to antibodies, it may also be directly coupled to almost any protein, peptide, carbohydrate, or molecule of interest, including molecules which do not adsorb to colloidal gold. This increases the range of probes possible, and expands the applications of gold labeling. Magnetic- NanoParticles materials have attracted such a strong interest because of the physical, electronic, and magnetic properties resulting from their quantum size. The potential for nano-technology is immensely diverse with potential applications in the fields of electronics, biomedical devices, energy applications, military uses, and waste management. Nano-materials could be utilized to design nano-transistors, to develop and deliver medicines for locally treating diseases and ailments within the body, and for the creation new age weapons and armor for military applications. 6
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efficacy parameter (CAT) at the end of the observational period (visit 3). It was not intended to replace missing data or extrapolate available data. The data analyzed were age, sex, weight, height, diagnosis, smoking history, COPD severity stage according to GOLD, concomitant diseases, concomitant pulmonary medication, adverse events, informa- tion on treatment continuation, reasons for study discontinu- ation, total CAT score at the baseline and after 3 months of the treatment, and the frequency of using the short-acting bronchodilators. COPD GOLD stages were presented as reported by investigators and not evaluated on the basis of spirometry results.
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The collected data included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, 6MWT results, BODE index, and comorbid diseases. The diffusing capacity of carbon mon- oxide (DLco) and the residual volume (RV) of the lung were obtained if the patient performed each test ade- quately. Changes in the group assignments of the same patients between the GOLD 2011 and GOLD 2017 classi- ﬁ cations were assessed. The date of death was identi ﬁ ed on the ﬁ rst review of the medical record; if the identi ﬁ ca- tion was not possible, data from the Korean Death Registry on October 22, 2017 were used. Respiratory hospitalization was recorded when the patient was admitted to our hospital due to exacerbation, or it was identi ﬁ ed by an interview during the regular outpatient visit if the patient had been admitted to another hospital. Patients who did not visit the outpatient clinic for more than 6 months were contacted by telephone, and the infor- mation on respiratory hospitalization was obtained. We classi ﬁ ed patients into groups A to D based on the GOLD 2017 and GOLD 2011 classi ﬁ cations using the obtained information and assessed the change in their distribution among the groups. Finally, we compared the abilities of the BODE index, GOLD 2007, GOLD 2011, and GOLD 2017 classi ﬁ cation in predicting mortality and respiratory hospitalization.
19. Jones KJ, Albert MS, Duffy FH, Hyde MR, Naeser M, Aldwin C. Modeling age using cognitive, psychosocial and physiological variables: the Boston normative aging study. Exp Aging Res. 1991;17(4):227–242. 20. Dickinson D, Ramsey ME, Gold JM. Overlooking the obvious. A meta- analytic comparison of digit symbol coding tasks and other cognitive measures in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(5):532–542. 21. Piras F, Cherubini A, Caltagirone C, Spalletta G. Education mediates
Perhaps the most studied area is the role and weighting that gold might have in a portfolio. Sherman (1982) suggested a weighting of 5% in an equity portfolio resulted in lower risk and higher return, while weighting as high as 25% has been proposed by Chua (1990), mainly down to the then low or negative correlation between gold and equities. More recent research by Hillier, Draper et al. (2006) suggest weithts in the small percentages for a variety of precious metals, with gold acting as the most efficient diversifier. Considering gold and oil together Bruno and Chincarini (2010) suggest a weight of 10% for non US based investors seeking portfolio diversification, while Scherer (2009) for sovereign wealth funds, Klement and Longchamp (2010) for high net worth individuals suggest a range of between 5-10% allocation by weight to gold in an equity portfolio.
The gold nanorods (GNRc) placed in liquid media (water-rich tissue) show arbitrary orientations relatively on the direction of laser radiation propagation. The optical properties of long GNRs show great dependence on angle of orientation of main axis of nanorods upon direction of radiation propagation (Figs. 1 and 2) leading to decrease of absorption and scattering up to ten or more times. These situations should be taken into account for the purposes of clinical use of GNRs.
