African Women's Studies

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Utilising Deep Learning and Genome Wide Association Studies for Epistatic-Driven Preterm Birth Classification in African-American Women

Utilising Deep Learning and Genome Wide Association Studies for Epistatic-Driven Preterm Birth Classification in African-American Women

At this stage of development, the findings in this pa- per demonstrate that a GWAS classification system could provide an early screening tool for medical practitioners (general practitioners, gynaecologists and nursing and mid- wifery professionals) to identify women with a genetic disposition to preterm birth. Currently in gynaecology and obstetrics, screening for patients with an increased risk of preterm birth is performed by assessing patient risk factors and ultrasound of the cervix. Neither of these methods has good sensitivity or specificity and there is a great need to identify patients at high risk of spontaneous preterm birth, both for potential interventions in the disease process which include medications (progesterone) and surgical procedures (cervical cerclage) and for interventions to decrease neonatal morbidity (antenatal steroids). Therefore, the results in this paper suggest that commercialising an assay of the 4666 SNPs identified in this study (processed through the deep learning stacked autoencoder and classification models) would provide sufficient information about a mother’s pre- disposition to deliver term or preterm. This would even- tually lead to an automated, therapeutic intervention to direct medical attention toward high-risk pregnant mothers and help to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with preterm deliveries. The current protocol used in gynaecol- ogy and obstetrics does not routinely include genetic screen- ing. This approach has the potential to deliver significant impact within preterm birth treatment and care.
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African-American Studies

African-American Studies

There is a not currently a minor in African American Studies. Instead, all University of Maryland students have the opportunity to earn a certificate in African American Studies (21 credits); however, through a joint venture with the Women’s Studies Department, African American Studies does offer a minor in Black Women’s Studies (15 credits).

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“I Worry about My Community”:  African American Women Utilizing Communal  Notions of Citizenship in the Social Studies Classroom

“I Worry about My Community”: African American Women Utilizing Communal Notions of Citizenship in the Social Studies Classroom

In particular, Ms. Edward mentioned that “sisterhood” was essential to how she viewed herself as a citizen in that particular community. Ms. Edward’s sorority gave her a community and “sisters” that offered her companionship and an opportunity to experience citizenship. Black women’s relationships with one another, in both formal and informal organizations, offer opportunities to “affirm one another’s humanity, specialness, and right to exist” (Collins, 2009, p. 113). Women-centered networks and “fictive kin” relationships (Stack, 1974) offer Black women a community of support and uplift as well as a space to collectively cope and resist oppression (Collins, 2009). When describing what citizenship meant to her personally, Ms. Edward described a fictive kin network of support and uplift. Citizenship, Ms. Edward believed, should provide that same sense of belonging, support, and uplift. Moreover, an important part of her affiliation with that community was engaging in community service. This suggests that in exchange for membership and a sense of sisterhood, service was an expectation and responsibility for her (as a member). Through her membership in her sorority, Ms. Edward was able to view citizenship as communal and not just as being an individual entity. Community is often characterized as a feeling of companionship with others as a result of shared attitudes, interests, and goals. Members of a community often develop relationships with others that create a sense of belonging to that group and space.
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Clinical malaria in African pregnant women

Clinical malaria in African pregnant women

Each year 25 million African women become pregnant in malaria endemic areas [1]. In most of these settings malaria transmission is stable and Plasmodium falciparum is predominant [2]. Primigravidae women have the high- est risk for malaria infection [3,4]. Malaria infections are associated with maternal anaemia, low birth weight and premature delivery [5-8]. Despite this well-documented indirect morbidity burden, it is generally assumed that due to the acquisition of significant levels of anti-malarial immunity in areas of stable transmission, parasitaemic pregnant women are rarely symptomatic, and that severe disease or death from malaria is extremely unusual [9]. However, this assumption is based on a few studies car- ried out among women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) for routine examination and on cross-sectional community studies, which tend to underestimate the actual frequency of malaria-related symptoms [10,11]. This misrepresentation of the problem's magnitude has affected resource prioritisation for malaria control in preg- nancy in many African countries http://rbm.who.int/ amd2003/amr2003/pdf/ch4.pdf.
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APPLIED WOMEN S STUDIES

