Adult Stage

Top PDF Adult Stage:

Hypergravity from conception to adult stage: effects on contractile properties and skeletal muscle phenotype

Hypergravity from conception to adult stage: effects on contractile properties and skeletal muscle phenotype

expression of myofibrillar proteins: troponins present slow-to- slower transitions and MHC isoform pattern are reduced to the single expression of the slow MHCI isoform. In this context, other periods of hypergravity initiation could be further examined with the aim of understanding which critical steps of rat gestation, birth and/or development influence the transformations induced by changes in gravity factor. Indeed, since the muscles in our study were removed at the adult stage, we could not determine whether or not the MHC plasticity under centrifugation went through remodelling steps including modified early-expressed myosin isoforms, like embryonic or neonatal MHC (Martrette et al., 1998).

10 Read more

The ammonoids from the Argiles de Timimoun of Timimoun (Early and Middle Vis�an; Gourara, Algeria)

The ammonoids from the Argiles de Timimoun of Timimoun (Early and Middle Vis�an; Gourara, Algeria)

Diagnosis. Gourarites with major ontogenetic changes of conch geometry: conch evolute in the juvenile and intermediate stage (from 1.5– 12 mm dm) and then becoming subevolute at 20 mm dm; conch thickly discoidal in the early juvenile stage and thinly pachyconic in larger stages with a trend towards a thickly discoidal conch in the adult stage; aperture very low in juveniles (2–12 mm dm) and then rapidly increas- ing (moderately high 20 mm dm); umbilical margin rounded in juveniles and subangular or angular in later stages; umbilicus rapidly becoming narrow by strong whorl overlap. Steinkern with shallow, slightly biconvex constrictions and traces of biconvex growth lines. Suture line with very narrow, slightly diverging external lobe with weakly sinuous flanks and low median saddle; ventrolateral saddle broadly rounded; adventive lobe V-shaped, almost symmetric.

64 Read more

Evaluation of an FDA approved library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections

Evaluation of an FDA approved library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections

observations are offered for discussion. First, A. ceylani- cum L3 were selected for the primary screen since, com- pared to adult stages, their use offers many advantages, mainly in terms of ethical considerations, numbers avail- able, and ease of provision [14]. However, larval stages may not always be equally as sensitive as the target para- site stage, the adult worms. For example, the veterinary anthelmintic, monepantel, lacks activity against A. ceylani- cum L3, while it is active against the adult worm [15]. Hence, larval-based assays should be validated in terms of how larval sensitivity compares to the sensitivity of adult worms. Additional file 1: Table S1 summarizes the activity of all 54 A. ceylanicum L3 active drugs (including topical and toxic drugs) against adult A. ceylanicum, T. muris L1 and adult T. muris. In general, A. ceylanicum L3 were more sensitive in our assay to the test compounds than the adult stages. Increased sensitivities of larval forms over adult worms have been reported earlier including for S. mansoni schistosomula [16]. Though a high false positive rate (larval activity does not always translate to adult activ- ity) is not optimally cost-effective, the risk of losing inter- esting compounds is minimal, and in any case, larval pre- screens are still more cost-effective and more ethical than conducting the entire screen on adult stage worms. Table 2 In vivo studies against H. polygyrus and T. muris

10 Read more

The turtles from the upper Eocene, Osona County (Ebro Basin, Catalonia, Spain): new material and its faunistic and environmental context

The turtles from the upper Eocene, Osona County (Ebro Basin, Catalonia, Spain): new material and its faunistic and environmental context