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Those were heady days. For those of us entering the fields of genetics and mammalian embryology in the 60s and 70s, the excitement was palpable. As graduate students and post-docs, we saw that long-standing barriers were tumbling down before an onslaught of technological advances. And not only that, the scien- tists breaking those barriers were all around us as mentors and colleagues. The rapid pace of progress and the seemingly bound- less possibilities hooked us into the field and we gradually became aware that we, too, were part of a revolution that was on the way to opening the mammalian genome to experimental alteration. Who could forget the thrill of seeing mice born of a foster mother, knowing that as embryos, they had spent a large part of their preimplantation life in a petri dish? (Fig. 1) (McLaren and Biggers, 1958). Or seeing a variegated mouse that was actually the product of two separate embryos, combined to make a single animal? (Fig. 2) (Tarkowski, 1961; Mintz, 1964; Gardner, 1968). Or later, seeing transgenic mice with visible and profound indications of the activity of an introduced, foreign, mammalian gene functioning within its genome? (Fig. 3) (Palmiter et al., 1982,1983). As we stood on the shoulders of giants, we could peer into a new age of genetic engineering, where alteration of the genome would become a predictable and precise science.
We have demonstrated the successful fabrication of a novel biocompatible Gly–gold nanohybrid to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs like Sly. In this study, Sly has been tethered on gold nanoparticle surface and aggregated into Gly matrix to fabricate a nanohybrid. We elu- cidated the positive attributes of the therapeutic nanohybrid system as an efficient hepatoprotective agent against liver injury caused by toxins. Compared to free Sly, GSGNPs exhibited significant hepatoprotection with tenfold increase in the potency due to increased solubility, bioavailability, and profuse gut absorption. The findings of this study describe the positive traits of the Gly–gold nanohybrid drug delivery system for enhancing the bioavailability of therapeutic mol- ecules, which open up an avenue for translational research in this direction.
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“headline” in the interests of different actors. The Romans, the Austrians and the Soviets altogether took more than 1,500 tons of gold from the historic mining district in west- central Romania, known as “the Golden Quadrilateral”. In troubled contexts after the fall of communism, a controversial exploitation license was obtained by the Rosia Montana Gold Corporation company for a period of 20 years, from 1999 to 2019. According to the Ministry of Environment and Climatic Changes, the RMGC mining project involves 1346 hectares for exploitation, an area of 2388 hectares covered by the license, 300 hectares covered by the lake for decanting heavy metals and cyanide, which will permanently represent a risk for the life of over 6000 people from the neighboring areas, 4 detonated mountains, 2064 displaced properties, 975 destroyed houses, from which 41 are heritage houses, 7 demolished churches, dynamited or covered by the cyanide lake, 11 displaced cemeteries, 12.000 tons of cyanide every year (a total of 204.000 tons) and only 634 working places for a period of 17 years 3 .
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The presence of heterogeneity led us to an investigation of its origin. A stratification analysis on the prospective versus retrospective nature of the cohort and the median latitude of the place of the study showed a significant difference between subgroups. When we extended the analyses with a mixed- effect meta-regression model, one important study-level variable was identified: the latitude of the place of the study, with decreasing incidence of MRSA with increasing latitude (Figure 5). Also, we identified increasing incidence of MRSA with increasing age of the patients (Figure 6). A multivariate meta-regression was performed, which considered study-level and patient-level variables. The multivariate using mixed- effect meta regression model identified latitude and age of the
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Abstract: Development of multifunctional nanomaterials, one of the most interesting and advanced research areas in the field of nanotechnology, is anticipated to revolutionize cancer diagnosis and treatment. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are now being widely utilized in bio- imaging and phototherapy due to their tunable and highly sensitive optical and electronic properties (the surface plasmon resonance). As a new concept, termed “theranostics,” mul- tifunctional AuNPs may contain diagnostic and therapeutic functions that can be integrated into one system, thereby simultaneously facilitating diagnosis and therapy and monitoring therapeutic responses. In this review, the important properties of AuNPs relevant to diagnostic and phototherapeutic applications such as structure, shape, optics, and surface chemistry are described. Barriers for translational development of theranostic AuNPs and recent advances in the application of AuNPs for cancer diagnosis, photothermal, and photodynamic therapy are discussed.
