is been consumed for relaxation or medicinal purpose, and this plant is made of different parts which seen to have different health benefit. The study is aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed and peels (back) on the testes and sperm morphology of male albino wistar rats. 35 adult male wistar rats weighing 180g divided into seven (7) groups A-G were used for the study and the research lasted for 4weeks. Group A served as the control, while B, C, D for the seed and E, F, G for the peels at 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg for both plant part. At the 29 days the rats were weighed and sacrificed by chloroform sedation, testis were harvested and fix in bosin fluid for histological analysis, sperm morphology test was done. The result of this study showed that LD50 of both seed and peels of carica papaya are both toxic, as peels was found to be more toxic at 1000mg instant death. The result reveals significant decrease in weight across all experimental group especially in peels group, in the examined histo-pathological analysis showed no alteration or any pathological concern the slides in the seed and a slight changes in the peels group F and G. Conclusively the oral administration of aqueous extract of carica papaya seed and peels extract showed sign of toxicity in the experimental rats and there for can’t be used in treatment of fertility problems.
Objective(s): Silver nanoparticles show anti-fungal properties, and is widely used in medicine. In this research, the impacts of silver nanoparticles on the hepatic functional tests and changes in liver tissues in adult male rats were investigated. Methods: In this experimental study, 28 adult male Wistar rats, each weighing approximately 180-220 g were divided into 4 groups of 7: the control group, and the experimental groups 1 and 2 received silver nanoparticles that were synthesized at 75 seconds interval with doses of 25 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 14 days, respectively. Experimental group 3 received silver nanoparticles that were synthesized at 300 seconds interval with a dose of 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 14 days. At the end of experiment period, blood samples were obtained from their hearts, and serum levels of hepatic enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP), albumen and total protein were measured. In addition, possible histological changes in liver was studied after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan test.
In addition, the loss of arachidonic acid content of the synaptosomal membrane, induced by hyperglycemia and by transient cerebral ischemia, making the membrane more resistant to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress induced by chronic hyperglycemia directly can damage ionic homeostasis and membrane transport systems in the brain (10) and may be this is one of the reasons for hippocampal neurons death. Apoptosis in hyperglycemia has been ascribed to oxidative stress (2).How ever, other experimental studies on streptozotocin induced rat diabetic, showed pathological changes, such as so- called dark neurons and neuronal loss, in different cerebral regions, especially in the hippocampus. A dominant opinion is that hyperglycemia aggravates ischaemic brain damage in experimental STZ- diabetes with transient cerebral ischemia in rats (3).It has been suggested that hyperglycemia and ischaemia evoke the oxidative stress following an impairment of the respiratory chain in mitochondria and an overproduction of the reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are considered as a main factor in the pathogenesis on neuronal death (3).The other reason for neuronal death in hyperglycemia is Iscemia. Some studies shown that there is differences in the neural death between hyperglycemia and Ischaemia (3).Pathomechanism of degenerative changes and neuronal loss through apoptosis or necrosis is not clear until now. It has been suggested that changes in intracellular calcium concentrations in oxidative stress may indicate the pathway of cell death .It is suggested that more sever injury with high intracellular calcium concentration (Ca+2) promotes necrotic cell death, where low (Ca+2) and milder injury promotes cell death through apoptosis(29). Studies on antioxidative treatment would deliver further data important in the exploration of neuronal death in diabetes and ischemia.
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Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and biological system’s ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the development of myriad of diseases . During stress, in- creased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to increased lipid pe- roxidation  . The increased serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers; malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity seen in the re- straint stress rats is indicative of enhanced oxidative stress from the chronic stress induction. Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis is asso- ciated with acceleration in oxidative stress via unbalanced redox, including ex- cessive production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species   . This is in agreement with the work of  and  who observed a significant increase
In order to assess the impact of the early and late tissue repair of Kombucha extract on incised wounds in animal models, 24 Wistar male rats were used and divided into three groups: one of the groups received a topical cure on the wound with Brosin, and the other received the Kombucha extract. The third group did not receive any treatment, working as a control group. The objective was to evaluate and compare the Kombucha extract with a commercial healing product. Each one of the animals took a 1 cm wound in depth and length at a femur level on a side of the left thigh. The healing process was evaluated on an early and late phase by performing a morphometric and morphological analysis under the assumption of a faster recovery with the use of Kombucha. The results showed that there was a poor recovery in the control group. On the other hand, the other two groups, Brosin and Kombucha, were similar, with little inflammation and a high cell prolifera- tion and migration along with basal array pulls of elastin and collagen which served for angioge- nesis, repair and renovation of the new tissue.
Effect of NOS inhibitors on systolic blood pressure Many experiments observed that NO-deficiency is tightly related to the development of persistent hyper- tension. Several NOS inhibitors are used to study NO- deficiency. L-NAME is a widely used NOS blocker, being a non-specific NOS inhibitor. Less frequently, 7-NI is used as a specific blocker of nNOS. Long-term adminis- tration of high doses of L-NAME leads to continuous in- crease in blood pressure and induces structural changes in the cardiovascular system . Hypertrophy of heart and vessel wall is observed after chronic treatment with L-NAME. On the contrary, acute or chronic oral admin- istration of 7-NI does not evoke changes in blood pres- sure, but hypertrophy of the heart and vessel wall is present [15–18, 20]. We observed different effects of 7-NI and L-NAME on blood pressure. While 7-NI did not alter blood pressure within the 6 weeks of treatment in either age group, L-NAME significantly increased the Table 2 The age-dependent effect on AT1R/NADPH oxidase and the redox status in Wistar rats
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The hippocampus is necessary for normal cognitive function, especially for processing recognition memory and transferring short-term memory items into long term storage. Hyperglycemia can lead to functional and structural deficits in central nervous system. In the present study the effects of various rates of hyperglycemia on CA2 area of hippocampus neuronal density in male Wistar rats was vestigated.
