There is strong evidence that adolescent exposure to advertising and other tobacco media imagery in traditional media increases subsequent tobacco use (Lovato, Linn, Stead, & Best, 2003; National Cancer Institute, 2008). Smoking depictions in mass media can shape behavior through influencing social norms, behavioural modelling, and attitudes toward smoking (Wakefield, Flay, Nichter, & Giovino, 2003). The impact of smoking depictions in social media is likely to differ, given the fact that the content is user-generated and produced by an extended social network ostensibly connected to the viewer. The first known study to specifically assess the role of social media in maintaining or increasing tobacco behaviour among youth used a representative longitudinal panel of 200 young adults (18–24 years) (Depue, Southwell, Betzner, & Walsh, 2015). Smoking at follow-up was predicted by past 30-day exposure to social media tobacco depictions at the baseline survey, controlling for important covariates. The results suggested that social media depictions of tobacco were more important than exposure to TV and movie depictions of smoking in predicting subsequent smoking behaviour. This study did not differentiate exposure to peer-generated or brand-generated smoking depictions, so it is not known whether either of these types of content is more influential.
Therefore, there is concern not only for the negative effects associated with the marketing of unhealthyproducts (ie, food, alcohol, and tobacco) but also for the negative effects associated with the way marketing exposure in general may influence how youth view material possessions and themselves. Children ’ s Consumer Development For decades, researchers have recognized children as a vulnerable consumer group because of their budding developmental abilities. Relying on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, researchers in many studies have reported that until children are >7 years old, they do not have the ability to detect persuasive intent in advertising. 2
& Driesener, 2016). From this, remembering a brand is explained as being the result of a memory process that involves both familiarity with the brand and the reminiscence process regarding the qualities of the product, which implies the activation of contextual and casual information. If the brand is familiar to the consumer, it is more likely that he/she will remember it without incorporating details about product attributes. If the brand is not so familiar, however, more information about product attributes must be remembered in order for the consumer to recognize it. Consequently, new brands that venture into the healthy food market will have to activate the nutritional attributes of their products in the consumer’s memory so that a positive image of the brand is built. Based on CUT, these attributes should be highlighted in elements such as the design of the packaging, succinct and clear information on nutritional value, and product quality through communications endorsed by health authorities in mass advertising media. Another theoretical perspective of interest is the consideration that brand authenticity is the antecedent of credibility; this authenticity is based on the brand’s consistency regarding product attributes and their continued presence (Schallehn, Burmann, & Riley, 2014). When traditional snack brands venture into the healthy category, they are breaking the consistency and continuity of their offer, which affects the perception of authenticity of the brand and negatively impacts the credibility of its extensions.
Avery et al. (1997) allege that television advertising particularly provides unhealthy messages about food, nutrition and weight, and several other studies have confirmed that advertisements in children’s programmes promote foods that are high in fat and sugars and relatively low in nutritional value (Brown, 1996; Taras and Gage, 1995; Kotz and Story, 1994). Critics therefore state that television directly influences children’s health and dietary behaviours (Byrd-Bredbenner and Grasso, 2000). But, uncritical acceptance of empirical findings from studies with limited generalisability is imprudent. For example, Donohue (1975) reported that children who were heavy television viewers believed that, to maintain good health, they should take advertised medicines and vitamins, drink soft drinks, and eat fast foods. But, the sample was limited, unrepresentative, and the methodology may have introduced considerable bias in terms of response. Now, nearly three decades later, this study is dated, but it is still frequently cited in support of those claiming direct negative influences of advertising on children.
1533 | P a g e and cheaper to express your views which can be read and shared by others. The companies have started tracking the opinions of customers on social media. Moreover people referring products get incentives or discounts while purchasing their products. Social media is also playing an opposite role to an extent by spreading the rumors about a company or their products seeded by their rivalries. Company to customer relationship can be at the stake if actual grievances are not redressed (Vinerean et al., 2013).