developed or absent anterior carapace protrusion, generally showing a wide and short anterior nuchal notch (in contrast medially enlarged with development of elbowed peripher- als 1 in the Allopleuron-Osonachelus clade) and lacking a lateral or a clear lateral incurvation of the anterior periph- erals. The adults have pedomorphic nuchal fontanelles, lo- cated between the nuchal, neural 1 and costals 1. The plas- tron of all these forms is wide and nearly flat. The bridge is short for the plastral width and length. The plastral surface of the members of Toxochelyidae is relatively massive, being more ossified (i.e., the hyo- and hypoplastral basic hatchling strings are more taken inside the dermal callosity at the adult stage), resulting in smaller lateral and central fontanelles. The humerus, pelvis and femur of the toxochelyids have the most primitive morphotype for the aquatic–coastal locomo- tion known for the Cheloniidae (showing a humerus longer than the femur, but a short humeral intertrochanteric fossa, a poorly elongated trochanter major and a ventral inclina- tion of the minor trochanter, which is not bent on the in- tertrochanteric fossa and lacks a well-developed deltopec- toral crest), and the skull lacks a true secondary palate (al- though, ventrally, the palatines may reach the vomer at least by a point in the concave palate) (Zangerl, 1953b, 1971). Some North American forms diversified in relation to Tox- ochelys (Zangerl, 1953b). Thus, taxa such as Thinochelys and Porthochelys lack a nuchal fontanelle. However, they display the other shell and paddle characteristics (but poorly known) described for Toxochelys. Some of them present specializa- tions such as elongation of the carapace and plastron. But this elongation is not as strong as in the Cretaceous–Tertiary Eu- ropean Cheloniidae such as Allopleuron and Osonachelus not linking the low degree of ossification present in these both taxa. Among them, Lophochelyinae (sensu stricto Zangerl, 1953b) present apomorphic strong carinae, knobs and den- ticulations, besides the eventual loss of nuchal fontanelles in some representatives (i.e., Prionochelys). Other members (e.g., Ctenochelys) develop a wider ventral union of palatine and vomer, the palatine triturating part being at the level of the maxillary triturating part. This characteristic was recog- nized as one element of the first step to constitute a secondary palate (Hirayama, 1995, 1997; Zangerl, 1953b) (Supplement, Sect. S1).

48 Read more

Protection infrastructures and methods for reducing the impacts downstream of hydropower plants

Protection infrastructures and methods for reducing the impacts downstream of hydropower plants

The impact of hydropeaking, for example, on trout habitat is seasonal and magnified in winter (Person, 2013). For the adult stage an increase of stress is observed (Taylor and Cooke, 2012). The deposition of the eggs is strongly influenced by clogging effects of the substrate (Tanno, 2012) and because of the variation of flow rate a catastrophic drift and a subsequent stranding of the eggs themselves can be observed (Riedl and Peter, 2013). Finally, individuals in juvenile life stage prefer shallow habitats near the riverbank, which are highly unstable in hydropeaking regimes with important variations of flow velocity and water depth (Korman and Campana, 2009). However, the severity of the impact of hydropeaking strongly depends on the morphology and on the hydraulics of river and it is therefore closely site specific.

138 Read more

Radiation induced sterility for pupal and adult stages of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

Radiation induced sterility for pupal and adult stages of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

The choice of developmental stage for irradiation in an SIT programme depends on numerous factors including handling, survival, sterility, competitiveness and release methodology and this study has focused on the first three factors. The mosquitoes in this study were irradiated in small numbers and both stages survived the handling and irradiation process well. Up-scaling the irradiation proc- ess for mass production remains a challenge. Pupal irradi- ation has a number of advantages over adults but not enough resources have been directed to the development of large-scale irradiation devices to draw conclusions. The longevity of irradiated males was similar to the con- trols in the adult stage. In the pupal stage, overall similar or higher survival was observed compared to the control. The possibility that irradiation has a beneficial effect on longevity in the pupal stage cannot be excluded from these results, yet longevity was not measured under stress- ful conditions. In the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis cap- itata (Wiedemann), it is known that under stress the possible negative effects of radiation tend to become more pronounced. Quality control testing in Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programmes measures longevity after the dep- rivation of food for some time [37]. Although mosquitoes are more sensitive to complete food deprivation, similar tests can be devised for mosquitoes to assess the impact of irradiation.

