The first part of the project focused on the development of the annotated datasets. The sets are a subset of the tagged sets described in Eiselen and Puttkammer (2014), annotated for an additional level. This annotation process was facilitated through annotation protocols provided to annotators that are based on those used for the annotation of the CoNLL-2000 shared task (Tjong Kim Sang & Buchholz, 2000), localised and adapted for each language. The protocols distinguish five main types of phrases, namely Noun (NP), Verb (VP), Adjective (AdjP), Adverb (AdvP), and Prepositional (PP) phrases. Since all phrases in the phrase chunking paradigm must be non-overlapping, maximal projections, with no internal chunks, NP and VP chunks usually supersedes Adjective and Adverb phrases, while prepositional phrases consist exclusively of prepositions (Abney, 1992; Tjong Kim Sang & Buchholz, 2000).
Vol. 5, No. 2 82 Emerging linguistic communities in eastern and southern Africa with Kiswahili and Afrikaans are instructive. It is believed that Kiswahili will contribute to integration of diverse communities of east Africa including Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi. Also, peoples of southern Africa are encouraged to speak Afrikaans and English as well as other indigenous languages such as Ndebele, Sotho, Swati, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, and Zulu. Two diametrically opposed perspectives have emerged in relation to the presence of many languages in Africa. The first perspective links multilingualism with several problems including ethnic conflicts, political tensions, poverty and underdevelopment, while the second perspective promotes human right to the use of language. Zeleza (2006: 20) noted that: ‘the multiplicity of African languages is often seen as a bane of African unity, whether at the national, regional or continental level.’ Alternatively, the use of one national language is associated with economic prosperity and political stability. Scholars have debunked the argument for unilingualism (Ndhlovu, 2008; Batibo, 2005). It has been shown that:
There is also a case, however, between the need to foster its own identity and necessity. India is a good example. After gaining the independence, India planned to have an official language of the union by choosing Hindi to replace English, considered the imperial tongue. However, the prospect of the changeover, led to much alarm in the non Hindi-speaking areas of India, especially Dravidian-speaking states whose languages were not related to Hindi at all. As a result, India continues using English for official purposes along with Hindi. Namibia, colonized by Germany, is another example where English is selected to solve national conflicts. The country gives official status to English after its independence, as there are too many African languages (Putz, 1992, cited in Clyne, 1997, p. 305). Both countries welcome English as it brings some benefits, equality and communication ability with the rest of the world, and, yet, they use English with their own characteristics.
We report on a project which we believe to have the potential to become home to, among others, bilingual dictionaries for African lan- guages. Kept in a well-structured XML for- mat with several possible degrees of confor- mance, the dictionaries will be able to get us- able even in their early versions, which will be then subject to supervised improvement as user feedback accumulates. The project is FreeDict, part of SourceForge, a well-known Internet repository of open source content. We demonstrate a possible process of dic- tionary development on the example of one of FreeDict dictionaries, a Swahili-English dictionary that we maintain and have been developing through subsequent stages of in- creasing complexity and machine- processability. The aim of the paper is to show that even a small bilingual lexical re- source can be submitted to this project and gradually developed into a machine- processable form that can then interact with other FreeDict resources. We also present the immediate benefits of locating bilingual Afri- can dictionaries in this project.
The African novel thus produced was European in both theme and language. To be truly African meant to shed all marks of colonialism, language being the first and the foremost.The African literary world had two main streams of writers: first, a young well educated African elite writing novels and poetry undermining the traditional way of life and second the other African writers reinstating the beauty and validity of their native cultures. Thislatter class of the writers can further be divided into two streams: those choosing to write in the European languages and the others writing in the native tongues. The former is faced with the formidable task of, as D.E.S. Maxwell says, “achieving a distinctive national tone against the intimidating strength of the parent language.” (Maxwell 1965, 35-36) The first attempt to write, on account of an African writer became apparent in what is called an “apprentice period”. The writers like Olaudah Equiana, Samuel Adjai Crowther, Africanus Horton and Edward Blyden pioneered the protest and paved the way for the creative explosion of the 1950‟s, which also, for the most part of it, remained a period of the incubation of the “cultural shock” faced by the Africans as a result of Christianity. At this point of time it is necessary to mention Chinua Achebe who drew on particularly the rich tradition of myths, folklores and legends.
