In our series, the study of family history with the age of occurred of breast cancer revealed that the age of breast cancer onset was younger in cases with a family history of breast cancer (48 5 ± 10.5 years vs. 50.4 ± 11.4 years for patients without a family history breast cancer with p = 0.03). Similarly, at diagnosis, the stadium was early (I and II) in cases with a family history, 65.1% of patients versus 55.7% of late cases (III and IV) in patients who do not have a family history breast cancer with p = 0.02. However, knowledge of a high family risk allows to evidencing a specific and early screening. Recent studies published by Kharazmi and al. (2016) showed that patients with a family history were younger (<40 years) and diagnosed at an earlier stage of diagnosis.
studied 568 men with a mean age of 47 yrs in a Multicenter study of subjects from Alcoholism treatment centre in America. They used Structured interview (Psychiatric Diagnostic Interview) and trained staff for the data collection.. The reliability was established by giving FH questionnaire on 2 separate occasions 2-4 weeks apart and confirmed in 35 alcoholics. The consistency of the FH information was 96% of overall agreement across categories. The severity was assessed based on alcohol related hospitalization, arrest, job loss and separation. The basis on how AOO was defined and how the information was recorded was not mentioned. They concluded that 65%of there subjects were FHP and had significantly more medical problems than FAMILY HISTORY NEGATIVE. FHP subjects were associated with AOO and increased severity.
Fertility history reveals how having children has no significant effect upon working beyond state pension age for men, presumably because, for this age group, women were most likely to take on childcare responsibilities with the subsequent impact upon work histories and income. Indeed, for women, having children impacts upon a decision to work beyond state pension age. But the effect is curvilinear, with significantly higher odds of working for those with up to three children (although the odds are slightly lower for those with three compared to two), and with an insignificant association for women with four or five or more children. Whilst having large families is associated with lower income (Bradshaw et al, 2006), indicating a financial need to work beyond state pension age to boost this income. It is also likely that the caring responsibilities that having a large family brings and the subsequent impact upon work history means that these women have little negotiating power to enable working beyond state pension age, despite a possibly increase financial need. We have seen above how long periods of family care significantly reduce the odds of working beyond state pension age, even after income and other factors are controlled for.
Russia’s Age of Serfdom, like most historical studies, combines description, analysis, and narrative, but it resembles Wirtschafter’s other books in giving primacy to the descriptive and analytical: what were the mechanisms of Russian history (serfdom, Enlightenment, bureaucracy…) and how did they work? The descriptive component is excellent, which is of course essential if beginners are to understand the argument. The analysis likewise is always stimulating, but novices may not find it uniformly accessible. Certain concepts are easily explained, e.g., that peasant village elders were not mere despots but took their
II’s famous Legislative Commission, which was intended to give order, responsibilities, and some liberty to the Russian nobility, and his authorship would have fit well with this path. But closer examination of the manuscript revealed that it could not have been composed so early in Catherine’s reign, and the true author had access to sources and ideas that the Poletykas did not. Therefore, the Lviv historian, Mykhailo Vozniak (1881–1954), proposed that none other than the imperial chancellor, Oleksandr Bezborod'ko (1747–79), who was of Ukrainian background and a bit of a local patriot, was the real author. He had an intense interest in history and was, to a degree, a defender of traditional Ukrainian liberties.
accordance to the previous studies the present study also got a statistically significant (p=0.0001) link between GDM and family history. The present study even investigated the role of maternal blood group and fetal sex in the emergence of GDM and found no association. The role of maternal blood group in GDM was studied previously and the result was in accordance to ours. 23 The consumption of non vegetarian diet is found to be a risk factor for GDM, but in our study all the participants except one were non vegetarians. 26 It signifies that BMI of the mother should be considered relevant than the diet. This study would be helpful to increase the public awareness regarding the role of socio-demographic and obstetric factors in the development of GDM. The study reveals that the socio demographic factors like age, religion, family history of Diabetes mellitus and obstetric determinants like previous history of abortion, maternal height, maternal BMI and birth weight of babies influence the occurrence of GDM.
Sexual intercourse ≤ 1 time/week. Concerning Last sexual intercourse, only 20% of women had Last sexual intercourse < 48 hours. While 6.3% current used of antibiotic. More than half of women reported current IUD used. According to use of vaginal douching, 21.3% women had douching > 1 time/week, 11.3% used douching inside vagina, and 13.7% had recent use < 48 hours. The present results agreed with Wiset et al., (2004) who noticed that 0.9% reported a prior history of sexually transmitted diseases and 0.6% had had more than 2 sexual partners in the past 3 months. Nearly 90% had only a single sexual partner through their lifetime and about 60% reported having 1 or less sexual intercourse per week. Another study conducted by Verstraelen et al., (2010) who reported that BV may be considered a sexually enhanced disease, with frequency of intercourse being a critical factor. This goes in line with Madhivanan et al., (2008) who clarified that no significant association was demonstrated between bacterial vaginosis and days since last menstrual period, days since last sexual intercourse and prior history of sexual transmitted diseases. Although not statistically significant, bacterial vaginosis tended to be more prevalent among women with a lower age at first intercourse, higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher frequency of sexual intercourse, current smokers, and less prevalence among women with current antibiotic use. However, bacterial vaginosis was significantly more prevalent among women who used douching inside the vagina than those who never douched [OR = 3.98 (95% CI 1.85-8.33), p < 0.01], and significantly more prevalent among women using IUD than non-IUD users [OR = 1.84 (95%CI 1.22-2.79), p<0.01]. There was no significant association between BV and IUD use. Moreover , Joesoef et al., (2001) who emphasized that an increase risk of BV in IUD users, with the explanation that IUD might change the vaginal flora in favor of the growth of bacteria associated with BV and should be screened prior to IUD insertion. Also Gallo et al., (2011) who observed that 94% of the BV positive cases were using vaginal douches which confirms that vaginal douches represent a risk factor of BV acquisition. Previous observational studies by Mangot-Bertrand et al., (2013) suggested a strong association between vaginal douching and bacterial vaginosis. Moreover, Pourmarzi et al., (2014) demonstrated that douching at least once per month, recent douching within 7 days and douching for symptoms or hygiene was associated with BV.
