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Demonstration of robust water recycling: Risk Assessment of the Removal of Chemicals of Concern in the Davis Station Advanced Water Treatment Plant. A report of a study funded by the Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence

Demonstration of robust water recycling: Risk Assessment of the Removal of Chemicals of Concern in the Davis Station Advanced Water Treatment Plant. A report of a study funded by the Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence

The risk of spikes in chemicals in the influent to the treatment process is once again exacerbated for small communities. The QMRA study conducted for pathogens can be used as an analogue here, although two factors significantly change the risk profile relative to the pathogen case. The first of these is that highly concentrated chemical inputs (i.e. a single chemical spill) may induce a toxic effect in the biomass used to achieve secondary treatment and second, the number of barriers designed specifically for chemical removal in AWTP’s is usually far fewer than that for pathogens. As such, the ability to achieve an overall LRV through multiple barriers is far more restricted than for pathogens. In short, the need for source control is heightened in a small community although it is not well documented what level of source control is required to ensure a reproducible feed for an AWTP in a small community. As with the pathogen analogy, a 1 kg spill of a highly toxic chemical into the sewer collection system of a city of 1 million people will be diluted by a factor of 10,000 relative to a community of 100. However, in the absence of source control in the small community, the base chemical load from household chemicals such as disinfectants, cleaners, personal care products and pharmaceuticals is likely to be similar. Therefore, it is the spill situation that is of greatest concern. An example of the case for a small community is typified by the design of the AWTP for Davis Station that is the subject of the work herein. The plant is a seven barrier process with ozone, micro-filtration (MF), biologically activated carbon (BAC), reverse osmosis (RO), ultra-violet radiation (UV), calcite dissolution and chlorination (Cl 2 ). The feed to the AWTP once installed at Davis Station, passes

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Demonstration of Robust Water Recycling: Operational Robustness of the Davis Station Advanced Water Treatment Plant. A report of a study funded by the Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence.

Demonstration of Robust Water Recycling: Operational Robustness of the Davis Station Advanced Water Treatment Plant. A report of a study funded by the Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence.

that some aspects of the trial operation were not as designed. The most obvious of these was that the water quality, particularly in terms of parameters such as suspended solids, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were higher than would be expected for a feed from a MBR. Ammonia levels were also higher than would be expected of a plant operating biological nitrogen removal (BNR) in association with a MBR, as will be the case once the AWTP is installed at Davis Station. Despite these challenges, the water quality was only outside of the maximum expectations as prescribed in the functional design for short periods during the trial [1]. All sensors associated with feed quality, including turbidity, phosphate and ammonia, were under the control of TasWater and not able to be validated regularly by project personnel. The buffer tank with high and low level AWTP control was absent and replaced by a ‘virtual’ tank in the SCADA system, with virtual fill rate parameters utilised to simulate a range of feed rate scenario’s and operational production times.

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Demonstration of robust water recycling: Feedwater Report. A report of a study funded by the Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence

Demonstration of robust water recycling: Feedwater Report. A report of a study funded by the Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence

Phosphorus and alkalinity were not part of the intensive feedwater sampling program because of the additional time required to undertake these measurements, and because neither have ADWG concentration limits. However, both can effect treatment plant performance, particularly with regard to fouling of the reverse osmosis membrane. Data was obtained for feedwater concentrations during the demonstration trials and this data is included in this report. Phosphorus was measured by ICP at Victoria University and alkalinity was determined by TasWater’s NATA accredited analytical laboratory at Self’s Point. The reverse osmosis (RO) system in the Advanced Water Treatment Plant (AWTP) was expected to remove both phosphorus and alkalinity, with final alkalinity in the product water being determined by efficiency of the calcite contactor.

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A Study of Implementation of Preventive Maintenance Programme in Nigeria Power Industry – Egbin Thermal Power Plant, Case Study

A Study of Implementation of Preventive Maintenance Programme in Nigeria Power Industry – Egbin Thermal Power Plant, Case Study

Preventive Maintenance Programme consists of actions that improve the condition of system elements for performance optimization and aversion of unintended system failure or collapse. It involves inspection, ser- vicing, repairing or replacing physical components of machineries, plant and equipment by following the prescribed schedule. It is commonly agreed nowadays that preventive maintenance programme can be very successful in improving equipment reliability while minimizing maintenance related costs. The availability of a complex system, such as steam turbine power plant is strongly associated with its parts reliability and maintenance policy. That policy not only has influence on the parts’ repair time but also on the parts’ reli- ability affecting the system integrity, degradation and availability. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of Preventive Maintenance Programme (PMP) implementation on the performance of the Egbin 1320 MW thermal power plant in Nigeria. This paper considers the reliability and availability of the 6 × 220 MW steam turbine units installed in the power station. The reliability and availability of the turbines are computed based on a five-year failure database. The availability analysis of available data from 2005 to 2009 shows different results for each unit and variation in availability for different year: availability of unit1 varies be- tween 59.11% to 91.76%; unit 2, 64.02% to 94.53%; unit 3, 28.79% to 91.57%; unit 4, 80.31% to 92.76% and unit 5, 73.38% to 87.76%. Unit 6 was out of service for the past 2 to 3 years. This indicates differences in their systems installation maintenance and operation.