Generally, access to basic health services is good, although there are still some pockets in the rural areas with poor access. Significant achievements have been registered with regard to immunisation services, with 90% coverage for childhood immunisation. Under-5 and infant mortality rates have also declined over the past 30 years from 320 and 217 per 1000 live births respectively to the present levels estimated at 135 and 75 per 1000 live births respectively. The gains are attributed to improvement in the access to social services, with 53% and 82% of the population having access to improved sanitation and safe potable water respectively. Despite these gains, the current trends may not permit attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) targets for under-5 mortality rate set at 45 per 1000 live births. The most common causes of child mortality are malaria, diarrhoeal diseases and active respiratory infection, all of which are influenced by malnutrition. The maternal mortality rate remains high compared to other countries in the sub-region, yet the trends suggest the possibility of meeting the MDG targets by 2015. The 2006 Sentinel Survey puts the prevalence rate for HIV/AIDS, specifically HIV-1 at 2.8%, and HIV-2 at 0.9% 1 . Malaria continues to be a health challenge, and is the number one killer disease
Some people maintain that Africa cannot unite because it lacks the ingredients necessary for unity including a common race, culture and language. Yet, the forces that unite Africa greatly outweigh the forces that divide it. In practical terms, this deep rooted unity has been demonstrated in the development of Pan-Africanism and, more recently, in the projection of what has been called the African personality in world affairs. This paper generally focuses upon discerning the best way to promote unity and development in Africa, as well as on the correct path for achieving economic development in the continent. Perhaps no condition better depicts the state of Africa’s current development than the commonality of poverty in Africa. Despite these bleak circumstances, Africans welcomed the new millennium with enthusiasm and a new found determination to tackle the continent’s long standing developmental burden. This paper recommends that Africans be mindful that in a world that is rapidly globalizing, enormous challenges face the continent’s development and that power, might, wealth and technology determine ‘who gets what, and when and how’ in the world. For Africa to get out of its low-level economic trap and lay the foundation for significant progress in economic decolonization, new economic strategies need to be formulated and rigorously pursued at all levels.
1.1. Over the past decade, the recognition of the link between good governance and poverty reduction has triggered the need to measure the quality of governance and monitor its progress over time and across countries. Accurately assessing governance performance is today a priority for African governments and civil society, as reflected by the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) and the African Governance Report (AGR) produced by the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA). Governance assessments are important diagnostic tools, guiding policy reform and monitoring progress at the country level. Such assessments are also important for development partners, foreign investors, and multilateral financial institutions, as governance quality and reform performance inform country risk ratings, investment decisions and the allocation of foreign aid.
atPhabongkha near Lhasa where he also did three years retreat with the Dharma king and taught him the art of language and literature. The king was overwhelmed as his dream was not only fulfilled but also for the first time in the history of Tibet, ThonmiSambhota brought the gift of writing from India and laid the foundation of literary system. Consequently, he was probably given the title sLobpon (Acharya) by the king as an honor. This event plays a significant role in the history of Tibet where indigenous religion i.e. Bonpo was taken over by Buddhism as well as creating new script for translating Sanskrit religious texts into Tibetan. Eventually, ThonmiSambhota invented Tibetan script of four vowels and thirty consonants in accordance with the Tibetan language phonetics. From the sixteen 16 of Sanskrit vowels he took only four, which coincided with Tibetan. The four Tibetan Vowels are:
School is a privileged space where student builds the base of education. Nowadays education is everybody’s right, something that haven’t always happened is looking at the educational trajectory over time. One of main foundations for building and formation of individuals is reading that is able to value different languages exist in school space, they are originating from empirical relationship between individual and the where he is inserted in, expressing – so – origin and evolution of a people’s culture, in speaking or writing. National Curricular Parameters value speaking and writing learning in school because the human material is richer and mainly the most concrete meterial of a language and a people studying. A society identity can be studied and understood from its speakers in their real process of comunication, and school is the ideal space for changing and conviviality among people, where they position critically, give different opnion and make their world knowledge deeper from a communicative context which is offered by the language, what provides knowledge coherence and buldings and more thinking, dinamic and investigative actions in a educational and worldwide scenery in constant transformation in connection with innovation and technology.