APPLIED WOMEN S STUDIES

Linda M. Perkins, Ph.D is University Associate Professor and Director of Applied Women’s Studies at Claremont Graduate University. She holds an interdisciplinary university appointment in the departments of Applied Women’s Studies, Educational Studies, Cultural Studies and History. Dr. Perkins is a historian of Women’s and African American higher education. Her primary areas of research are on the history of race and American women’s higher education, the education of African Americans in elite institutions and the history of talent identification programs for African Americans students.
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Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women

Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women

In conclusion, based on the lessons learned from conducting our sexuality study, we have attempted to provide the reader with a variety of useful recommendations on how to avoid receiving short sexuality-related answers; for instance, Rose’s [57] insightful and creative ways of investigating sexuality among African American women, in general, could guide future studies on older African American women in particular. Paying attention to respondents’ initial experiences of sexuality, including how it took shape and evolved with age, the complexity of their race, gender, class, and sexuality should be explored simultaneously in future studies, to better elucidate the themes identified in this discussion. Often viewed in manufactured images of the “jezebel and sexual savage,” African American women have responded in many ways to the aforementioned potentially traumatizing circumstances, including keeping discussions of and attitudes toward sexuality to a minimum, thus becoming more conservative and sexually restrained. Social variables such as a widespread propensity to equate aging with senility and poor health, as well as an age- related decline in both beauty and a positive sense of self, could further complicate this picture. In 2006, Slevin [62] contended that older age is viewed as “a social contagion” that could compel older adults to avoid one another and seek the company of those younger than themselves. These ageist attitudes are likely to apply to older African American women as well. In future research, it would be very interesting to identify the creative ways through which some older African American women are able to counter the multiple negative pressures that are typically inscribed on their sexuality, and how they manage to nonetheless feel empowered in their sexual expression. Perhaps, although still unbeknown to researchers such as ourselves, many older African American women have found innovative ways to integrate their sexual desire with sexual activity within their lives, as sexual pleasure is a main component of integral sexual health [63]. These women would provide powerful role models for future generations of African American women.
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Annual report 2008 / African Studies Centre

Annual report 2008 / African Studies Centre

ed to religious service and have separate areas for men and women, who may not intermingle. Each has their own mosque or prayer house and is self-suffi- cient in cooking and other daily chores. Farmers in the surrounding areas pro- vide the foodstuffs that the residents do not cultivate themselves and members spend their days praying, studying and discussing religious texts. There is a remarkable communal spirit. Some people come to stay for a couple of years to recover from personal problems or crisis, to ‘find themselves’ or to learn about religion. Others stay longer or become life-long devotees. The communi- ty always has the shrine of the founder as its centre and is headed by the incumbent of the sheikh line. Thousands of visitors come on pilgrimage to the shrine on Mawlid (the Prophet Mohammed’s birthday) or on the Id al ‘Adha (Feast of the Offering) for commemorative rites and healing ceremonies. These places are vibrant centres of religious experience and play an important role in local communal life.
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Annual report 2000 / African Studies Centre

Annual report 2000 / African Studies Centre

The research activities of Gerti Hesseling were of necessity limited because of her tasks as ASC Director. The year 2000 saw the start of a cooperative project between the Faculty of Law at the University of Bamako in Mali and the University of Leiden in which the ASC is participating together with the Van Vollenhoven Institute and the Centre for International Legal Cooperation. Gerti Hessling is the chairperson of the Leiden partnership. One of the project’s objectives is the development of methodological tools for research in the field of legal anthropology at the Faculty of Law in Mali. The Dutch partners developed a reader in this subject and assisted two Malian lecturers in writing a research proposal on land law (see Section 4). During the year several smaller research projects were started. With research assistant, Marijke van den Engel, a study on the legal position of Malian women was carried out, indicating that the official legal system in Mali still shows discriminatory features limiting women in their professional ambitions. The impact of the decentralization process in Mali on the rural population was another research project undertaken with Han van Dijk, which outlined the undesirable side effects of decentralization. Finally, together with Mirjam de Bruijn, Hesseling started preparations for a book on the impact of climate change in various Sahelian cities.
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The status of Greek women in 1940's, 1950's and 1960's

