Affect Regulation and Dysregulation

Top PDF Affect Regulation and Dysregulation:

Affect regulation: a systems neuroscience perspective.

Affect regulation: a systems neuroscience perspective.

Based on the neuroanatomical knowledge presented above, functional studies in mood disorders are examining affect dysregulation as a primary focus of investigation. The data from adults with bipolar disorder indicate an important alteration in the functional linkage between the amygdala and the DLPFC, with reduction in activation of the DLPFC and increased amygdala activation in response to emotional provocation (Yurgelun-Todd et al 2000). Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) studies in adult bipolar disorder indicate increased temporal activity or decreased OFC activity (Blumberg et al 1999). Additionally, in adults with bipolar disorder, limited structural imaging data indicates increased amygdala volume (Altshuler et al 1998); functional imaging data also shows increased activity in the prefrontal cortex post treatment (Manji et al 1999). Exaggerated activity in the amygdala is believed to be reversed by treatment through an increased modulation from the OFC in depressed adults (Mayberg 1997; Drevets 2000), but whether there are similar effects in bipolar disorder is unknown. There are interesting leads from studies of adult bipolar patients indicating that increased amygdala reactivity is a fundamental aspect of the disorder, and that treatments may be effective by increasing prefrontal modulation of this reactivity. Given the continuity of cytoarchitecture between the amygdala and the OFC, it is difficult to develop a precise conceptualization of how this higher cortical center influences subcortical systems based on an analysis of anatomy alone.
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Psychological intimate partner violence and childhood cumulative trauma: the mediating role of affect dysregulation, maladaptive personality traits, and negative urgency

Psychological intimate partner violence and childhood cumulative trauma: the mediating role of affect dysregulation, maladaptive personality traits, and negative urgency

Affect Dysregulation. Affect instability and affect skills deficits were assessed using nine items from a French adaptation (Bigras, Godbout, & Briere, 2015) of the affect dysregulation scale of the Inventory of Altered Self-Capacities (IASC; Briere, 2000). Participants indicated how frequently they experienced different affect regulation difficulties over the last six months on a five-point Likert scale ranging from one (never) to five (very often). Total scores ranged from nine to 45, with higher scores reflecting affect regulation difficulties. Transformation of the scores into t-scores allowed to determine whether participants were above or below the clinical cut-off of 70 (Briere, 2000). In the present study, Cronbach’s alpha was .92, a value consistent with that of the original standardized and validated scale (Briere & Runtz, 2002).
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Complex PTSD, affect dysregulation, and borderline personality disorder

Complex PTSD, affect dysregulation, and borderline personality disorder

However, affect dysregulation is a factor in most if not all psychiatric disorders and not just BPD. For example, BPD diagnosed adults did not evidence a distinct pattern of physiological emotional processing – despite being physiologically activated in response to interpersonal challenge scripts – compared to those diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder [184]. Moreover, affect dysregulation is heterogeneous in its expression within BPD. Cocaine-dependent BDP-diagnosed men, but not women, showed a greater tendency than cocaine- dependent men not diagnosed with BPD to focus their at- tention on cocaine-related stimuli after being exposed to trauma-related laboratory cues [185]. The re- searchers suggested that this may reflect an attempt by men who have comorbid BPD and cocaine-dependence to attempt to reduce emotional distress related to reminders of traumatic experiences. Although BPD-diagnosed women in a clinical sample had more affect regulation problems in general than non-BPD controls, a sub-group with comorbid avoidant personality disorder was found to have particularly severe deficits in tolerating distress and accessing adaptive emotion regulation strategies cognitively and physiologically (i.e., reduced heart rate variability when exposed to a stressor [186]. These findings raise the possibility that affect dysregulation—particularly under-regulation of affect due to impaired adaptive strategies and high levels of distress intolerance–may be a marker for a sub-group among BPD-diagnosed persons distinct from the majority who also struggle with affect dys- regulation but tend to be tonically tolerant of distress and intermittently overwhelmed. The deficits in adap- tive emotion regulation and problems with impulsivity and avoidance/self-medication characterizing this puta- tive sub-group are consistent with descriptions of cPTSD.
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Dysregulation of MicroRNAs in cancer