Nigeria is one of such African countries. Many Nigerian elite use the NigE. NigE has currency within educational and political circles. It is the variety that Achebe‟s illiterate characters in the novel use. Elements of interference in the speech of characters give it the local flavour. Their speech is sometimes interspersed with Igbo words (code-mixing) and in some situations they switch from this variety (NigE) to the native language (code-switching). The varieties of English in Arrow of God is a reflection of how the English language is used in Nigeria. They are also effective means of projecting the themes of culture conflict and disintegration of cultural values in the novel.
provider of development assistance, followed by China. In early June, Beijing had committed itself to the equivalent of € 114 m in projectaid, including co-financing the second phase of construction of Lomé-Tokoin airport, which was to be a regional transport hub, similar to the Lomé deep-water port that had been expanded in recent years with Chinese aid. In addition, both Germany and China pledged substantial support for the long-stalled joint Benin-Togo hydroelectric Adjarala Dam Project on the lower Mono river. However, Gnassingbé declared the project suspended on 28 December because of the heavy additional indebtedness that the implementation of the project would have entailed. Beijing pledged itself to cancel parts of Togo’s debt and to apply more favourable concessional loans in future. In return, Lomé counted among the eight (mostly African) governments that publicly supported Beijing in its dispute with the International Court of Justice in The Hague (Netherlands) concerning its territorial claims in the South China Sea. In August, Gnassingbé made an official visit to Israel, his second in less than four years, consolidating the long-standing cooperation between Togo and Israel in security expertise. In return, Lomé offered Israel support at the UN and in the International Atomic Energy Agency vis à vis international criticism of its settlements on the West Bank and its refusal to open its undeclared nuclear facilities to UN inspectors. Tel Aviv aimed at building a ’ wall of friendly countries ’ in Africa stretching from the Ivory Coast, Togo and Cameroon in West Africa to Rwanda and Kenya in the east. Shortly after the end of August, Gnassingbé was among the 35 African heads of state attending the grand sixth Tokyo International Conference on AfricanDevelopment (TICAD VI) in Nairobi (Kenya
When asked to define Standard American English (SAE), their answers were very much like their descriptions of AAVE. Two out of three Baby Boomers as well as two out of three Generation X-ers attributed SAE to a particular location. Their definitions of SAE placed it as the language ―taught in schools‖ or in the workplace environment. The other remaining respondents used such descriptions as ―proper‖, ―common‖, and ―not hip hop‖. These descriptions all indicate a belief that SAE is a mark of both education and status. Daniel A. Heller defines Standard English as ―the common language‖ that ―we use when we want to speak across cultural barriers‖ or ―the language of the marketplace and power system.‖ Black Baby Boomers, sought to participate equally in that power system, and education was the best way to ensure that opportunity. In fact, African Americans between 1899-1966 operated with the understanding that education determines class and status‖(Morgan, 1994, 337).
The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) identified seven behavioral attributes that may impact a student’s academic outcomes as they enter kindergarten. These attributes, reported by teachers in the longitudinal study, ECLS-K:2011 included paying attention, persisting in completing tasks, showing eagerness to learn new things, working independently, adapting easily to changes in routine, keeping belongings organized, and following classrooms rules. From a cognitive perspective, subject-matter development in reading and mathematics included such skills as letter recognition, rhyming words, and vocabulary, recognition of numbers, shapes, patterns, and basic addition and subtraction (U.S. Department of Education, 2016). The National Association for the Education of Young Children defined school readiness through a focus on the school environment, social institutions, and familial supports needed to ensure students succeed in school. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (2009) adopted the following definition of readiness from Maxwell and Clifford (2004):
Considering the past studies reviewed within and outside Africa context, the following research gaps were established. Most reviewed studies majorly focused on the link between stock market development and economic growth, but these studies employed ratio of market capitalization to gross domestic product, stock value traded, and number of stock deals as indicators for stock market development while gross domestic product as indicator for economic growth; these past studies failed to employ stock turnover as a measure for stock market development, this serves as variable measurement gap. Similarly, these studies failed to consider corruption perception index as control variable in determining stock market development and economic performance, whereas literatures have established that countries with high level of corruption will not achieve high level of economic performance. Therefore, corruption perception index serves as control variable measurement gap. Based on these existing research gaps and inconclusive findings within and outside African context, this current study is motivated to examine the effect of stock market development on economic performance of West Africa countries .
