To overcome these disadvantages of the conventional approaches, this study proposes a music-aided affectiveinteraction technique. Music is oftentimes referred to as a language of emotion . People commonly enjoy lis- tening to music that presents certain moods in accor- dance with their emotions. In previous studies, researchers confirmed that music greatly influences the affective and cognitive states of users [8-10]. For this reason, we utilize the mood of music that a user is lis- tening to, as a supplementary indicator for affectiveinteraction. Although the musical mood conveys the emotional information of humans in an indirect manner, the variability of emotional states that humans experi- ence while listening to music is relatively low, as com- pared with that of speech or facial expression. Furthermore, the music-based approach has a smaller limitation with respect to the distance between a user and a robot.
This study was focused to see the effect of Williams’ Cognitive – AffectiveInteraction model on creativity in mathematics. This was a true experimental study. The research was carried out in schools in Ludhiana district on a sample of 160 students. Two equal groups were formed on the basis of intelligence. Effect of Williams Model and Traditional Method of Teaching on Creativity was assessed by S 2 MCT tool developed by Sharma and Sansanwal (2012). The result revealed that Williams’ model proved to be better for enriching creativity over traditional method of teaching mathematics. Students of both low and high intelligence do not differ significantly in their scores of creativity in Mathematics and there is no significant interaction between teaching strategies and intelligence on the creativity in Mathematics.
Figure 8 shows the results of one example of interaction with the robot. We began the interaction (the moment of “hatching”) without any object at the front of the robot. The robot thereforefore starts with a “noisy” imprinting situation in which there is no imprinting object—point ‘a’ at the top of Figure 8. Therefore, when we try to approach it (point ‘b0’) it moves backwards (marked as ’b1’ in the bottom graph of the figure). We then give it some com- fort (point ‘c1’ in the middle graph) by touching its side sensor and we observe (also in the middle graph) that the activity level or “arousal” decreases. When we approach the robot again (point ‘c0’) it does not reverse (“avoid us”) anymore, as we can observe in the “plateau” in the lower graph. We then remain close to the robot for some time, touching its sensor simultaneously in order to make it learn that in fact, and contrary to its initial experience, it is beneficial to have a “stimulus” in front of it. When this “stimulus” disappears, we also stop touching its side sensor; the comfort then starts to decrease while the ac- tivity level or ‘arousal’ increases (d1), and the robot will give a high weight to a long time scale (d0) and there- fore it will try to reach a long-term desired perception (e0): it will move forwards (d2) to try find something at
Experiential qualities in general represent abstractions or intermediate-level knowledge and as such they inhabit an epistemological realm similar to other kinds of interpretative qualitative knowledge forms. For instance, the concept of grounding is generally crucial when it comes to the results of qualitative research. A typical taxonomy in interpretive research would be to speak of empirical, analytical and theoretical grounding; our account above provides some concrete illustrations of what this means. The concept of evocative balance is empirically grounded through our reports of user interaction experiences with the eMoto, Affective Diary and Affective Health systems we have created and our analysis of these reports. It is analytically grounded mainly through the way we are using it as a lens for discussing other examples of affectiveinteraction experiences, where we hope to have shown how evocative balance is an apt way to articulate certain desirable traits of interaction, as well as to explain some of the discomforts apparent in less successful interaction experiences. Finally, it is theoretically grounded to some degree by referring to the general theories informing our design work and conceptual development. Further, theoretical
HMMs – a statistical Markov model in which the states and state transitions are not directly available to observation. Instead, the series of outputs dependent on the states are visible. In the case of affect recognition, the outputs represent the sequence of speech feature vectors, which allow the deduction of states’ sequences through which the model progressed. The states can consist of various intermediate steps in the expression of an emotion, and each of them has a probability distribution over the possible output vectors. The states’ sequences allow us to predict the affective state it is one of the most
It has previously been suggested that affective instability may be a core dimension of bipolar disorder, with levels being high in euthymia in comparison to controls (Henry et al., 2008) and existing independent of manic or depressive episodes (Strejilevich et al., 2013). Emerging evidence suggests there are specific gene variants that related specifically to emotional reactivity in BD (Mathieu et al., 2015). We found affective lability levels are higher in those with bipolar disorder than depression, discriminating between them even after controlling for current mood state. Whilst affective instability is transdiagnostic (Broome et al., 2015b) our findings add further support to the idea that affective instability may be a particularly important psychopathology in bipolar disorder. It may underlie some of the severe consequences of the illness, predicting chronicity and severity in youth with the disorder (Yen et al., 2015) and functional losses in those with established illness (Strejilevich et al., 2013).