Dysregulation of MicroRNAs in cancer

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs which enhance the cleavage or translational repression of spe- cific mRNA with recognition site(s) in the 3’- untranslated region (3 0 UTR). The biogenesis of miRNA is controlled by two RNase-dependent processing steps that converts a long primary transcript into a mature ~20 nt miRNA. The mature miRNA are released and then loaded onto the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC), which acts as a guiding strand to recognize specific mRNA targets. Since the discovery of miRNAs, several large-scale studies have compared the profiles of miRNA expression patterns between corresponding non-tumor and tumor tissues [1,2]. Dysregulation of miRNAs has been documented in different types of human cancers [1,2]. As miRNA expression is tissue- specific, the expression profile of miRNAs has been pro- posed as a marker to identify tumor origin [1]. Several studies have also suggested that the expression of miR- NAs may even be a more reliable and better prognostic indicator than proteins or mRNAs under certain condi- tions [1,3,4]. For example, a five-miRNA signature pro- file could predict the cancer relapse and survival in NSCLC patients [3]. In addition, the expression of 25
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The Relationship between Resilience and Distress Tolerance in College Students: The Mediator Role of Cognitive Flexibility and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation

The Relationship between Resilience and Distress Tolerance in College Students: The Mediator Role of Cognitive Flexibility and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation

Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS): This scale was used to determine the emotion regulation problems. It has 36 items rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale, with higher scores indicating difficulty in emotion regulation. The scale includes six subscales, which are (a) lack of awareness of emotional responses (awareness); (b) lack of clarity of emotional responses (clarity); (c) non-acceptance of emotional responses (non-acceptance); (d) limited access to effective strategies (strategies); (e) difficulties in controlling impulsive behavior when experiencing negative affect (impulse); and (f) difficulties in engaging in goal-directed behavior when experiencing negative goals. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient has come to .93 for the total scale (Gratz & Roemer, 2004). The Turkish version of the scale has been adapted and validated by Ruganci and Gencoz (2010). The six-factor structure of the scale is confirmed in the Turkish version. The internal consistency coefficient of the total scale was .94 and the internal consistency coefficients of the subscales were valued at between .75 and .90. The test-retest reliability of the scale has been found to be .83 in the Turkish version. In this study, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the entire scale has been found to be .92.
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				Self-Regulation Mechanisms Explain How Dispositional Mindfulness Promotes Well-Being

← Return to Article Details Self-Regulation Mechanisms Explain How Dispositional Mindfulness Promotes Well-Being

Cognitive emotion dysregulation. Cognitive emotion regulation refers to any attempt to manage one’s emotions that relies on cognitive strategies for doing so (e.g., distraction, rumination, reappraisal; Garnefski & Kraaij, 2007). Self-blame, rumination, and catastrophizing have been identified as maladaptive cognitive strategies that tend to lead to greater emotional distress and dysregulation (Garnefski & Kraaij, 2007). Aspects of mindfulness like present moment awareness, attending to thoughts and emotions, and the capacity to notice and decide whether to believe or buy into the natural flow of thoughts may be associated with a reduced reliance on these ineffective strategies. Multiple measures of mindfulness have been negatively related to difficulties in emotion regulation (Baer, 2006), and a review of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness by Marchand (2014) described differences in brain activation among people with higher dispositional mindfulness during emotion regulation including the lateral frontal regions (cortical midline structures/default mode network), interoceptive attention to body sensations, and the amygdala. Dispositional mindfulness has been shown to relate to less rumination (Paul, et al., 2013), and Gu and colleagues (2015) concluded that rumination mediates the relation between mindfulness and psychopathology. Whether rumination or other forms of cognitive emotion dysregulation may be a mechanism by which mindfulness is linked to well-being has yet to be examined. The enhanced awareness of one’s experiences that is facilitated by dispositional mindfulness may foster insight that cognitive emotion dysregulation strategies are not healthy or based in reality and enable people to see the impact this type of thinking is having on one’s psychological well-being. If so, this may have implications for intervention studies
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Escaping affect : how motivated emotion regulation drives the collapse of compassion