10 Read more

Harvested populations are more variable only in more variable environments

Harvested populations are more variable only in more variable environments

A series of analytical studies that support the hypothe- sis that harvesting causes population variability in the wild, used a census of very young larval fish stages as their index of population abundance (CalCOFI Ichthy- oplankton database) (Hsieh et al. 2006; Anderson et al. 2008). A case is then made that the biomass of larval fish is a “well known proxy for current (spawning) adult bio- mass” (Anderson et al. 2008; CEFAS, 2012). In our data we found no statistically significant evidence that harvest- ing adult mites in variable environments increases egg or juvenile stage variation. Neonate mortality is high in the mite model system as it is in marine fishes, up to 90%, and therefore egg counts are a best indicator of the abun- dance of the first mite juvenile stage (Benton et al. 2002; Cameron and Benton 2004; Ozgul et al. 2012). Where harvesting adults in a constant environment led to increased juvenile stage variability, this did not lead to significant increases in adult stage variance. Therefore, we would urge caution in the interpretation of studies on only egg or juvenile stage abundances in harvested popu- lations for two reasons. Firstly compensatory changes in survival, growth, recruitment, or species interactions in later stages are likely to mask or modify the abundance and variability of any later stages, whether in model, microcosm, or wild populations (Bystrom et al. 1998; Persson et al. 2000; Ratikainen et al. 2008; Wikstrom et al. 2012). Secondly, despite its wide use due to no other fisheries independent information being available, a number of biases have been identified and cautions issued on the links between ichthyoplankton survey data and adult biomass in a variety of harvested species (Bernal et al. 2012; Kraus et al. 2012).

13 Read more

Metabolic turnover of carbohydrates during pupal adult transition stage in the silk worm, bombyx mori

Metabolic turnover of carbohydrates during pupal adult transition stage in the silk worm, bombyx mori

spontaneous metamorphosis for the formation of the imago from the fasting pupa; the higher glycogen content indicates that the pupal fat body is metabolically more active in deposition and utilization. Decreased level of glycogen in the Fat body later in mid-pupal stage is because of histolysis or remodeling of fat body. Fat body glycogen then was added up from day-5 to day-7 of pupa.may be due to re-association of fat body cells, redeposit of glycogen into the metamorphosing fat body cells. Again after day-7, there is a decline in the level of glycogen may be due to histogenesis of adult tissues, which needs energy.(Malik and Malik, 2009) reported that pupal development involves significant synthetic activity in relation to reorganization of larval tissues into imaginal structures, mainly from fat body glycogenolysis. The decrease continues upto adult stage but the decline was more in adult female than the adult male. This may be due to mobilization of glycogen to the eggs via haemolymph. Haemolymph glycogen levels showed contrasting trend to that of fat body during first 3 days of pupal development, indicating mobilization of haemolymph glycogen into the fat body for storage. The decline from day-7 onwards indicates diffusion of haemolymph glycogen to other tissues such as gut and imaginal structures. Stage specific changes in the haemolymph glycogen levels are also observed (Malik and Malik, 2009). Like fat body, the haemolymph glycogen level also declined during pupal adult transition but significantly observed in adult males than in females. The contrasting trend between the haemolymph and fat body’s glycogen levels in the adult males and females established a reciprocal relationship between them. Glycogen in the fat body and haemolymph decreases towards pupal-adult ecdysis, in association with chitin synthesis, development of the imaginal organs and synthesis of trehalose as a flight fuel in the newly ecdysed adult. In the adult moth, glycogen serves to provide the necessary substrates for the development and maturation of the egg and to meet the energy requirements for mating and egg laying activity.

7 Read more

The ammonoids from the Argiles de Teguentour of Oued Temertasset (early Late Tournaisian; Mouydir, Algeria)

The ammonoids from the Argiles de Teguentour of Oued Temertasset (early Late Tournaisian; Mouydir, Algeria)

Diagnosis. Temertassetia with thickly pachyconic conch in the juvenile stage and continuously becoming more slender and being thinly discoi- dal at 28 mm dm; conch subinvolute in all growth stages with a weak trend towards a widening of the umbilicus in the adult stage; umbilical margin subangular, umbilical wall oblique and flat; aperture moderate throughout ontogeny without changes. Steinkern with slightly biconvex constrictions that extend, in the adult stage, with very low projections and a shallow lateral sinus across the flanks forming a deep and narrow ventral sinus; faint riblets between the constrictions on the flanks, additional riblets intercalated in the midflank area. Suture line with narrow V-shaped external lobe and low median saddle; ventrolateral saddle almost symmetric, broadly rounded; adventive lobe V-shaped, acute.