Against postcolonial and cultural readings of Chinua Achebe’s works, this article approaches Achebe’s fiction and non-fiction using Freud’s theory on narcissism and creative writers as well as Otto Rank’s views on art and the artist. It highlights the narcissistic formation of the ego ideal of Achebe and explains its growth according to Freud’s views on the psychology of repression and wish-fulfillment. This assumption is built upon a reading of Achebe’s novels and some of his non-fiction to argue that Achebe followed in his works the ideals he internalized during his childhood and narcissistically repressed. An analysis of some of Achebe’s works is used to support our argument that Achebe’s attempts to prescribe the direction of African art and letters as well as his didactic concern with the value and effect of African literature all testify to the writer’s narcissistic repression and the family ideals founded on such repression within a colonial, missionary setting. Achebe's use of English language in his fiction and criticism and his following of Christianity support the same notion of ego ideal we postulate. Equally significant is the notion of “ambivalence” we find in Achebe’s treatment of themes like language, tolerance, and religion and which we can justify using the same theory we posit and in terms of conflicting ideals. The article interrogates whether we can come up with the term “the intellectual ego” and connect it with the authors and scholars and their works as the literary and artistic theories they embrace are a manifestation of the ideals they practice or simply aspire to.
many linguists to adopt the nativist position men- tioned earlier. The nativist position could in princi- ple be integrated in an observational learning frame- work by introducing strong biases on the generali- sation process, incorporating the constraints of uni- versal grammar, but it has been difficult to identify and operationalise enough of these constraints to do concrete experiments in realistic settings. Second, observational learning assumes that the language system (lexicon and grammar) exists as a fixed static system. However, observations of language in use shows that language users constantly align their lan- guage conventions to suit the purposes of specific conversations (ClarkBrennan, 1991). Natural lan- guages therefore appear more to be like complex adaptive systems, similar to living systems that con- stantly adapt and evolve. This makes it difficult to rely exclusively on statistical generalisation. It does not capture the inherently creative nature of language use.
Turkana County in Kenya has been a conflict prone region for decades with ethnic conflict and banditry resulting in disastrous consequences evident until today. This research aims at investigating the impact of SALWS in conflict and insecurity in the region with a view to finding workable solutions to curb the proliferation of SALWS. The study will ultimately contribute to the development initiatives in this area. The information required will be contributed by you and others within the region. The information you will give will be treated with confidentiality and will only be used for research purpose only. You are also requested to observe the same principle. This form is aimed at getting your consent to take part in this study on your own volition. Have you understood the importance of this study and the fact that there are no risks to anyone including yourself in participating in it?
Without sounding like a dissenter or an arch pessimist, it is pertinent to assert that indigenous African cultures are today at the brink of extinction due to marginalization and the imposition of European values made possible largely by advanced information technology that is a function of globalization. This erosive tendency, if unchecked, has the potential to obliterate African cultures and ways of life particularly given the rate at which globalizing trends that aim at international integration and interchange of world views, products and ideas, including democratic ideals, are fast enveloping African states, even at traditional levels. Already, African cultures are dubbed primitive, African democracy plastic and unsophisticated, even by Africans themselves. To attempt to reverse this trend and focus attention on the upliftment of the African image and identity, this paper explores the role oral literature can play within the current context of globalization and the attainment of democratic ideals. The paper therefore posits that the neglect of oral literature accounts for the continuous enslavement of the African mentality leading to the excessive reliance on Eurocentric paradigms for the interpretation of reality. It concludes that for Africa and Africans to impact democratically in todays globalized context, Africans should have recourse to the liberating potential of oral literature to strengthen their image and identity which can then be bandied positively in the modern capitalist market economy driven by globalization.