The status of Greek women in 1940's, 1950's and 1960's

In conclusion, over the last century many political incidents took place, such as the Varlık Tax, the pogrom of September, 1955 and the deportation of Greek citizens, which had a catalytic role in the very existence of the Greek community in Istanbul, since gradually the members of community started to leave from Istanbul in order to settle in Greece or other countries. Although, the political climate is outlined through the literature with the most academics highlighting the fact that the political rivalries between Greece and Turkey had a direct impact in the status of the Istanbul Greek community, the interviews side of Istanbulite women and how they experiences these incidents. More specifically, the primary sources indicate that the social connections of a woman could safe her husband’s life, for example Agape’s mother managed to take her husband from the labor battalions back to their home, on the contrary the wife of Sophia’s dentist was unable to save him from the labor battalions and did not find him again. Financial status was also very important, for instance men without any property were not obligated to pay the tax, such as Irene’s father who was a soldier when the Varlık tax was imposed. On the other side, Sophia’s uncle Kotsos, who was very reach was able to pay off the civil servants in order to not pay the tax.
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Women s Safety is a Men s Issue: Men s attitudes to violence against women and what that means for men

Women s Safety is a Men s Issue: Men s attitudes to violence against women and what that means for men

There are many other examples where male leaders, whether holding positions of public office or corporate leadership all the way to coaching the local football team, can harness their influence to challenge violence and promote respectful relationships. A recent prominent example is the advocacy of Wellington Shire Deputy Mayor Patrick McIvor to challenge the use of council operated spaces for events that were contrary to the values of an inclusive and respectful community. McIvor publicly challenged his fellow councillors to stop a proposed men’s only stripper night that was to take place in a community hall. After generating much media coverage he was successful in having the event cancelled. The action has gone further to embed gender equality into future community hall agreements as they are renewed. Council will be adding general statements of principle including that they must be safe, accessible, welcoming and promote respectful relationships, which will prevent situations like this occurring again. Other examples include Will Irving, Group Managing Director of Telstra Business. Irving has championed Telstra’s involvement and accreditation as a White Ribbon Workplace; leading action to respond to and ultimately prevent violence against women. Tod Stokes meanwhile, a men’s worker with Kornar Winmil Yunti (a not-for-profit organisation that supports Aboriginal men and families in South Australia), uses his community connections, particularly those through Australian Rules Football, for the prevention of men’s violence against women in indigenous communities. Finally, Mick Doleman, Deputy National Secretary of the Maritime Union Australia and 2011 White Ribbon Ambassador of the Year, recently led 1400 members of the International Transport Workers Congress in taking the White Ribbon Oath. 20
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Women s and Gender Studies

Women s and Gender Studies

Other  Awards  that  May  Be  of  Interest  to  Graduate  Students  in  Women’s  and  Gender  Studies  lists  awards  that,  while   not  directly  or  exclusively  targeted  at  Women’s  and  Gender  Studies  proposals,  emphasize  themes  and  issues  that  are   relevant  to  scholars  of  Women’s  and  Gender  Studies.    For  example,  the  Harry  Frank  Guggenheim  Dissertation   Fellowship  program  would  support  research  on  domestic  violence  or  anti-­‐gay  hate  crimes.    The  Charlotte  Newcombe   Fellowship  program  would  support  research  on  ethical,  religious,  or  cultural  values  as  they  relate  to  gender.    The   Villers  and  Wellstone  Fellowships  might  be  suitable  for  a  scholar  with  interest  in  how  gender  relates  to  the  issue  of   health  care  access.    And  so  on.    These  programs  accept  applications  from  a  wide  range  of  disciplinary  backgrounds,   with  an  emphasis  on  humanities  and  social  science  or  policy  research.  
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The results of the Women s Health