Advertising as an activity is able to reveal the main key changes in values, beliefs, attitudes and patterns of purchasing behavior that affect a person's lifestyle. The choice of the type of advertisement must reflect the effectiveness of communication, and consider the characteristics for each of the different ad target groups. The attraction that arises in the advertisement will cause a response to the consumer. The response that arises is the attitude aimed at consumers in an advertisement or brand. Attitudes are evaluations, feelings of likes or dislikes, and tendencies that are relatively consistent from someone on an object or idea (Kotler and Armstrong, 2012). Attitude is the most important concept in the study of consumer behavior. Every year marketing managers spend a large amount of money to examine consumer attitudes towards purchasing decisions. Then incur additional costs in influencing attitudes encountered through advertising activities, sales promotions and other types of advertising. By influencing consumer attitudes, marketers hope to influence consumer buying behavior.
Our result on multiproduct advertising is related to but different from Lal and Matutes (1994) and Ellison (2005), in which two firms are located on a Hotelling line and sell two products but advertise only one of them. In Lal and Matutes all consumers have an identical willingness to pay H for one unit of each good. In Ellison all consumers value the advertised (base) product the same, but have either a high or a low valuation for the unadvertised (add-on) product. 2 As in Diamond’s model, the unadvertised price is driven up to H in Lal and Matutes, and (typically) up to the high-types’ willingness to pay in Ellison’s model. Firms use their adver- tised price to compete for store traffic, but unlike in our model, cannot use it to credibly convey information about their unadvertised price. The difference arises because in our paper valuations are heterogeneous and continuously distributed. Therefore when a firm changes its advertised price, the pool of searchers also changes and this alters the firm’s pricing incentives on its other products. Simester (1995) also finds that prices are positively correlated, but due to cost rather than preference heterogeneity. In his model a low-cost firm charges a lower unadver- tised price, and may signal its cost advantage to consumers by advertising a lower price on another good as well.
grassroots efforts through public involvement and media attention could help shift current sponsorship practices. McDonald’s decision to end their Olympic sponsorship after mounting criticism from public health advocates suggests that other sports organizations could capitalize on the public pressure to improve the healthfulness of sponsors. In summary, our results reveal that numerous food and beverage companies promote unhealthyproducts through sponsorship of a variety of professional sports, millions of youth view sports programs associated with unhealthy sponsors, and food and beverage sponsorship advertisements reach millions of viewers on YouTube. These findings support the need to expand criteria of voluntary food marketing pledges.
Marketers regard advertising as one of the most powerful and effective promotional tools to reach customers. Advertising gives information, persuades, reminds, corrects false impressions and convinces as well as creates a brand image for buyers of a product or service. Not surprisingly, advertising expenditures has shown astronomical growth in recent years. Advertising has been gaining greater importance in the marketing of goods and services by both the industrial and non- industrialized nations. It is rather considered more as an investment than expenditure. The attitude towards advertising has been ever changing at a rapid pace with diversifications and dynamism. The advertiser, the agency, the media and the consumers view advertising according to their desires, expectation and opportunities. Hence advertising is no longer viewed as a secondary business activity, but has come to be accepted as a supportive service and a contributory input for diversified growth. The goals of advertising have been changed, modified, adjusted and re-defined over the years in India.
on a weekly basis. Increased fast food intake is associated with weight gain, central obesity, impaired glucose, serum insulin, lipids homeostasis and induced inflammatory and antioxidant system (24). Nineteen percent of Yazdi elders used hydrogenated fat in cooking. Hydrogenated fats are supposed to be associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancers; therefore should be avoided as much as possible. About 52.8% the elderly did not separate visible fats from red meat when cooking and 65.8% of them preferred high-fat dairy products in their diet. Yazdi elders should be encouraged to change these habits because of the adverse effect of high saturated and trans fats on health. Furthermore, 32.4% of people used salt shaker on the table at the time of eating foods which is a predictor of high prevalence of hypertension in elders (25). Evaluation of some dietary behaviors, demographic characteristics and health conditions of a large sample of elderly people might be the strength of our study.