118 Read more

Pupil adult ratio differences and educational progress over Reception and Key Stage 1

Pupil adult ratio differences and educational progress over Reception and Key Stage 1

The composition of the class, for example, in terms of characteristics of the children, can affect the relevance of training of adult support. In one class there were many children considered to have special needs. The school funded classroom support for just four hours a week and this was the same for each class regardless of numbers of SEN children. The teacher found this inadequate, especially as last year she apparently had many more hours support for her class. It was felt that the less able children suffered, for example because adult help during group work was not available. The support included an Educational Care Officer (ECO), who had no particular special needs qualifications, and worked with individuals for 3 hours a week, and an NNEB qualified helper for 1 hour a week. One child observed had difficulties at home and at school. The teacher knew about this in detail and was able to respond sympathetically, but due to lack of support his educational needs were not being met. The child of average ability who was observed also had difficulties as he lacked confidence in his work and socially. He was having a particularly bad day when the observer was there and the teacher was able to sit next to him and talk to him quietly keeping him on task throughout the afternoon. This may not have been possible with more children in the class. It can be deduced that with effective help in the class the needs of the other children would also be met, and a TA could have sat with the child, thus freeing the teacher to interact with other children.

106 Read more

Plasticity of noddy parents and offspring to sea-surface
temperature anomalies

Plasticity of noddy parents and offspring to sea-surface temperature anomalies

Behavioral and/or developmental plasticity is crucial for resisting the impacts of environmental stressors. We investigated the plasticity of adult foraging behavior and chick development in an offshore foraging seabird, the black noddy (Anous minutus), during two breeding seasons. The first season had anomalously high sea-surface temperatures and ‘low’ prey availability, while the second was a season of below average sea-surface temperatures and ‘normal’ food availability. During the second season, supplementary feeding of chicks was used to manipulate offspring nutritional status in order to mimic conditions of high prey availability. When sea-surface temperatures were hotter than average, provisioning rates were significantly and negatively impacted at the day-to-day scale. Adults fed chicks during this low-food season smaller meals but at the same rate as chicks in the unfed treatment the following season. Supplementary feeding of chicks during the second season also resulted in delivery of smaller meals by adults, but did not influence feeding rate. Chick begging and parental responses to cessation of food supplementation suggested smaller meals fed to artificially supplemented chicks resulted from a decrease in chick demands associated with satiation, rather than adult behavioral responses to chick condition. During periods of low prey abundance, chicks maintained structural growth while sacrificing body condition and were unable to take advantage of periods of high prey abundance by increasing growth rates. These results suggest that this species expresses limited plasticity in provisioning behavior and offspring development. Consequently, responses to future changes in sea-surface temperature and other environmental variation may be limited.

10 Read more

The new and reinstated genera of agglutinated foraminifera published between 1986 and 1996

The new and reinstated genera of agglutinated foraminifera published between 1986 and 1996

Test uniserial with base attached by one or more chambers, later growing free from the sediment, cylindrical, rarely bifurcating. Numerous chambers broader than high, with almost constant shape and size. Terminal face of the last chamber is flat to slightly convex, with 6 to 14 apertural openings in the adult, arranged in a circle, with 1 or 2 openings in the centre. Wall agglutinated, consisting of quartz grains and calcareous cement, alveolar, with three layers. The exostratum is comprised of quartz grains with a small amount of calcareous cement. The mesostratum is made of quartz grains scattered in a large amount of cement. The thin endostratum is composed of microcrystalline calcite. Tubules penetrate the meso- stratum and pass into alveoles in its upper layer. Alveoles open out among the quartz grains of the exostratum. Test interior is regularly labyrinthic. In the centre of the test there is an axial column com- posed of segments which are components of the individual chambers. The segments have the shape of truncated cones, narrower at the base. During ontogeny the cones develop 1 or 2 internal cup- shaped cavities emerging in the centre of the apertu- ral face as one or two central apertural openings. Turonian; Czech Repubic.