In both unadjusted and age-adjusted comparisons, fluid was more likely to be obtained from women who were married, had a history of any pregnancy, tranquilizer use, a younger age at menarche, or endocrine problems (defined as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism or diabe- tes). Fluid was less likely to be obtained from women who used exogenous estrogen (Table 3). After multivariate adjustment, women who were married, had a history of pregnancy, tranquilizer use and endocrine problems remained significantly more likely to yield breast fluid, while a younger age at menarche was no longer signifi- cantly associated. In addition, menopausal women who took estrogen were less likely to yield fluid than premen- opausal women. Adding body mass index (BMI) to the multivariate analysis did not influence significant factors appreciably, and therefore, was excluded from the final analysis. A history of breast-feeding was not significant in any of the analyses.
A 49-year-old Caucasian male presented with a dense right-sided cortical cataract in 2007 at the age of 44. HIV infection was diagnosed in 1997. His ocular history included bilateral keratoconus, bilateral uveitis, and multi- focal choroiditis, which had been treated with eight intra- vitreal triamcinolone (IVTA) injections previously and was quiescent at the time of his cataract surgery. His right eye vision was 3/60 preoperatively. He underwent un- complicated phacoemulsification cataract surgery and implantation of a 15.5D Alcon SN60WF into the bag. Postoperatively, his acuity improved to 6/12. Subse- quently, he underwent right eye vitrectomy for long- standing vitritis in 2008. Seventy-five months after his initial PCIOL implant, he represented with visual loss in the right eye due to an in-bag IOL dislocation. He underwent a pars plana vitrectomy and removal of IOL. He was left aphakic and managed with a hard contact lens. On the last review in June 2014, his right eye cor- rected visual acuity was 6/7.5.
The preservation of digital material is of evident importance for historians of the future, if Brindley's 'black hole' is to be minimised. The problems, however, are complex. Most obvious are the technical problems, of the need to cope with obsolete hardware and software. Additionally, the existing legal framework does not reflect the digital age, current law makes it difficult for memory institutions to capture and preserve digital material. There are also social and cultural challenges to be met. Should everything in the digital realm be preserved? If not, what should be
Results: Two hundred and twenty-four out of 372 smoking exhibition attendants met the enroll- ment criteria; 120 and 104 elected to be in behavioral group therapy and education-alone therapy, respectively. Demographic characteristics and smoking history were similar between both groups, including age, age of onset of smoking, years of smoking, smoking pack-years, education level, and nicotine dependence as measured by the FTND scale. The CAR of the behavioral therapy group at the end of the study (month 12) was significantly higher than the education group (40.1% vs 33.3%, P=0.034). Similar results were also found throughout all follow-up visits at month 3 (57.3% vs 27.0%, P0.001) and month 6 (51.7% vs 25%, P0.001).
In the present study, there was no statistically significant relationship among age, number of children, history of breastfeeding, history of benign breast disease, marital status, income, and the quality of breast self-examination. In the studies by Mahouri et al. (4) and Okobia et al. (6), there was also no relationship between age and BSE. However, some studies have found an inverse relationship between age and breast self-examination (4,22). Furthermore, the results of various studies suggested that a prior history of breast disease has a significant relationship with breast self-examination (4,12,22). The results of the study by Yucel et al. showed that higher income levels were associated with breast cancer screening (22). This finding was not consistent with that of the present study. Moreover, in the study of Okobia et al., there was no relationship between BSE and marital status (6). However, in another study, a relationship was found between marital status and breast self-examination (23).