So like all affective labour, the authoring of philosophical novels is an opportunity amidst risk: the affective investment it requires can result in narratives that are exploitative or alienating if the balance between artistic and pedagogical purposes is not met or if the diversity of philosophical orientations is neglected. Still, its liberating potential lies in the commitments it fosters: in creating curiosity-as-affect, the author prioritizes her readers’ growth, realizing a special type of affective communication with them by crafting an alluring, engaging and transformative series of virtual encounters that model collective meaning construction. This process can be seen as enabling “autonomous circuits of valorization” since it occasions different ways of thinking and valuing that impact the power to act and be affected. Unlike many other affective labourers, the author can experience her work as being intrinsically as well as instrumentally valuable. For these reasons, the authoring of affect through philosophical novels may constitute an instance of positive, productive affective labour that “directly constructs a relationship” 28 through unifying rather than divisive features, laying
understand the emotional state of another, based upon our ability to distinguish ourselves from others (Jankowiak-Siuda, Rymarczyk, & Grabowska, 2011). More specifically, cognitive empathy is the capacity to recognise that an individual may be experiencing particular emotions, enabling insight into another’s beliefs, actions, desires and intentions (Hein & Singer, 2008). Hence, cognitive empathy is often used synonymously with the term ‘affective ToM’ (Olderbak, Sassenrath, Keller & Wilhelm, 2014). Brain regions thought to mediate cognitive empathy include the fusiform gyrus (involved in facial and body recognition), parrahippocampal gyrus (involved in memory encoding and retrieval), and the cuneus (responsible for
The difference between these old marketing models and the current effort to tap into affective registers is arguably twofold. Firstly, new technologies, like those that allow for massive-scale emotion research carried out on big data samples, as well as biofeedback and brainwave measuring tools intended to detect the visceral stirrings assumed to lead to emotional engagements that inform purchase intent, are now widespread in marketing. Secondly, the focus on Pavlovian brain conditioning has been influenced by a continuously shifting theoretical frame in the brain sciences, beginning with the opening up of the black box of behaviourism to cognitive brain modelling, but now increasingly emphasising the significant role emotions play in decision making processes. To be sure, since the mid-1990s, the neurosciences have gradually moved away from a purely cognitive based approach to the brain-mind problem toward an enquiry into the affective, emotive and feely triggers assumed to be enmeshed in the networks between somatic markers and pure reason (Damasio, 2006). The neuroscientific argument forwarded suggests that the perturbations and disturbances of somatic sensations elicited by certain feelings – predominantly fear – can be subjected to response conditioning. There is an attempt, in the work of Joseph LeDoux (2003), for example, to demonstrate how a lab rat’s amygdalae provokes a rapid response based not on cognitive, but emotional information processes (ibid.: 120-124). Using Pavlovian conditioning LeDoux points to a pathway that he contends fear travels through, from an input zone (the lateral amygdala) with connections to most other regions in the amygdala, to the central nucleus, which functions as an output zone connected to networks that control fear behaviours, like freezing, and associated changes in body physiology; heart rate, blood pressure etc. (ibid.).
Zacher, Rosing and Frese (2011) conclude that “leadership researchers have hardly considered age as a substantial concept” (p. 43). Current studies about leaders’ age and leadership behaviors have shown mixed results (DeRue, Nahrgang, Wellman & Humphrey, 2011). Moreover, in contemporary research leaders’ age has featured as control variable (Walter & Scheibe, 2013). During this study, we tested the direct effect of age on leader effectiveness and examined the indirect effect of leaders’ age on leader effectiveness, mediated by leader affective state and leadership behavior. Besides that, DeRue et al. (2011) designed a classification scheme which summarized studies that linked age and leadership behavior. Most studies in this classification scheme rely only on quantitative survey measures (Hit & Tyler, 1991; Barbuto, Fritz, Matkin, & Marx, 2007; Ng & Sears, 2012). Based on this scheme, Walter and Scheibe (2013) developed a novel, theoretical, emotion-based framework that explained age- leadership behavior linkages. They have integrated theories of emotional aging with research on emotions and leadership, but empirical work is missing. We bridge this gap by empirically testing leadership behavior with leaders’ age and their affective state.