Escaping affect : how motivated emotion regulation drives the collapse of compassion

Yet the possibly controlled nature of this regulation process might be less important than its motivational sensitivity. All it took to create the collapse of compassion were a few words telling people that they would be asked to donate; all it took to reverse this collapse was to remove these few words. It is worth emphasizing that this donation request was only hypothetical. More importantly, this finding opens up intriguing possibilities for other ways to reverse the collapse of compassion. If showing more compassion toward multiple victims requires not expecting to help, then any manipulation that removes that expectation might be effective. For instance, creating a situation conducive to diffusion of responsibility might in fact reverse the collapse of compassion, if it removes any expectation to provide aid. This is of no small importance, given that Slovic (2007), Schelling (1968), and others have described the collapse of compassion as a social dilemma prone to diffusion of responsibility. But if that is the case, then there is a lot of compassion out there not being adequately translated into pro-social action. Perhaps the most intriguing research of all would find ways to
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Emotional disclosure through writing and drawing: A controlled trial on emotion regulation, coping, and subjective well being outcomes

Emotional disclosure through writing and drawing: A controlled trial on emotion regulation, coping, and subjective well being outcomes

Furthermore, it would be important to utilize particular strategies that intercept at various points of emotional experience during the coping process, and that target positive and negative affect differently. For example, it may be helpful to firstly use interventions that help individuals identify or heighten their awareness of their current emotional state, then another intervention to adaptively resolve negative emotions and promote positive emotions. Such a strategy would be termed an emotion regulation strategy and could include emotional disclosure writing, and potentially also emotional disclosure drawing. Successful emotion regulation can then result in producing well- being outcomes and encourage adaptive types of coping. Given that the role of emotion is an integral part of initiating the coping process and continues to impact on well-being, this next section further explores the role of emotion in the context of specific coping approaches.
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A comprehensive evaluation of emotional responsiveness in borderline personality disorder: a support for hypersensitivity hypothesis

A comprehensive evaluation of emotional responsiveness in borderline personality disorder: a support for hypersensitivity hypothesis

Considering no significant differences in the amplitude of physiological responses and in self-report levels of emotional reactivity (i.e., arousal, valence, dominance), the hyperreactivity hypothesis was not supported by the current experimental task. This result is not surprising in the light of meta-analytic conclusions [6] that showed consistent and null effect sizes between BPD subjects and HCs, taking into account several physiological in- dexes of emotional reactivity. On the contrary, different trends between BPD subjects and HCs were observed in self-report and cardiac responses when the length of stimuli presentation was considered. Specifically, BPD subjects rated the longer stimuli (15 s) as more negative than the ones presented for 5 s. Furthermore, the clinical group showed lower levels of RMSSD index in the 15-s exposure condition than in the other condition. Con- versely, HCs showed inverse trends considering both in- dexes. Taken these findings together, it could be possible to conclude that BPD subjects, contrary to HCs, ex- hibited difficulties in adapting physiological systems implicated in emotion regulation [43, 44, 79, 80] when dealing with prolonged exposure to socio-emo- tional situations. This kind of physiological alteration might preliminary explain the biological underpin- nings that contribute to the conceptualization of the slow return to emotional baseline. Strictly connected to this biological aspect and the results regarding self-report levels of negative valance, the slow return to emotional baseline might be also attributed to the maladaptive effects of the rigid use of emotion
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Proposed Development Framework For Accounting Information System and Integrated Reporting

Proposed Development Framework For Accounting Information System and Integrated Reporting