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The distinction between biological and nonbiological causes of death is not completely clear in all situations. Observations realized in the paper are based on WHO definitions of cause of death and are mainly based on practical use of the defini- tion. The distinction does not mean that among death listed in "biological" set the external causes have no significance (eg, smoking and lung cancer). On the other hand, it could mean that external factors (mainly accidents) are crucial to deaths listed in the nonbiological set. In other words, an individual without an accident event could be alive for more years. It is a model, and as with all models it has some limits. Age–mortality trajectories from all causes and all diseases were identical over 35 years. Consequently, the distinction between biological and nonbiological causes of death is not important over 35 years here. It is assumed that the distinc- tion between the two categories of death cause could be clear under the age of 35 years.
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Considering the reflection on the interface between the adjacent conductors, the general formulation of effective skin depth for multilayer coated conductor is derived in detail in this paper. As a result of the reflection on the interface between the adjacent conductors, the current concentrate more on the outer coated layer. It is found that the effective skin depths of the gold and gold-nickel coated copper rapidly vary with the thickness of the outer layer (gold) when the gold thickness is less than twice the gold skin depth and achieve stabilization as the gold thickness increases to five times the gold skin depth.
Gold nuggets are classified as having lengths greater than 4 mm or a mass greater than 1 g (Mann, 1984; Webster and Mann, 1984; Wilson, 1984; Hough et al., 2009). Whether gold nuggets or grains are derived from a primary source or precipitated from a soluble gold complex within groundwater systems (Liversidge, 1893), their occurrence in natural system are important from an exploration perspective since the “nugget effect” poses challenges for accurate gold estimations in geochemical surveys. Gold nuggets and grains can be mechanically reshaped and altered when exposed to physical weathering conditions in fluvial environments; therefore, the size and shape of nuggets are not well correlated with transport from primary gold sources (Yeend, 1975; Giusti, 1986; Watterson, 1992; Knight et al., 1999). Physical alterations of gold nuggets and grains include smooth surface textures with round and flat morphologies that are generally attributed to flow rate and bed load within fluvial systems. Although gold grains do not have high economic significance, their morphology and surface texture are similar to gold nuggets. Therefore, many studies have used gold nugget and grain morphologies in association with chemical composition as tools for gold exploration (see Boyle, 1979; Desborough, 1970; Hallbauer and Utter, 1977; Antweiler and Campbell, 1977, 1982; Giusti and Smith, 1984; Sauerbrei et al., 1987; Mosier et al., 1989; Grant et al., 1991). However, gold grain distribution within fluvial systems is broader than that of nuggets since their dispersion is closely associated with the deposition of finer and lighter host-sediment such as suspended pebbles, sand and mud (Nesterenko and Kolpakov, 2007, 2010).