37 Read more

Role of Abiotic Factors on the Development and Life History of the Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

Role of Abiotic Factors on the Development and Life History of the Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

The presence of light significantly affected the pupal stage of development, specifically, those pupae reared in the presence of light emerged 1-1.5 days before pupae reared in complete darkness. It is not clear why pupae reared in complete darkness only took a day to day and a half longer to emerge than those reared in the presence of light but perhaps the adults are able to detect infrared light. Shintani et al. (2009) found the carabid beetle, Leptocarabus kumagaii (Kimura & Komiya) (Coleoptera: Carabidae), when exposed to white light after surgical removal of the compound eye, is unable to respond to photoperiodism. They also determined the stemmata in the immatures enable the larvae to respond to photoperiodism, but the stemmata derived organs in the adult brain are not necessary for photoperiodism (Shintani, Shiga and Numata 2009). Perhaps, in H. illucens, the stemmata in the larvae cannot detect certain wavelengths of light. In the same study, Shintani et al. (2009) found that some larvae did not respond to photoperiods of blue, green or yellow light. Therefore the photoreception of the stemma ta may differ from the photoreception of the compound eye. Hermetia illucens differ from other Dipteran species reared in colony in that mating is not stimulated by some artificial lights (Tomberlin and Sheppard 2002; Zhang et al.unpublished) and therefore the compound eye of the black soldier fly may be unique in its photoreception. As pupae complete metamorphosis and the photoreceptors in the compound eye develop, infrared light rays emitted from the night vision goggles may be detectable by the non-emerged adult and serve as an emergence cue.

168 Read more

Pharmacotherapeutic considerations for chronic pain in chronic kidney and end-stage renal disease

Pharmacotherapeutic considerations for chronic pain in chronic kidney and end-stage renal disease

Atkinson et al thoroughly reviewed literature on com- monly used opioids in the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) setting and ultimately hypothesized that opioids primarily undergoing hepatic phase II metabolism that yields inactive metabolites (such as tapentadol) are highly protein bound, have larger molecular weights, and have higher lipophilicity (to avoid being dialyzed), should be considered first in this population of patients. 9

5 Read more

Inferring muscular ground patterns in Bivalvia: Myogenesis in the scallop Nodipecten nodosus

Inferring muscular ground patterns in Bivalvia: Myogenesis in the scallop Nodipecten nodosus

After settlement, metamorphosis leads to rather abrupt modifications of the myoanatomy of Nodipecten nodosus. In early metamorphic stages, the larval retrac- tors (velum retractors and ventral larval retractors) and the anterior adductor are under degeneration (Fig. 3a, b). Juveniles show a large posterior adductor muscle with both smooth and striated fibers (Fig. 3c). The foot muscu- lature, composed of a foot retractor and a pedal plexus, is more prominent and exclusively composed of smooth fibers (Fig. 3b, d). The pedal plexus is formed by several long, thin bundles in the distal region of the foot (Fig. 3d). The foot retractor is a compact muscle mass mainly formed by fibers attached to the shell in the posterior adductor region (Fig. 3b, d), i.e., in the same region where one of the ventral bundles of the foot retractor is present in the pediveliger stage (arrow in Fig. 2d). The other muscle bundle composing the foot retractor in pedi- veligers (from the medio-ventral region; arrowhead in Fig. 2d) is lost. After metamorphosis, the foot is shifted towards the adult anterior region, thus the foot retractor crosses the adult anterior-posterior body axis. Muscles at the postmetamorphic mantle margin are similar to those present in the pediveliger stage, including margin-parallel and retractor bundles (Fig. 3d, Additional file 3).

13 Read more

ITS2 as a molecular marker for the identification of Diatraea saccharalis and D. flavipennella and possible infection with Cotesia spp.

ITS2 as a molecular marker for the identification of Diatraea saccharalis and D. flavipennella and possible infection with Cotesia spp.

Both species can occur at the same time in the sugarcane field, and all developmental stages can be found simultaneously through the year. In the egg stage, the morphology of both species is identical with white color in the early age, becoming orange and dark before hatching. The larval stage is very similar in both species with slight differences between them, D. flavipennella presents a brownish yellow head capsule while D. saccharalis presents a brownish head capsule, but in both, we observed a yellow body with brown spots in each segment. The pupa is elongated and slender, and yellowish brown to mahogany brown in color in both species. The adults are yellowish with black spots in the forewings in both species (Capinera, 2001; Freitas et al., 2006).