Changes in the accounting process will affect the audit process because the audit is a field of practice that uses financial statements (product accounting) as its object. Auditing practice aims to provide an opinion on the fairness of the presentation of financial statements produced by SIA. With the progress made in accounting related to computer-based SIA in producing financial reports, auditing practices will be affected. The development of Information Technology also affects the development of the audit process. According to Arens, there are three auditing approaches to EDP audits, such as auditing around the computer, auditing through the computer, and computer-assisted audit (auditing with computer).
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Abnormal X chromosome inactivation and sex-specific gene dysregulation after ablation of FBXL10

Abnormal X chromosome inactivation and sex-specific gene dysregulation after ablation of FBXL10

Two biological replicates for each genotype of both sexes were analyzed. Total RNA was extracted from sin- gle embryos dissected at embryonic day E9.5. The sex of the embryos was determined by PCR detection of the Sry gene using genomic DNA extracted from the yolk sac. RNA-seq reads were mapped to the mouse genome (mm9) using TopHat (v1.4.1; [12]). Mapped reads were assigned to RefSeq annotated genes using htseq-count (version 0.5.3p9; http://www-huber.embl.de/users/ anders/HTSeq/doc/count.html). Differential expres- sion was assessed by edgeR (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC2796818/) with TMM normali- zation. Log2 fold-changes were computed after apply- ing a floor of 1 cpm to ensure that genes with very low expression but large fold-changes did not affect the anal- ysis. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to com- pare the global variation in expression levels in +/+ and T/T mice. Distributions of log2 fold expression changes between autosomal and ChrX genes were compared using the Mann–Whitney U test.
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Alanyl tRNA Synthetase Quality Control Prevents Global Dysregulation of the Escherichia coli Proteome

Alanyl tRNA Synthetase Quality Control Prevents Global Dysregulation of the Escherichia coli Proteome

Mistranslation disrupts regulation of the translational machinery. From the KEGG pathway analysis, it was noted that aminoacyl-tRNA biogenesis proteins were underrepresented in the AlaRS C666A proteome. Upon further investigation, it was clear that many aaRS and tRNA modification proteins were depleted in the strain. However, it was particularly interesting to note that AlaRS was ⬃ 2.3 ⫻ enriched in the AlaRS C666A strain (Data Set S1). To validate this result, steady-state immunoblot analysis was performed to measure AlaRS protein levels in these strains. Recapitulating the proteomic data set, AlaRS protein levels were ⬃ 2 ⫻ higher in the AlaRS C666A background than in the wild-type strain (Fig. 4A). Interestingly, by complementing the AlaRS C666A strain with a plasmid expressing the wild-type AlaRS gene, the total steady-state AlaRS levels were reduced to a level more similar to the wild-type strain. AlaRS is known to autoregulate alaS transcription through alanine-dependent bind- ing upstream of the alaS transcription start site (32). In the presence of high intracellular alanine, AlaRS will repress active alaS transcription, presumably leading to a decrease in AlaRS protein levels. As many changes to metabolism were observed, it was of interest to know if perturbation to amino acid biosynthesis was responsible for the increased AlaRS protein levels. To determine if the increase in AlaRS protein levels was
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The Road Ahead: Gaps, Leaks and Drips

The Road Ahead: Gaps, Leaks and Drips

regarded as merely the latest efforts―the latest successes―at injecting less risk into combat, merely the most recent in a long history of efforts by States to fight at a greater distance, to afford greater protection to non-combatants (and combatants), to enhance proportionality―in effect, to pursue many of the ends of humanitarian law. States in this scenario will continue to seek concealment but will recognize that the operation is discoverable and at- tributable. In the recognition of that risk lies the possibility of some inter- national legal regulation. But that regulation, if it occurs, will not likely be deep or broad, because it will be limited by the same incentive structure that drives it: policymakers will continue to seek out rules, here as else- where, intended to permit what they’re doing but to limit what their adver- saries might do. So the blades of such rules are likely to be dull, for the au- thors’ own protection.
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The Neural Correlates of Emotion Regulation by Implementation Intentions