quency of sexual fantasies, something they have in common with the self-destructive and the high affective groups in the present study. The result may therefore indicate that self-de- structive and high affective individuals are inclined to anxious attachment. It is suggested (Birnbaum, 2007) that individuals with anxious attachment orientation uses sexual fantasies in order to satisfy their needs for security, closeness and affirma- tion. Also the need for novelty and variety (Leitenberg & Hen- ning, 1995) and aggression (Heiman & Hatch, 1980) may be channeled into sexual fantasies. Finally, self-destructive and high affective personality types report higher levels of stress (Bood, et al., 2004) than the self-actualized and low affective types, which could possibly imply the existence of a mecha- nism in which sexual fantasies acts as a valve for frustrations caused by stress.
IAPS pictures were used as visual stimuli to induce affective reactions. We excluded seven pictures that did not have proper norms. Therefore, the valence and arousal dimensions of affective responses to 816 images [8,9,11] were assessed in Chinese participants (available from: http://www.unifesp.br/dpsicobio/adap/instructions. pdf ). The 816 pictures were randomized and divided into three sets. The pictures were presented using the Presentation software (Neurobehavioral Systems, Inc., Albany, CA, USA). Each participant was seated, facing a screen to which the pictures were projected; consecutive sets were separated by a 15-minute break. Each picture was presented for 4 seconds followed by a gray screen for 6 seconds.
One fundamental issue addressed in the present study was whether or not there existed a consistent relationship between gender, affect, stress and Type A-personality characteristics. In the present study, which consisted of three relatively young populations (Study I, mean age = 23.61 years; Study II, mean age = 18.66 years; Study III, mean age =18.45 years), several gender differences emerged that, taken together, provide several to consider in terms of the health status of young women: (i) in all three studies, the female participants expressed more NA, stress and Type A-personality than the male participants, (ii) these increases in negative affect, stress and Type A-personality are associated with the Self-destructive and High affective profile type, which in turn are linked in general with disadvantageous aspects of both psychological and somatic health (Andersson-Arntén et al., 2008; Karlsson & Archer, 2007; Palomo et al., 2004), (iii) high levels of NA and/or stress are linked with poor outcome and deleterious health (Lindahl & Archer, 2013; Bood et al., 2004; Denollet, 2000; Van Yperen, 2003; Watson, 1988; Watson & Pennebaker, 1989), (iv) the established links between stress and Type A-personality with illhealth markers such as sympathetic nervous system arousal, cardiovascular disease and immune system system suppression (e.g. Contrada, Wright, & Glass, 1985; Dienstbier, 1989; Mayes, Sime, & Ganster, 1984; Pittner, Houston & Spiridigliozzi, 1983), and (v) the potential risks for self-destructive behavior, such as alcohol/substance use (Bonin, McCreary, & Sadava, 2000; Park & Grant, 2005) and/or suicidal behavior (Canetto, 1997; Linehan, 1973) relating to gender, negative affect and mood state.
One interesting interaction between the modality context and the valence of target trials was also observed in which there is a smaller valence effect for properties verified in the same modality than in a different modality. Namely, the verification of properties of positive concepts was performed more quickly than that of negative concepts, particularly if the properties to be verified were presented in the same modality as the previous one. This could be explained by attention bias. When the emotional information is processed, attention bias would be found. Researchers have proved that negative information (e.g., threat-related and ambiguous cues) can influence the magnitude of the IOR (inhibition of return) effect, which increases attention dwell-time and disengagement of attention from threat-related stimuli (Fox, Russo, & Dutton, 2002). Attention is guided more potently by negative information, such as fearful facial expressions or negative words (Fox, Mathews, Calder, & Yiend, 2007; Ohman, Lundqvist, & Esteves, 2001). Therefore, the verification of affective information or of affective concepts should show a valence effect. When attention is captured by negative information in concepts, then the verification of this negative information will be even slower, since attention to the negative information inhibits the processing of other information (e.g., emotion-unrelated, or positive information).