11 Read more

Assessment of Factors that Predict a Positive Circumferential Resection Margin (CRM) in Rectal Adenocarcinoma

Assessment of Factors that Predict a Positive Circumferential Resection Margin (CRM) in Rectal Adenocarcinoma

All consenting adult patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the rectum, and who had received neo adjuvant therapy in the form of chemotherapy, radiation therapy or both and are planned for rectal resection under Surgery Unit 2 of CMC Vellore, between January 2017and August 2018 were included in the study. Consecutive patients who fit the inclusion criteria were recruited in the said time period. These patients were all biopsy proven to have adenocarcinoma rectum from mucosal biopsies done prior to the operation. There was no control group in this study. Neither was there an exclusion criterion.

120 Read more

<p>Development and Pretesting of a New Functional-Based Health Literacy Measurement Tool for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Asthma Management</p>

<p>Development and Pretesting of a New Functional-Based Health Literacy Measurement Tool for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Asthma Management</p>

stages. The second cohort of patients (9 COPD and 14 asthma) was then asked to provide suggestions to improve the preliminary version of the tool in terms of formatting, relevance, and practicality. Lastly, the passages and related items for each topic were revised and organized by a professional adult patient educator to improve the tone and presentation of the items in our tool for each topic. At the fi nal stage before the piloting with a large national sample, the preliminary version of the tool was further assessed during a pretesting stage by 75 (28 males, 47 females) asthma (n=56) and COPD (n=19) patients from 3 specialty clinics for relevance, clarity, and dif fi culty. These participants were recruited in each collaborating specialty clinics by the direct involvement of co-investigators. At each site, experienced research staff obtained informed consent and then conducted the pretesting stage and. The collected data were then transferred to the Vancouver site via a secure channel (Dropbox) for data entry and analysis.

13 Read more

Transcriptomic analysis of stage 1 versus advanced adult granulosa cell tumors

Transcriptomic analysis of stage 1 versus advanced adult granulosa cell tumors

the NanoDrop ND-1000 Spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific, MA). 600 ng of cRNA for each sample was then hybridized onto a separate array for 17 h at 65°C and washed following the manufacturer’s instructions. Slides were scanned using an Agilent DNA Microarray Scanner (G5205B) (Agilent) using the one-color scan setting for ‘4 × 44K’ slides. The scanned images were analysed with Feature Extraction Software 9.5.3.1 (Agilent) using default parameters to obtain background-subtracted and spatially detrended processed signal intensities. Data from feature extraction were imported into GeneSpring GX13.1 (Agilent) for analysis. Data was normalised using the quantile normalisation method and tested for significant differences between stage 1 and stage 3 aGCT by performing a moderated t-test with the P value (≤ 0.05 deemed significant) computed using the asymptotic method. Genes which also had a fold change ≥ 2.0 were then subjected to Westfall Young Permutative multiple testing correction. All data produced was MIAME-compliant.

13 Read more

Sea lice monitoring on Atlantic salmon farms in New Brunswick, Canada : comparing audit and farm staff counts

Sea lice monitoring on Atlantic salmon farms in New Brunswick, Canada : comparing audit and farm staff counts

coefficient indicating that audit technicians generally reported higher counts than farm staff. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between counter types for the AF stage. These findings may be related to the fact that the AF stage is larger in size and therefore can be easily distinguished by all counters, in comparison to larval or pre-adult stages which are smaller and can be more easily overlooked by inexperienced counters. In contrast, Heuch et al. (2009) did not find a significant effect of counter type (trained teams vs. farm staff) in chalimus or PAAM counts. However, in our study audits and farm staff comparisons were made at the cage level, whereas counter comparison by Heuch et al. (2009) were made at the site level. Another study that evaluated the effect of counter type was implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, BC, Canada (Saksida, Constantine, Karreman & Donald 2007a), and reported no significant differences between counters in the majority (28/32) of the comparisons of lice by stage using mean values averaged over all farms in a given quarter, with farm staff estimates being higher than audit estimates in the majority of cases where disagreement occurred. Direct comparison between the current study and the other two studies cannot be made due to variations in the level at which counts were reported (i.e. cage vs. site vs. all sites in a quarter), however aggregating data at the site level is expected to obscure some variations between counters that may occur at the cage level. More detailed comparisons are possible when assessments are made at the cage level.

17 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...