The literature has highlighted that adolescent problem gamblers have an array of co- existing problems (Gupta and Derevensky 2000; Shead et al. 2010; Volberg et al. 2010), with researchers theorising that gambling is often undertaken as an attempt to manage or resolve other underlying issues (Gupta and Derevensky 2000; Ste-Marie et al. 2002). Furthermore, risk factors associated with problem gambling, such as mental health issues (e.g. depression and anxiety) may also be observed in other potentially harmful behaviours in adolescence, for instance substance misuse (Derevensky et al. 2003; Shead et al. 2010). While there has been some focus on the identification of risk factors for youth problem gambling, little is known about the protective factors that insulate young people against unhealthy gambling (Dickson et al. 2008), or the extent of their positive influence over risk factors.
have changed over time. this means that out of a group of consumers and join other consumers groups, so should also be examined in advertise issues psychological and demographic characteristics Also choice of suitable media is important for an advertising job And causes the provider to advertise to be close to objectives. As a result, effective planning and select the correct media is very important. The content of the message is the most important part of a promotional activity; Promotional messages will be attracting the attention of the audience and for this purpose must use the insight and creativity. (Farbi E.D 2007)
Advertising contributes to wider economic development through its ability to sustain competitiveness. Advertising provide consumers with information on products and services, and it also helps to increase their choice of goods and services. Companies adopt green advertising to easily capture the target consumer and maintain the long-term relationship with them. Green advertising helps in spreading information and knowledge to the consumers who are unaware of the green products. Consumers are having a positive attitude towards purchasing green products. The government has already announced and implemented the various policies and regulations for environmental protection. In India, lot of industries and companies are small scale sector that they are not easily adopted the green practices because they are concerned about short run profit. They feel adopting green practices involve high cost and such practices are profitable only long run. The policymakers in government and industry are need to consider that they difficulties in a helpful manner.
”. For instance “advertising is any paid form of non-personal media presentation promoting ideas/concepts, goods or services by an identified sponsor. Arens expressing almost the same view describes advertising as “the personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products (goods and services) or ideas by identified sponsors through various media”. We are all influenced with advertisements in our day to day life. Its forms and contents both are well liked amongst consumers. In other words advertising is simply an economic movement with only one objective behind to increase the consumer demand of the product as well as to enhance the sales volumes, it could be concluded that the purpose of advertising is to create awareness of the advertised product and provide information that will assist the consumer to make purchase decision, the relevance of advertising as a promotional strategy, therefore, depends on its ability to influence consumer not only to purchase but to continue to repurchase and eventually develop brand loyalty.
impression through the impression of another resource (Pinson, 1986; Krishna, 2006). But in this research only manipulations in package color effected the perceived healthfulness of a product, and this only holds true for the healthy product yoghurt. Hypothesis 1 is therefore partially confirmed, meaning that product package can contribute to a healthier product perception, but only when it concerns a manipulation in color for healthy products. It can thus be said that color dominates shape in ‘healthiness’ perception. Past research also found that color is one of the most potent features in the design of product packaging in the food industry (Deliza, Macfie, & Hedderley, 2003; Hine, 1995). It is also one of the features of a product package that triggers the fastest response (Swientek, 2001). Within the food industry it has been previously indicated that food color affects the consumer’s ability to correctly identify flavor, to form distinct flavor profiles and preferences, and dominates other flavor information sources, including labeling and taste (Garder, Hyatt, & Starr, 2000). Color it thus known to dominate other product features, when it concerns products in the food industry. This research confirms that package color also dominates other package features when it concerns the perceived healthfulness of products. This confirms hypothesis 5 and rejects hypothesis 2.
The changing Landscape in marketing strategies is highly in-predictable. Companies have adopted targeted advertising strategy for pharmaceutical OTC products and concept selling strategies are evolved for medicinal and pharmaceutical generic drug segments. The article focuses on various marketing strategy and their outcomes for Indian Pharmaceutical industry. It will also emphasis on changing landscape in marketing strategy with special reference to channel of distribution adopted by Indian pharmaceutical industry. This study also reveals about marketing mix strategy and customer’s (doctors) and end customer’s perception (patients) which is the base of formulation of different marketing strategies. An in-depth analysis has been done to analyze issues and challenges faced by pharmaceutical industry in India.
Using social media appears to positively affect consumption behavior of users. The social media affects differently both genders in the purpose of buying and in the consumer behavior. Although we can’t get reliable conclusions about most influenced gender, our results confirm various surveys, which suggest that the factor "Gender" differentiates the degree of impact on consumer behavior through social media (Frederica RUDEL, 1995; Thompson & Lougheed, 2012). Information on the Internet about products and services positively affects the intention to buy. Also, registering as a member / friend / fan / follower on the page profiles of companies, products, services, increases even the intention to purchase products (or products of this company) and consumer behavior with respect to these products, thereby increasing the chances of market .