The problem with defining biofeedback and affective games is that there is a fine line between them which often becomes blurred. Take for example, the relax-to-win game by Bersak et al . The game uses the player's galvanic skin responses (i.e. sweat), to measure their current state of relaxation. This in turn is used to control the speed of a dragon in a racing game. The relationship between physiology and gameplay is relatively straightforward and easy to grasp, the more relaxed the player is the faster their dragon will go. On the surface this is a typical biofeedback game in which physiological data replaces conventional control inputs. However the competitive nature of videogames runs counter to this; relaxing whilst trying to win is not exactly the norm. As Bersak et al discovered players had difficulty initially adjusting to the game format; they become more aroused during play, which in turn caused them to lose as their speed reduced, further promoting arousal at the loss. This feedback of uncontrolled affective information propagates an affective feedback loop, which makes the game an affective game. However if through practice, the player becomes proficient in controlling their natural physiological responses; the awareness of volitional control makes the game become a biofeedback game once again.
Their empirical test of the model, done on 1,874 Mormons (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) in the United States, revealed five dimensions: one cognitive, two affective, and two behavioural. Using Cornwall et al.’s (1986) model Parboteeah, Hoegl, and Cullen (2008) empirically tested the religion and ethics. Using data from the World Values Survey (2000), a large sample of 63,087 respondents from 44 countries, they found support for three dimensions of religiosity and their negative relationship to affective, and behavioural. They argue that a multidimensional model better explains the relationship between religion and ethics than a unidimensional construct of religiosity, such as religion affiliation or church attendance.
2. Utilitarian judgment is associated with the reason- ing process. Individuals with utilitarian principles consider that the morality of one ’ s behavior depends on whether the utility or outcome is max- imized (eg, killing one to save ﬁ ve is acceptable). 18 Individuals who tend to make deontological judg- ments in moral judgment often score high measures of affective processing. 19,20 Conversely, clinical patients with affective processing defects make utilitarian judg- ments in moral judgments. Given the social and affective de ﬁ cits of psychopaths, researchers found that psychopa- thy in western culture can make more utilitarian judgments. 21–24 Koenigs found that primary psychopaths endorse more personal utilitarian choices in comparison with secondary psychopaths and non-psychopaths. 25 Balash and Falkenbach (2018) investigated the relation- ship between psychopathic traits and utilitarian endorse- ment in a college sample and found that individuals with a high level of psychopathic traits willingly accept harm- ful actions in accidental harm scenarios. 26 In the same year, Virgil used various sacri ﬁ cial dilemmas to analyze the relationship between psychopathic traits and utilitarian moral judgments. Comparing with an imperso- nal dilemma, the agent needs to use personal force (ie, by executing a motor act) and involve emotion in a personal dilemma. They found that psychopathic personality traits can only predict utilitarian judgment in personal dilem- mas. Hence, people with psychopathic traits can make utilitarian moral judgments for emotional defects. However, Cima and Tonnaer found no difference between the utilitarian endorsements of forensic psychopaths (indexed via PCL-R; Hare) and non-psychopaths. 27 Most studies found that individuals with a high level of psychopathic traits make more utilitarian moral judgments.
There are many historical examples I could give to illustrate the strategy of appealing to the affective salience of doctrines. One notable appeal of this kind arises in the disagreement between John Calvin and the authors of the Decree on Justification at the Council of Trent on the issue of election and assurance. In his argument in favor of predestination in the Institutes, Calvin asserts from the start that the value of the doctrine is not least that through it we come to ‘sincerely feel how much we are obliged to God’. He argues that the doctrine should bestow upon those who understand and believe it ‘firmness and confidence’ and ‘free[dom] from all fear’ By contrast, ‘all those who do not know that they are God’s own will be miserable through constant fear.’ 12 In other words, Calvin argues we should agree with him on election not just because of exegetical-theological arguments about a text like Romans 8:29-30, but because it is only through correct understanding of this doctrine that a certain kind of fear of God can be correctly managed and dealt with.