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Investigation Work Carried Out at Nidubrolu Water Treatment Plant

Investigation Work Carried Out at Nidubrolu Water Treatment Plant

exerting stress on civic authorities to provide basic necessities such as safe drinking water, sanitation and infrastructure. The rapid growth of population has exerted the portable water demand, which requires exploration of raw water sources, developing treatment and distribution systems. There is a need to study the water treatment plants for their operational status and to discover the best feasible mechanism to ensure proper drinking water production with least possible rejects and its management. This case study has been conducted to evaluate the process of treatment and to find out the problems of drinking water treatment process in the plant situated at Nidubrolu, Ponnur. In general, conventional treatment is provided having a sequence of alum addition, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation; filtration and disinfection by chlorination. Water treatment plants are playing an important role in purification and supply of pure water to the people. In this present study the operation and maintenance of water treatment plant located in Nidubrolu, Ponnur mandal Guntur(District) is carried out and the needs to be updated for the current requirements of the people is discussed.

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT

The Chennai city sewerage system has been divided into five zones. Each zone has been provided with individual collection areas, pumping stations, force mains etc. Nesapakkam Sewage Treatment Plant is located on the western part of city and receives the sewage collected from zone 4, covering the areas like Saidapet, West-mambalam, Ashoknagar, M.G.R Nagar, K.K.Nagar, Thirunagar etc,. The plant was commissioned in 1974 which is the first sewage treatment plant in Chennai. The plant is designed to cater for an average flow of 23 MLD (million liters per day) wit h a peak factor of 2.67. Fig 2.1 gives the layout of the above plant.

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Anaerobic Waste Water Treatment Plant with Continuous Bio Filtration

Anaerobic Waste Water Treatment Plant with Continuous Bio Filtration

The new anaerobic psychrophilic fermentation procedure [3,4,5] has been selected and begins to develop because it differs from all other known procedures that have many disadvantages, such as: the consuming large quantities of electricity, qualified personnel required for the plant units, specialized equipment, spare parts as well as the locations of stations built far from the settlement, which refers to the insects and stink that develop at the stations during the interruption of the electrical current.

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Assessment of Heavy Metals and Radionuclide Concentrations in Mafikeng Waste Water Treatment Plant

Assessment of Heavy Metals and Radionuclide Concentrations in Mafikeng Waste Water Treatment Plant

Water is a natural resource that forms an integral part of any ecosystem. Access to clean water is a key resource for reducing poverty and disease, and improving the life of any human population [1]. South Africa is a country plagued with unpredictable rainfall (which averages 500 mm/a), high evaporation rates and low conversion of rainfall to runoff. These shortcomings make South Africa a water-stressed nation, where demand is almost clos- ing in on supply. The North West Province, where Mafikeng is located, is an arid province that experiences all of the aforementioned water resource constraints. The Mafikeng community water supply is sourced mainly from surface water (Setumo dam) and groundwater (Molopo and Grootfontein well-fields), both of which are rapidly depleting due to insufficient rainfall, agricultural/industrial and mining activities [2]. The water resource constraints are further compounded by quality deterioration due to pollution accruing from domestic sewage, industrial effluents, acid mine drainage and agricultural runoff chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides). Naturally, groundwater contains varying concentrations of radioactive metals such as uranium, thorium and their daughter products [3]. Also, each aforementioned pollution point-source has the potential to raise the levels of concentration of heavy metals and radionuclide contents of surface water. Both water resource bodies, if not properly treated to remove radionuclides and heavy metals, may contribute significantly to internal radiation dose through drinking water. In addition, the current Mafikeng water consumption exceeds the calculated re- quired needs, necessitating a cycle of water re-use [4] (Figure 1). This makes water treatment an issue of para- mount importance in the locality, if public health must be protected. A few functioning wastewater (WWTW) and water treatment (WTW) infrastructures are located within the municipality (Figure 2). However, the quality

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Development and execution of asset criticality framework: a study of water and wastewater infrastructure at Toowoomba Regional Council

Development and execution of asset criticality framework: a study of water and wastewater infrastructure at Toowoomba Regional Council

56 reaching the filters the water is dosed with 0.03 mg/L of anionic polymer that serves to provide a slippery coating to the filter media to prevent the surface being blocked by floc. In addition, the anionic polymer acts as a coagulant to bind small groups of floc together. The water is then passed through eight media filters consisting of coal, sand and three layers of different sized rocks. The purpose of filtering the water is to remove excess particles that were not removed during the sedimentation process. Over time, the filters reduce in efficiency as they begin to block up. To counteract this, the filters are backwashed when the head loss reaches 30 percent.