The Neural Correlates of Emotion Regulation by Implementation Intentions

instruction to ‘ regulate ’ or ‘ attend ’ up to when the image was removed (Fig. 1). This 13-second window captured the entire regulation period, based on evidence that implementation intentions have rapid effects following identification of the relevant cue [17] and that these effects may last as long as the emotion-eliciting stimulus is present. At the level of the individual subject, epochs of ‘ regulate ’ were contrasted with epochs of ‘ attend ’ . These first-level, fixed effects analyses were then taken forward to a second, group-level, flexible factorial design. Resulting contrasts from this flexible factorial design were examined at a both more conservative (p < 0.05, FWE corrected) and more liberal (p<0.001 uncorrected) statistical thresholds. Finding objective and effective thresh- olds for voxelwise statistics derived from neuroimaging data has been a long-standing and ongo- ing issue of debate [56], though it has been suggested that optimal thresholds are lower than corrected for multiple comparison thresholds [57]. Specifically, we sought to fully investigate the accuracy of our a priori hypotheses while mitigating against over-reporting of Type 1 (false posi- tive) results. While it has been reported [58] that brain-wide correction for multiple comparisons is unduly conservative for novel complex cognitive and affective social neuroscience processes such as were examined in the present study, we do not believe that use of such correction meth- ods is an ‘all or nothing’ issue (i.e. that intermediate height and extent voxel-thresholds may be valuable in exploratory data analyses and suggesting future hypotheses). Hence, we have reported and interpreted activations at an uncorrected statistical threshold only if they were a priori hypothesised. We have additionally reported contrast values for relevant contrasts and utilised ROI analyses where appropriate. Co-ordinates for foci of activation were converted from MNI to Talairach by using the ‘ mni2tal ’ function within MATLAB.
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Fuzzy Computational Model for Emotion Regulation Based on Affect Control Theory

Fuzzy Computational Model for Emotion Regulation Based on Affect Control Theory

a positive mood will exhibit more cooperative behavior and thus has a relatively faster regulation process. Furthermore, we believe that people are generally unable of measuring (predicting) their precise emotional levels and often they can only identify their emotion type with an estimation of its intensity. Hence, using xed values for the emotion response levels seems unrealistic. In our model, this fact was taken into consideration by declaring a random number in a certain range in order to regulate the measurements of the emotional response levels. The major achievement of our model comes from injecting a component of domain specic knowledge into cost calculations associated with the regulation strategies. In the original study only a component of historical knowledge was considered, while we believe that other knowledge categories, especially domain specic knowledge plays an important role in the associated costs. Domain specic knowledge includes all those knowledge and skills obtained though either formal or informal education and training. By including this component, we managed to build a more realistic and dynamic model while it is still completely consistent with Gross theory.
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Differential Styles of Emotional Reactivity and Antisocial Behavior Relative to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Expression in Detained Youth

Differential Styles of Emotional Reactivity and Antisocial Behavior Relative to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Expression in Detained Youth

hurricane exposure on youth, Marsee (2008) found that trauma exposure was indirectly linked to reactive aggression through the experience of dysregulated emotions brought on by symptoms of PTSD. The association between reactive aggression, emotion dysregulation, and PTSD remained significant after controlling for proactive aggression. Thus, emotionally dysregulated youth who experience symptoms of PTSD may be at increased risk of responding to provocation using reactive aggression. Moreover, in a sample of detained youth, Stimmel and colleagues (2014) reported that the severity of hyperarousal symptoms of PTSD was positively associated with higher levels of reactive aggression, indicating that individual symptom categories of PTSD may provide a clearer picture of the relationship between trauma and externalizing behaviors. Taken together, these findings indicate that high emotional reactivity has been linked to increases in arousal symptoms of PTSD, possibly leading to increased hostile attribution and reactive aggression in antisocial youth.
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Do Loan to Value Ratio Regulation Changes Affect Canadian Mortgage Credit?

Do Loan to Value Ratio Regulation Changes Affect Canadian Mortgage Credit?

