Whilst research on youth transitions has been used relatively sparsely in the field of criminology 4 , it is argued that such literature can provide a better understanding of youthoffending as perceived and experienced by young people. Not only are the phases of transition important markers to young people, but they should also be important markers to criminologists keen to understand the usually temporary and youthful nature of offending. Studying youth transitions in parallel with youthoffending enables an exploration of the dynamics of age, power, interdependence and integration in the transition to full citizenship in adulthood. These twin processes of transition and offending are marked by a shift in the significance and influence of the family and the friendship group as children grow older and the importance of youth culture in the transition phase. It is argued in this article that the successful transition from the world of youth to that of adulthood is one of the culminating factors in reducing offending behaviour by young people.
Sampson and Laub (1993) suggest that the maturational reform approach within criminology has focused on adolescents in a vacuum, divorced from their origins as children and from their ultimate destination as adults. Equally, the political
implications of ‘youth’ and ‘youth transitions’, given that they are distinctive but nevertheless temporary phenomena, have not featured largely in the criminological literature on offending and desistance. This is seen as regrettable given the close association between offending, desistance and age and the fact that much youthoffending follows a similar course as the so-called transition to adulthood. This makes youth transitions a pertinent concept for further investigation within criminology. As a heuristic device, the concept of youth transitions is crucial to an understanding of desistance, not least because of the age-crime curve. The processes of offending and transition tend to run parallel courses, which could be argued to reflect not only age but also levels of capital accumulation and expenditure. Young people from
have children. Ten years later, those goals remained almost identical, suggesting that little had been achieved in the intervening 10 years. However, there was a greater emphasis on these goals in 2010/11 - or perhaps a greater urgency to achieve them as soon as possible, given their age now. For the women, their most common goals in 2000/01 were to find a job and a house, to gain qualifications, and to either have children or gain custody of their children following one or more of their children being taken into care previously because of the mother’s drug misuse or offending behaviour. Ten years later, a job and a house were less important, partly because many of the women had children by then and therefore could not work, and those already with children were more likely to have their own tenancy. Some were still trying to get custody of their children, however. Finally for the women, stabilising drugs and in particular coming off methadone became a goal in 2010/11, which it was not in 2000/01.
At a certain point the discussions turn to some difficulties he has had with the curfew time restrictions, such as it leaving little time for him to finish work at 6pm and cycle back home to the outlying village where he lives to meet the 7pm curfew cut off time. Most heartfelt were the time limits he said it placed on him being able to see his mother on the weekends. Such insights are important to build up a picture of what might be seen as deserved punishment in the form of a curfew and restriction of liberty for wrongdoing, but the real life impacts it has and the practical difficulties it can present for a young person in adhering to it are worth noting. It is quite likely that this level of detail is not something that filters through to sentencing youth court judges. For young people like A who has had absent parenting at a young age, rebuilding a relationship with his mother is possibly vital to his psycho-social functioning and well-being. Such detail about how curfew restrictions impact is also useful to inform how these can put a young person at risk of breach. The reality of a home curfew in a young person’s life is bought sharply into focus here through A’s explanation.
The recruitment and selection process – equal opportunities 5.13 Each youthoffending team’s recruitment strategy should be based on
the demographic profile of the local population. Youthoffending teams must aim to attract applicants who are properly representative of the local community, taking care to ensure that opportunities for participation in youth offender panels are open to all, regardless of age, ethnic or racial origin, gender, sexual orientation, social background, religion, disability or any other irrelevant factor. Recruitment will need to take into account relevant local authority procedures for volunteers.
Restorative Justice is guided by the principle that crime harms both individuals and relationships (Braithwaite, 2002). Therefore, this paradigm presents a unique opportunity to rebuild relationships and reach an agreement between victim and offender through a collaborative process (Rodríguez, 2007). Furthermore, the emotional and educational components involved in these restorative processes may act as a protector factor to reoffending. In this context, the Spanish Law of Criminal Liability of Minors 5/2000 (LORPM) includes measures linked to the philosophy of Restorative Justice (Braithwaite, 1989, 2002; Umbreit, 2001). This law allows for the possibility of the YouthOffending Team of the Juvenile Court to implement an extrajudicial resolution, such as Victim-offender Mediation (VOM). Specifically, this type of intervention consists in a guided face-to-face meeting between a crime victim/s and the offender/s, following pre-mediation preparation of each party (Umbreit, Coates & Vos, 2001).