The results of the Women s Health

1. Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, LaCroix AZ, Kooperberg C, Stefanick ML, et al.; Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initia- tive Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy menopausal women: principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:321-33. 2. Stearns V, Beebe KL, Iyengar M, Dube E. Paroxetine controlled release

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THE WOMEN S ART INSTITUTE

THE WOMEN S ART INSTITUTE

A resurgence of activity and discussion around the issue of women and art has galvanized artists to ask some new questions. What do you have to say about contemporary women’s images? Where are the new horizons in women’s art practice, or in interdisciplinary collaboration and feminist art? Since 1999, the Women’s Art Institute Summer Studio Intensive has grown out of the questions that contemporary women artists of all ages and backgrounds bring to the Institute — to contemplate, to share, to discuss and to create art. The Department of Art and Art History of St. Catherine University, in cosponsorship with Minneapolis College of Art and Design, presents this innovative and rigorous course that focuses on issues and art that arise through the combination of open studio work, intense individual tutoring, inspiring conversation and critiques, and presentations by guest artists, critics and art historians.
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Annual report 2002 / African Studies Centre

Annual report 2002 / African Studies Centre

Wim van Binsbergen rounded off his time as leader of the Globalization theme group by co-convening its final conference ‘Globalization and New Questions of Ownership’ in April. He embarked on new research within the new Agency in Africa theme group and produced two long texts on precolonial evidence of conceptual frameworks for agency. A short period of fieldwork in North Africa was conducted for the finalization of a book on popular Islam. He completed the manuscript of Intercultural Encounters: African, Anthropological and Historical Lessons towards a Philosophy of Interculturality and started The Dynamics of Power and the Rule of Law to be edited with Riekje Pelgrim. He also worked on Commodification and Identity (with Peter Geschiere), Identity and Power in Africa: A Continuing Dialogue on Statehood (with Martin Doornbos), and The Dynamics of Islam and Identity in Africa (with Anneke Breedveld and Josée van Santen). Wim van Binsbergen visited the Institute for West Asian and African Studies (IWAAS) of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing where he gave seminars on religion and ethnicity, and discussed ongoing research and possibilities for collaboration. Conferences in Porto Novo (Benin) and Izmir (Turkey) allowed him to present his views on African epistemology, culture and development, and his websites on African studies and intercultural philosophy attracted well over 10,000 visitors. In 2002 Wim van Binsbergen took up the position of editor- in-chief of Quest: An African Journal of Philosophy.
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African-Born Black Women Faculty: Their Lived Experience, Challenges, and Perceived Barriers to Success and Progress in U. S. Higher Education

African-Born Black Women Faculty: Their Lived Experience, Challenges, and Perceived Barriers to Success and Progress in U. S. Higher Education

comprehensive description and narration facilitate the lived experiences of the participants related to their challenges and perceived barriers in higher education. Generally, the focus of phenomenology is to explore how human beings make sense of their experiences and the meanings they give to these experiences. For this study, the phenomena studied are the lived experiences of African-born Black women faculty in U.S. higher education, their challenges, and perceived barriers. Although African-born Black women faculty encounter similar challenges and perceived barriers such as, racism and sexism as do African-American and other women faculty of color, they are also faced with other forms of discrimination and prejudice based on their status, ethnic background, and linguistic issues. For example, African-born Black women faculty struggle with lack of collegiality at the departmental level, encounter accent issues, have problems articulating American phonetics, and White students continually doubt and challenge their teaching qualities (Alba 2012; Skachkova, 2007). Further, due to their status, African-born Black women faculty are less likely to get grants (most grants are directed to U.S.-born citizens); they are often segregated to teach courses and research topics that are bonded to their national, racial, and/or regional backgrounds, and are expected to be experts on their campuses to represent their ethnicity in all matters (Alba, 2012; Skachkova, 2007).
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Source of All Evil. African Proverbs and Sayings on Women,