The contribution of this paper is that it takes an empirical look at the effects on residential mortgage credit in Canada from the four major LTV policy changes that occurred over the 1981-2012 time period, and does it in a structural vector autoregression (“SVAR”) setting. While plenty of papers on the housing market have been investigated, 2 few if any that this paper has seen, look specifically at the part of consumer credit dealing with the housing market, namely residential credit, in a SVAR setting. Furthermore, while some papers have begun to investigate the relationship between LTV and the economy 3 ,4 , this paper has not seen any analyzed, specifically for Canada, within the traditional SVAR framework, looked at as far back as this paper does. By using a SVAR, one can analyze both the effects of the past exogenous LTV macroprudential regulation, as well as forecasting the potential impact of broader monetary policy shocks, which are generated using the endogenous relationships between a set of macroeconomic variables. As policymakers grapple with using macroprudential regulation versus monetary policy to respond to potential asset bubbles, this paper sheds light on these choices for Canada.
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The Contributions of Language and Behavioral Synchrony in Developing Affect Regulation in High Risk Children

The Contributions of Language and Behavioral Synchrony in Developing Affect Regulation in High Risk Children

The overall purpose of this research was to examine the contributions of children’s language ability and dya- dic behavioral synchrony to young children’s emotion regulation and behavior problems. Toward this end, this study examined the degree to which language and dyadic behavioral synchrony, in dyads where emotion regula- tion has been demonstrated to be problematic, functions to facilitate children’s emotion regulation during a fru- strating event. It was hypothesized that dyadic behavioral synchrony will moderate the relationship between verbal ability and emotion regulation such that low verbal skills will not preclude adaptive regulation. Further, it was hypothesized that LBW children will experience more deficits in emotion regulation and verbal skills as compared to children born full term, however, LBW-mother dyads that demonstrate high levels of synchrony, irrespective of the child’s verbal skills, will demonstrate better emotion regulation.
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Genetic control of photoperiod responsiveness in pea

Genetic control of photoperiod responsiveness in pea

Of the ten circadian clock-related genes now known in pea, similarity in amino acid sequence, gene structure, and diurnal expression profile with Arabidopsis is well established. All key Arabidopsis clock genes are present in pea, supporting the proposal that a common molecular framework may exists in different species in the circadian clock regulation. It is therefore interesting to examine how the circadian clock function adapted in pea to regulate different flowering habits. This will obviously require isolation of mutants which can be done either by reverse genetics or expected to be followed by forward genetics via the studies of putative clock mutants in pea (dne, sn, ppd and hr mutants). Besides identification of mutant loci, comparison of circadian rhythms of clock gene expression and flowering initiation control between wild-type plant and the mutants will help us to explore the phenotypes of these mutants and the genetics interactions of the mutant loci. These phenotypic effects of dne, sn, ppd, and hr mutants on flowering and circadian rhythms will also suggest potential candidate genes by comparison to known Arabidopsis clock mutants. These will be elucidated and discussed in the following chapters.
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Developing and testing an integrative model of binge drinking behaviour in a student population

Developing and testing an integrative model of binge drinking behaviour in a student population

Chapter 2 contains the empirical paper. The empirical paper proposes and tests a theoretically integrated model of BD behaviour in students, which incorporates the key psychological processes examined in the narrative review. Specifically, the study investigates whether insecure attachment styles may give rise to ineffective internal emotion regulation strategies, leaving people seeking out external means of managing their emotions, which may include alcohol use. It is hypothesised that a positive expectancy that alcohol may help with the regulation of emotions may also be accompanied by more positive alcohol expectancies generally, which may in turn give rise to strong approach motivational tendencies towards alcohol. Three hundred and twenty two university students completed an online study to assess drinking behaviour and the key study variables. The results indicate that a large proportion of the sample displayed drinking behaviour that could be described as BD. SEM analysis provided some support for a more integrated model of BD. The study extends our understanding of the psychological processes that may be involved in BD behaviour in students, and tentatively lends support to the idea that there may be a psychosocial pathway from insecure attachment styles through various cognitive and motivational processes to increased BD. A theoretically integrated understanding of the relationships between these key processes may allow interventions or harm-reduction strategies aimed at reducing BD and its potential consequences to be targeted carefully in the areas they are likely to be most
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