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a specialized assessment program with a sample of children/youth (n = 80) who were seeking intervention for inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) at a tertiary mental health facility in London, Ontario. The primary goal was to identify predictive factors in participants with offending behaviour—both sexual and non- sexual—in order to prioritize treatment needs and to address strategies for reducing the risk of sexual offending against others. As participant ages increased by 1 year, their odds of sexually offending someone were found to increase by approximately 27%. Also, males were found six times more likely to sexually offend and 15 times more likely to offend both sexually and non- sexually than females. However, findings suggest that trauma may play a mediator role to sexually offending patterns as those who experienced greater levels of abuse were less likely to sexually offend against others. Future assessments with clients exhibiting ISB should consider the aggregated burden of risk presented with an older male, displaying high externalizing scores, with a history of fewer traumatic experiences in regards to future victimization. Treatment for these particular cases may require more intensive and/or holistic interventions to ensure that recidivism is reduced and appropriate resources are available to support these youth as they continue to develop. Future directions should be considered to advance understanding in this area.
Female Offending 68
Narrative Data Synthesis
Criminal History variables demonstrated a unanimous relationship with recidivism over eight studies (Table 3). In fact, younger age at first offense and increased number of past offenses carried so much predictive weight that these variables outperformed the entire contribution of the LSI-R (Folsom & Atkinson, 2007), as well as showing the strongest relationship with recidivism compared to utilising a correctional classification scale (Community Intervention Scale; Verbrugge, Nunes, Johnson & Taylor, 2002). Criminal history demonstrated the strongest relationship (r = .32, p < .01) compared to all other factors in a multi-site study by Van Voorhis and colleagues (Van Voorhis, Salisbury, Wright, & Bauman, 2008) and was a significant difference between violent recidivists and non-recidivists (Weizmann-Henelius, Viemero, & Eronen, 2004a) Examining female sexual offenders, those who sexually recidivated were the most likely to have prior histories of non-violent criminal activity compared to those who did not reoffend (Sandler & Freeman, 2009). Similarly, younger age at admission to prison, prior adult arrest, and violence towards staff in prison demonstrated a moderate relationship with recidivism (Bonta et al., 1995) and criminal history increased the odds of reoffending by 9.36 in females charged with homicide (Putkonen, Komulainen, Virkkunen, Eronen, & Lonnqvist, 2003). The ―big four‖ (criminal attitudes, criminal peers, antisocial personality, criminal history) accounted for the majority of explained variance in recidivism, and this was often beyond the value that gender specific variables added (e.g., such as abuse history, self- harm, mental health problems; Loucks & Zamble, 1999; Rettinger & Andrews, 2010).
by our sample, which included relatively few non-white participants. Second, self-report measures of decision styles may potentially be affected by participants’ concerns about social desirability, and not reflect their actual decision-making performance (see Applet et al., 2011).
Men, for instance, may have rated “interpersonal” items lower because relying on others is inconsistent with masculine gender roles in contemporary US culture. In addition, decision styles assess participants’ perceptions of how they approach decisions, which may not reflect cognitive decision processes. Lastly, our cross-sectional design does not address age changes or cohort differences (Miller, 2007). Cross-sequential designs are necessary to understand within-person changes and historical influences.
Demographics. We controlled for gender (1 = male), age, living situation, and financial situation. Two dummy variables for living situation were included: living with family (partner and/or child) and living with parents. Financial situation was based on a scale of the level of financial problems, an adjusted version of the one used in The Prison Project study ( Dirkzwager and Nieuwbeerta (unpublished) ). Respondents indicated if the following situations occurred in the preceding twelve months (1 = yes): 1. ‘saved money’ 2. ‘had just enough money to live’ 3. ‘had problems with making ends meet’ 4. ‘not been able to replace broken stuff’ 5. ‘had to borrow money for necessary expenses’ 6. ‘pledged belongings’ 7. ‘had creditors/bailiffs coming to my door’ 8. ‘had debts of 5.000 euros or more’. After reverse coding item 1, the sum of all items was divided by eight to obtain a scale ranging from 0–1 (α = 0.82). In addition, to control for the initial differences between the groups of cybercrime and traditional suspects, a dummy variable indicating the initial group was included (1 = cybercrime suspect).