In the current study, prevalence of depression among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics was high. Age group of 20 – 30, current pregnancy complication, unplanned pregnancy, categories of stressors (LTE) health risk, previous history of depression, history of abortion, history of still birth, poor social support and poor baby father support were significantly associated with antenatal depression. For early detection and ap- propriate intervention, antenatal clinics should develop screening tools for depression during the routine antenatal care.
with no psychiatric disturbance who were referred to Infertility Department of Ege University Medicine Faculty from March 2004 to January 2007 for treatment of their infertility problems. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis lasting a minimum of 3 months due to infertility disorders, failure to conceive despite regular sexual intercourse (4-5 times per week) sustained for a period exceeding 12 months, no contraception in the last 12 months, inability to conceive and lack of pregnancy in patient history (primary infertility). The fertile group consisted of healthy 51 women and 40 men. This group was selected from all available couples who attempting outpatient gynecological clinics of our hospital for control between the ages of 18 and 45 years, married, Turkish, having at least one child and absence of current clinical psychiatric disorders. We were dealt to equalize the infertile couples‟ and fertile couples‟ sample size because of reaching statistical adequate minimal fertile group sample size according to our primary aim of study. Then, we raised infertile sample size for our secondary aim.The subjects were informed about the aims of the study and written permission was given. A gynecologist evaluated the participants for demographic data (age, marriage duration, education, occupation, medical history, health problems, gynecological history, infertility duration and diagnosis) regarding the study and then they were visited by a psychologist to perform questionnaire scales which are The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (32) and the State- Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S/T) (33) for the evaluation of the degree of psychopathology.
Neonates were the main participants of this study as they are the subjects affected by the research variables. Maternal and fetal risk factors(age, parity, consanguinity with husband history of diabetes, history of the maternal chronic disease, vaginal bleeding, multiple pregnancy, abnormal amniotic fluid, abnormal placenta, premature rupture of membrane and IUGR), delivery factors (outborn delivery, mode of delivery, meconium, fetal distress, nuchal cord, APGAR score after 1 minute and 5 minutes and resuscitation in the delivery room) and neonatal causes of admission to NICU (prematurity, LBW, RDS, sepsis, CHD, neonatal jaundice, MAS, congenital or chromosomal anomalies, hypoglycemia, birth asphyxia, hypotension and seizures) were studied. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).
In conclusion, the risk factors associated with seizure relapse are of paramount importance for the decision of treatment discontinuation. In our study, taken drugs and medication, the age at the beginning of reception, sex, history of hospitalization, evolutionary status, family history of seizure disorder and fever during the seizure are the risk factors associated with seizure relapses. Comparing DIC values for the Weibull and PE models, the Weibull models give better fits than their nonparametric counterparts. According to the DIC criterion, the best model to fit these data is a Basic Weibull Clayton model.
Abstract: Background: This study was designed to detect plasma noradrenaline (NE) and acetylcholine (Ach) levels in patients with stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP), in order to analyze the correlation between SAP and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Methods: A total of 300 patients diagnosed with acute stroke in our hospital from Oc- tober 2014 to October 2016 were enrolled into this study. These patients were divided into two groups: pneumonia group and stroke group. In addition, a control group was also established (n=300). Baseline data of all subjects were collected. These subjects were rated using the autonomic symptom profile (ASP), and were detected for NE and Ach levels. Then, a statistical analysis was conducted. Results: Among these 300 stroke patients, 55 patients were combined with pulmonary infections; and the incidence was 18.3%. The independent risk factors for SAP were as follows: age ≥65 years, smoking history, lung disease history, stroke history, diabetes, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, stroke type, Kubota’s drinking water test, dysphagia, nasal feeding, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, Glasgow coma score, hypoproteinemia, bleeding volume, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein. ASP score was higher in SAP patients than in stroke patients, NE level was higher in SAP patients than in stroke patients, and Ach level was lower in SAP patients than in stroke patients. Ach level was negatively correlated with ASP in patients with SAP (P<0.05), and NE level was positively correlated with ASP (P<0.05). Conclusion: Auto- nomic nervous system dysfunction may be one of the pathogenesis of SAP.
Early diagnosis avoids irreversible arthropathic changes and reduces the frequency of life threatening bleeds in patients with severe FVIII deficiency. In developed nations majority of the severe patients are diagnosed before one year of age (Conway and Hilgartner 1994, Ljung et al 1994, Pollmann et al 1999, Chambost et al 2002). The age at diagnosis and influence of occupation and income of parents, place of residence, family history and age at first bleed in determining the age at diagnosis was examined. Data revealed that 24% patients were diagnosed during the first year of life, and another 32% were diagnosed till five years of age. Nearly 11% severe patients were diagnosed beyond 20 years of age. Analysis of data on reported age at first bleed (indicating parental awareness about the signs of haemophilia) was significantly different for patients of haemophilia A and B (3.3±5.9 and 4.7±6.4 years
Data on maternal history (age, nationality, level of education, occupation, marital status, medical history, smoking, drinking and drug use, paternal history (age, nationality, education level, occupation), obstetric history (obstetric score, miscarriages), data on the current pregnancy (planning, infertility outpatient attendance, assisted reproductive techniques, monitoring, pregnancy pathology, medication, third-trimester serological tests and ultrasound, biochemistry screening and amniocentesis), data regarding the newborn infant (multiple birth, mode of birth, gestational age, Apgar score, gender, somatometric parameters at birth, birth complications, birth defects, need for resuscitation), breastfeeding and maternal perception of the risks of pregnancy over the age of 35 (security, reasons for postponement of childbearing). Pre-existing chronic conditions have been considered as pre-existing maternal diseases according with the definition of the World Health Organization.