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Individuals who develop age-related macular degeneration (AMD) lose central vision due to involvement of the macula, the central region of the retina specialized to distinguish fine detail, thus permitting activities such as reading, recognizing faces, and driving. Although several retinal layers are affected, vision is primarily lost when photoreceptors die. The term age-related maculopathy (ARM) describes the spectrum of age-related macular changes, from the early presence of a few small drusen (sub- retinal lipid and protein-containing deposits which are the hallmark of the condition) to the most advanced stages with severe anatomic changes accompanied by vision loss. 1,2 Patients with larger and more numerous drusen, often with advanced or visually
The article shows the results of geochemical studies of oil and gas source of the Cenozoic age of the western Ciscaucasia. The geochemical characteristics of the organic matter of the Kumsky rocks show a high oil source potential. Qualitative and quantitative changes reflect not only the new formation of hydrocarbons, but also their emigration. A comprehensive study of the organic matter of Khadum rocks using the methods of bituminology, pyrolysis, and chromatography showed that all types of kerogen are developed in them, but organic matter dominates with moderate source potential. The maximum concentrations of TOC and genetic potential are noted within the West Kuban downwarp, as well as in the outcrops in the area of the Adygei protrusion. The improvement of geochemical parameters in these areas is explained by a decrease in the same direction of the terrigenous component in the original organic matter.
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Abstract: Increased central arterial stiffness, involving accelerated vascular ageing of the aorta, is a powerful and independent risk factor for early mortality and provides prognostic information above and beyond traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Central arterial stiffness is an important determinant of pulse pressure; therefore, any pathological increase may result in left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired coronary perfusion. Central artery stiffness can be assessed noninvasively by measurement of aortic pulse wave velocity, which is the gold standard for measurement of arterial stiffness. Earlier, it was believed that changes in arterial stiffness, which are primarily influenced by long-term pressure-dependent structural changes, may be slowed but not reversed by pharmacotherapy. Recent studies with drugs that inhibit the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, advanced glycation end products crosslink breakers, and endothelin antagonists suggest that blood pressure (BP)-independent reduction and reversal of arterial stiffness are feasible. We review the recent literature on the differential effect of antihypertensive agents either as monotherapy or combination therapy on arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness is an emerging therapeutic target for CVD risk reduction; however, further clinical trials are required to confirm whether BP-independent changes in arterial stiffness directly translate to a reduction in CVD events.
unparalleled blend of synthetic and physical properties. It is the main yellow metal and bears its name from the Old English word for yellow, 'geolu'. Gold's extraordinary properties imply that it has a more prominent assortment of employments than any metal. Like her partners over the globe, India likewise held gold high for its valuable characters and irregularity and considers it as a standard for surveying virtue and quality. Today India is the richest gold customer on the planet. The yearly utilization of gold which was assessed at 65 tons in 1982, has expanded to more than 500 tons in the blink of an eye around 80% is for gems creation (primarily more than 22 carat virtue) for household request, 15% for financial specialist request and scarcely 5% for mechanical use. India holds the biggest supply of gold on the planet – 18,000 tons are held by families. The astounding component is the route interest in adornments has come to overwhelm the business sector which is obvious from table and diagram underneath.
The age of onset was defined as the first occurrence of recurrent cough and sputum, which was reported by the patients in their medical records as a retrospective indicator. Patients were separated into two groups according to the age of onset. The age of Group I was #50 years, while the participants in Group II were .50 years old. The course of disease was detailed through retrospective data and defined as the occurrence of this disease until the patients’ death. The clinical dyspnea index was evaluated using the Hugh Jones Index. The self-reported comorbidities included coronary heart disease (ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease), diabetes, heart failure, hyperten- sion, malignant tumor, mental disease (depression, mania, dementia), neurological disease, and renal failure (renal func- tion lower than chronic kidney disease [CKD] stage III), all of which were referred from the Charlson Comorbidity Index.
More than 8% of patients had experienced two or more exacerbations in the previous year despite having “low-risk” airflow limitation (GOLD I or II), and more than 70% of patients with “high-risk” airflow limitation (GOLD III or IV) had no or one exacerbation in the previous year. A systematic literature review by Hogendoorn et al including 37 relevant studies showed that annual event-based exacerbation fre- quencies per GOLD stage were estimated at 0.82 for mild, 1.17 for moderate, 1.61 for severe, and 2.10 for very severe COPD, strongly suggesting an increased risk of exacerba- tions with increased levels of airflow limitation. 13 However,