10 TOOLS TO IDENTIFY AND ASSESS THE RISK OF OFFENDING AMONG YOUTH CHAPTER 3 – Challenges In Integrating Tools Into a Prevention Initiative
In terms of the gender variable, more in-depth research should be conducted to develop gender-specific tools. On one hand, some studies done by the Girls Study Group 42 and assessment results on the use of the Early Assessment Risk List for Boys and for Girls (EARL-20B and EARL-21G) 43 demonstrate the importance of having a gender-specific tool. Certain factors, such as the prevalence of family risk factors and internalized behavioural problems, seem to be more present in girls, confirming the importance of having a gender-specific tool in order to assess these factors. 44 On the other hand, one meta-analysis based on predictive risk assessment results according to gender has shown that predictive validity varied very little whether the tool was used with boys or girls. 45
specifically related to medical stressors to provide a more comprehensive view of the role coping plays in internalizing symptoms in this population.
Another limitation of this study was the use of the 8-11 year old version of the BASC-2 for all participants. Although this allowed for the consistent use of one measure for all participants, it limited our ability to assess age norms and if children were in the clinically significant range for depression and anxiety. Alternative measures had other limitations, including requiring significant additional time, which likely would have resulted in even greater participant attrition for these data. In addition, the available internal consistency data did not suggest a difference in reliability of measurement across older and younger participants.
graphed. As shown in Figure 3.2, both the low and medium groups of anxiety symptoms show a significant increase of social skills with age. However, the group with high scores of anxiety symptoms shows very little progression in social skills as they get older.
Anxiety as a categorical variable. To further understand the effects of anxiety symptoms on social skills within boys with FXS, anxiety was split into a categorical variable and follow up analyses were conducted with the SSRS total score and the prosocial subscales. The CBCL DSM Anxiety clinical significance score of 70 or greater was utilized to separate the FXS sample into those with high anxiety (n=15) and those with little to no anxiety (n=74).
suggesting Menu did not have significant moderation effect on the relationship between environmental consciousness and the two outcomes of purchase behavior and restaurant image (EC Purchase and ECRI).
The final component of Chapter 4 addressed research questions 3 and 4, which examined the relationship between the qualitative variables in the study: the type of menu treatment used and the demographic variables of gender, education, and income level, on the two outcomes of Purchase and RI. Results showed that type of menu treatment, basic local wordage, descriptive local wordage, and a combination of wordage and imagery, did not have a statistically significant effect on Purchase or RI. However, when basic local food wordage was added (the first treatment week), the percentage of individuals who purchased a local item from the daily special menu increased by nearly 10% over the control week. Regarding demographic variables and their relationship to purchase
32 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter begins with a synthesis of the literature describing the HIV/AIDS epidemic within the African American population. It illustrates trends documented over time that have resulted in the current HIV/AIDS epidemic within this population. Socio- demographic and epidemiological information detailed in this chapter places emphasis on how the epidemic has effected people living in the South, particularly in the state of South Carolina. A review of how HIV is impacting African American males and females will be conducted along with an explanation of the risk factors that make this population vulnerable. The following risk factors will be discussed in detail: (1) high STD rates, (2) incarceration, (3) the exchange of sex for money or drugs, (4) poverty, (5) racism, (6) unemployment (7) HIV stigma and (8) gender specific risks. In addition, an overview of HIV interventions that have been implemented in the African American community will be discussed, as well a description of how HIV stigma within this community perpetuates the epidemic. At the conclusion of this chapter, details regarding how the Black Church can be utilized by healthcare professionals, specifically nurses, as a platform to provide HIV health promotion/disease prevention information to the African American