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Production of Slow Release Crystal Fertilizer from Wastewater through Struvite Crystallisation  A Review

Production of Slow Release Crystal Fertilizer from Wastewater through Struvite Crystallisation A Review

Phosphorous in waste water is one of the three forms, Phosphate(ortho phosphate),(O4P3), polyphosphate(PO4) and organically bound phosphorous. Controlled reaction between phosphate, magnesium and ammonium ions provides sparingly soluble product called struvite(MgNH4PO4.6H2O) which can be utilize directly in agriculture as mineral fertilizer. The required dosage of Mg2+ salts(MgCl2, MgSO4, Mg(OH)2 etc..). The most common forms of nitrogen in waste waters and ammonia(NH3), ammonium ion(NH4+), nitrate(NO3) and organic nitrogen.

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Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

Abstract. The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit’s e ff ectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filtration and cascade and tower aeration. Using this treatment step library, a hydraulic model was set up, calibrated and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek. With the actual valve position and pump speeds, the flows were calculated through the several treatment steps. A case shows the use of the model to calculate the new setpoints for the current frequency converters of the e ffl uent pumps during a filter backwash.

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AUTOMATION OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT USING RASPBERRY PI

AUTOMATION OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT USING RASPBERRY PI

Conventionally, Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) have been used for automation of water treatment plants. This paper focuses on an innovative and intelligent control and monitoring system for Water Treatment Plant by using “Raspberry Pi” as an effective alternative to PLCs for the automation of small water treatment plants. Raspberry Pi is a minicomputer which has an ability to control the system comes with advantages like low cost and compact size.

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Performance Evaluation Of Sindang Pasekan Water Treatment Plant

Performance Evaluation Of Sindang Pasekan Water Treatment Plant

The reliability of a WTP system is based upon three aspects, namely the quality, quantity, and continuity of the water produced [1]. Those conditions can be achieved if the technical and non-technical requirements are met properly, following the Regulation of Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia (PERMENKES) No. 492/MENKES/PER/IV/2010 concerning Drinking Water Quality Standard that includes chemical, physical and biological requirements [2]. WTP use various units to eliminate the contaminant from surface water. The unit processes that most frequently used are intake, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection for final treatment of the surface water [3]. Population rise and increased human activity as well the valley cause a decrease in quality of the water [4]. Intake is a construction that functions to collect raw water from surface sources such as rivers, lakes, and ponds, and maintain a constant discharge to WTP. The intake generally constructed using reinforced concrete to ensure its resistance against the river currents. Coagulation and flocculation are often the first steps in water treatment, consist of adding a floc-forming chemical reagent to destabilize the colloidal particles and form a rapid-settling floc. They serve as key processes for reducing naturally occurring organic matter and turbidity, which can seriously affect the efficiency of disinfection. The positive charge of the chemicals agent are combined to the water [5]. In other side, these chemicals of positive charge will compensate for the negative charge of dirt and other dissolved particles in the water. Then, the flocs will be form by attach of the particles with the chemicals and form larger particles.

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Study of Parameters in Redesign of Existing Water Treatment Plant

Study of Parameters in Redesign of Existing Water Treatment Plant

Abstract: Now a day’s water scarcity is the burning issue. As it is quite obvious that there is day to day increase in population, the demand for water also increases to satisfy the needs of the community there comes a necessity to redesign the existing treatment plants, or design the new treatment plants. Redesign or design includes hydraulic design and process of treatment of water in the plant. Generally water can be treated in treatment plants for removing harmful substances present in it. The treatment process includes pretreatment, aeration, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, fluoridation, conditioning and disinfection. In this paper, redesign of water treatment plant for Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC), Avadhan, Dist. Dhule (MH) is presented. The source of raw water is Akkalpada Dam which is nearby located from Dhule city. This paper includes the detail of the treatment units present in the existing MIDC and foreseeing the increasing demand of water. All the design calculations for the new treatment plant and also the design criteria on which these have been designed are presented in the study. The study involves the new proposed site called as Raver which is located in surrounding area of Avadhan MIDC. And with the help of this area the expansion is possible and can be easily done. Overall the main purpose of this study is to help and propose a new design to the MIDC so that the future needs of the increasing industries can be met, and all the industries can effectively use this water.