Source of All Evil. African Proverbs and Sayings on Women,

It struck me that the only category of women favourably portrayed in these proverbs was the mother- unique, loving, reliable, hard-working, and therefore: "A wife should be like one'[r]

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A Re-Consideration of African Perspectives of Women, Gender and Development

A Re-Consideration of African Perspectives of Women, Gender and Development

The fact that some feminists and development theoriets remained unconvinced by the WID and WAD approaches, arguing that neither addresses the fundamental factors that structure and maintain gender inequalities, made it possible for these scholars and activist to advocate for Gender and Development perspective (GAD). Gender and Development is another development framework which was developed to replace the WAD and WID strategies.The Gender and Development approach focuses on the socially constructed differences between men and women thereby placing emphasis on gender relations. The GAD perspective recognizes that women are deeply affected by the nature of patriarchal power in their societies at the international, national, community and household levels. 24 This means that since the roles of men in patriarchal societies supersede those of women, women’s contributions to the societal development are overlooked by men.
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Adherence treatment factors in hypertensive African American women

Adherence treatment factors in hypertensive African American women

According to the women in this study, environmental barriers to adherence to treatment and controlling blood pressure may come from stress. For instance, fi ghting the social service system for money when one cannot get a good paying job keeps blood pressure elevated—usually because of low level of education. Webb and colleagues (2006) wrote that African Americans are consistently exposed to stressors associated with living in the Western world including racism, poor housing, poor education, unemployment, low status occupations, high rates of poverty, and stressful residential environments. Living in a less stressful environment is fi nan- cially expensive. Such a residential area is likely to be safe for physical activity like walking. One of the behavior modifi ca- tions required in the management of HBP is to increase physi- cal activity. A possible strategy for getting needed physical activity in a stressful environment would be for women to form walking groups in their neighborhoods. Based on what the women in this study said, the roots of some of the fac- tors infl uencing adherence to treatment extend beyond the health care delivery system. A long term policy implication would be to ensure African American women attain adequate formal education that would enable them to get good paying jobs and be able to live in less stressful environments or give them power to infl uence positive environmental changes where ever they live. Indeed, Collins and Winkleby (2002) found that African Americans at risk for uncontrolled blood pressure were likely to be those with low levels of education. Women with diffi cult family situations may benefi t from the intervention of a medical social worker.
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Subclinical mastitis and HIV-1 in South African women

Subclinical mastitis and HIV-1 in South African women

In a study of breastmiik samples from 201 seropositive Ugandan women, Guay et al. attempted to detect p24 antigen and DNA in a single sample collected at about six weeks postpartum (60). p24 antigen was not detected in any breastmiik sample, even after Immune Complex Dissociation (ICD). Breastmiik cell pellets were only available from 20 of the 47 women who had transmitted HIV to their infant, and HIV-1 DNA could be detected in 16 of these samples (80%). HIV-1 DNA was detected in 75 samples from 104 women (72%) whose infants were classified as uninfected, according to HIV-1 DNA PCR at >6 months of age. When six infants who had evidence of having been infected in utero or intrapartum were excluded, there was no significant difference in transmission rates from mothers with (11/86, 13%) or without (2/30, 7%) detectable HIV-1 DNA PCR in their breastmiik at 6 weeks, although the number of subjects is very small. There was no difference in the median duration of breastfeeding between infants who acquired HIV and those who did not (15.8 vs. 14.4 months); the rate of transmission did not differ according to the duration of breastfeeding, although data on total breastfeeding duration was only reported on the larger cohort of 345 women, in which 91 infants were HIV-infected. There was a slight (non-significant) difference in vertical transmission rate between the cohort of women from whom breastmiik samples were analysed (23.4%) and the entire cohort (26.4%). This study has various limitations, not least the fact that only a single breastmiik sample per woman was analysed and is not necessarily representative of the infant’s HIV exposure throughout breastfeeding. In addition, no indication is given whether the sample size obtained would have been sufficient to detect a difference in transmission rates from women with and without detectable HIV-1 DNA.
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