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The present study investigated the Thiamin deficient in male wistar rats. Male albino rats weighing between 150-200 gm were used. They were divided into two groups and allowed to acclimatize to the new environment conditions of our laboratory for one week before use. They had free access to food and water. The standard group animals were received specified diet (Control rats) (C groups). This provides them the essential dietary requirements. The test animals received polished rice and drinking water was made available to animals all the time. The Serum glutamate oxalo acetate transminase (SGOT), Serum glutamate pyruvate transminase (SGPT), Total protein, Albumin, Serum cholesterol Serum Triglycerides Blood urea, Hemoglobin, High density lipoprotein (HDL) and rectal temperature of the rats were determined in serum, body weight and temperature recorded every alternative day. In the present study, the thiamin deficient rats showed the increased levels of SGOT, SGPT, pyruvic acid, total protein, Blood urea Hemoglobin, Serum triglycerides Serum Cholesterol and decreased body weights, HDL, Albumin and rectal temperature when compared with the normal diet received rats. Thiamin deficiency is due to excessive washing of rice, and low intake of fruits and vegetables.
with water maintained at a temperature of 25±1°C. The hidden escape platform (diame- ter: 9 cm) was submerged 2 cm below the sur- face of the water and was invisible from the water level. Swimming paths were registered by a computerized video imaging analysis system. All rats received four trials per day for four con- secutive days with a constant interval of 1 h. The animals were gently placed in water in one of four quadrants, facing the wall of the pool, and the starting quadrant was varied randomly over the trials. Rats were allowed a maximum of 90 s to find the escape platform, where it remained for 30 s. Rats that failed to locate the platform at the end of 90 s were manually guid- ed to the platform. For all training trials, swim speed and escape latency before reaching the platform were measured. All space probe test- ing consisted of a 60 s trial with the platform removed and conducted immediately after the four-day period. Time spent in the target plat- form location and the number of target cross- ings over the previous location of the target platform was recorded.
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Following similar procedures as Weathington and Cooke (2011), a rat model of juvenile social subjugation was used to elicit a social-stress response. One additional control group was added to eliminate potential confounds. A Benign Control (BC) was used to differentiate the stress of interaction with an unfamiliar conspecific and the stress of an aggressive adult male. A Handled Control (HC) Condition was included, as previously, to rule out the influence of handling stress when subjects are moved between cages.
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(Table 1 and 2) represent the activities of marker enzymes (CK, CKMB, Troponin T, AST, ALT, ALP and LDH) in serum and heart tissues of control and experimental animals. There was a significant (P˂ 0.05) rise in the levels of these diagnostics marker enzymes in the serum of group II, ISO administered rats as compared to that of group I (control) rats. These marker enzymes serve as sensitive indices to assess the severity of myocardial infarction. The administration of EWP (group III) showed a significant decrease in the activities of these enzymes in systemic circulation as compared with group II animals. At the same time the group V animals did not showed any adverse changes with the parameters tested.
Abstract: Methamphetamine is sometimes prescribed by doctors for specific diseases that with the entering the central nervous system caused by a sudden release of categulamine and particularly dopamine in the brain. It stimulates brain cells, enhancing aggressive mood and increased body movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate, has been the effects of methamphetamine on passive avoidance learning and memory in adult male Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats of rats in the weight range (180-220gr) (N=6) was Divided into healthy group - control group (saline received) and dose received groups (1.5, 3, 5 mg/kg). Half an hour before the test, intraperitoneally injection was done and after the test, every day at specific times for long-term memory test for one week Injection was done. Results have shown that the incidence of passive avoidance between healthy and control groups there was no significant difference but there is a significantly decreased between the control group and the group receiving methamphetamine. Increase learning and short-term memory and reduced long term memory and passive avoidance learning mechanism is probably due to the involvement of the hippocampus in learning and memory consolidation and short term memory convert to long-term memory could potential mechanism of methamphetamine- induced damage to hippocampal neurons, particularly CA1 neurons. Meanwhile, short-term memory-enhancing effects of methamphetamine can result in Increase cortisol is also a short-term strengthens to the memory but in long term it will damage and weaken the memory.
In an attempt to evaluate the acclaimed aphrodisiac activity of ethanol leaf extract of Piliostigma thoningii, twenty (20) male wistar albino rats were weighed and grouped into four study groups (A-D) of five animals each. Rats in group A (control) were administered with 1ml of distilled water orally while those in groups B, C, and D were given same volume orally, corresponding to 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively for 21 days. Sexual behaviour parameters were monitored in the male rats for 3 days after administration by pairing with a receptive female (1:1). The male serum testosterone concentration was also determined. Cage side observation on the animals revealed prospective behaviours by the receptive female rats and pre- copulatory behaviours by the extract-treated male rats. The extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (P < 0.05) increased the frequencies of mount and intromission. In addition, the ejaculation latency was significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged. The latencies of mount and intromission were reduced signifi-cantly (P<0.05) whereas ejaculation frequency increased. The extract also reduced the post- ejaculatory interval of the wistar albino rats. Computed percentages of index of libido, mounted, intromitted, ejaculated and copulatory efficiency were higher in the extract- treated animals than the control whereas the intercopulatory interval decreased significantly. The extract also significantly (P<0.05) increased the serum testosterone content of the animals. Data from this study suggest that the ethanol extract of Piliostigma thonningii leaf enhanced sexual behaviour in male rats.