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Modern Effluent Treatment Plant

Modern Effluent Treatment Plant

Sugar industry is a seasonal industry working for maximum of 5‐6 months in one season. The industry uses sugarcane as their raw material along with various chemicals added to increase the face value of the final product. During the process a huge amount of water is also used per day and as a result industry generates waste water (effluent) on daily basis

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Need for Advanced Engineered Systems for Restoring the Lower Reaches of River Periyar

Need for Advanced Engineered Systems for Restoring the Lower Reaches of River Periyar

Periyar is the longest river and the river with the largest discharge potential in the Indian state of Kerala. It is one of the few perennial rivers in the region and provides drinking water for several major towns. The Periyar is of utmost significance to the economy of Kerala. It generates a significant proportion of Kerala's electrical power via the Idukki dam and flows along a region of industrial and commercial activity. The river also provides water for irrigation and domestic use throughout its course besides supporting a rich fishery. Due to these reasons, the river has been named the "Lifeline of Kerala". The city of Cochin, in the vicinity of the river mouth draws its water supply from Aluva, an upstream site sufficiently free of seawater intrusion. Twenty five percent of Kerala's industries are located along the banks of river Periyar. These are mostly crowded within a stretch of 5 kilometres in the Eloor-Edayar region, about 10 kilometres north of Cochin harbour [1].

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Need for Advanced Engineered Systems for Restoring the Lower Reaches of River Periyar

Need for Advanced Engineered Systems for Restoring the Lower Reaches of River Periyar

Periyar is the longest river and the river with the largest discharge potential in the Indian state of Kerala. It is one of the few perennial rivers in the region and provides drinking water for several major towns. The Periyar is of utmost significance to the economy of Kerala. It generates a significant proportion of Kerala's electrical power via the Idukki dam and flows along a region of industrial and commercial activity. The river also provides water for irrigation and domestic use throughout its course besides supporting a rich fishery. Due to these reasons, the river has been named the "Lifeline of Kerala". The city of Cochin, in the vicinity of the river mouth draws its water supply from Aluva, an upstream site sufficiently free of seawater intrusion. Twenty five percent of Kerala's industries are located along the banks of river Periyar. These are mostly crowded within a stretch of 5 kilometres in the Eloor-Edayar region, about 10 kilometres north of Cochin harbour [1].

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Production of Slow Release Crystal Fertilizer from Wastewater through Struvite Crystallisation  A Review

Production of Slow Release Crystal Fertilizer from Wastewater through Struvite Crystallisation A Review

© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1873 Besides crop production, P in one of the vital elements needed for animal growth, milk and egg production as well. The daily nutritional requirements for dairy cattle and beef cattle have been stated as 86-95 g/day and 35-40 g/day respectively. Animal cannot utilize the whole amount and are excreted through manure or urine that exists in the wastewater. Only 14% of corn P and 31% of soya bean meal can be digested by swine. A large percentage of phosphorous is unavailable, and most of it is excreted into the environment through manure and urine. The excreted phosphorous is dissolved into the water and transported to the nearby water bodies or infiltrate into the ground water.

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Resilience of Advanced Water Treatment Plants for Potable Reuse

Resilience of Advanced Water Treatment Plants for Potable Reuse

Failure events can be defined in terms of both failure to meet treatment quality objectives and failure to meet treatment capacity objectives. For example, many AWT plants rely on pressure driven separation processes such as membrane filtration and reverse osmosis followed by UV disinfection and chlorination. If a chlorine dosing pump prior to distribution fails, the AWT plant will fail to meet the treatment quality objectives for correct chlorine residual in the final product water. Similarly, if a UV lamp fails in a UV disinfection reactor, the treatment system will not provide the necessary log reduction removal for viruses. However, in each case, it is possible for the plant to continue to meet the treatment capacity objective because the failure of the dosing pump or UV lamp does not impact the hydraulic capacity of the process. However, if a mechanical device such as a backwash valve, pump, bearing or other component of a membrane process fails, it may not be possible to continue to produce water because plant production is dependent on pressure to move water across the membranes and between the unit processes in the AWT plant. Consequently, the nature of the failure event will determine if there is a risk to treatment capacity or quality or both. In the absence of published data on the nature of failure in AWT plants, it is difficult to provide objective evidence on this aspect of the risk posed by the implementation of potable reuse schemes.

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Design of Water Treatment Plant

Design of Water Treatment Plant

The chemical added to the raw water is vigorously mixed and agitated by a flash mixer for its rapid dispersion in raw water and water is then transferred to a flocculation tank provided with slow mixers. It consist of a rectangular tank provided with an impeller fixed to an impeller shaft. The impeller is driven by an electric motor, and it revolves at a high speed 100-120 rpm inside the tank. A detention time of 0.5- 2 minute is also given. The coagulant is brought by the coagulate pipe and is discharged just under the rotating fan. The raw water is separately brought from the inlet end and is deflected toward the moving impeller by a defecting wall. The thoroughly mixed water is taken out from the outlet end CLARIFLOCCULATION

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