Age of Onset

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The impact of age of onset on amygdala intrinsic connectivity in major depression

The impact of age of onset on amygdala intrinsic connectivity in major depression

the EO-MDD patient group might be less homogeneous than the AO-MDD group. To circumvent this problem, the study psychiatrist (RR) asked participants when they began to experience the constellation of symptoms that would fulfill the criteria for MDD. Another issue is that the recollection of the age of onset of MDD may not be accurate, which could have resulted in overestimation or underestimation of the age of onset. However, relying on objective data from the official diagnosis of psychiatrists and hospital charts corresponding to the age of the first episode of depression would also intro- duce error as to the true age of MDD onset, as there would be significant variability in how long people suffered with symptoms before approaching a doctor, especially before adulthood. The above-mentioned limitations are inherent to studies involving retrospective evaluation of remote events. However, large volume of literature involving self-report of remote events provided wealth of knowledge to our under- standing of childhood pathologies or adverse events in rela- tion to adulthood mental disorders. Furthermore, they form the foundation for prospective studies. The second limitation is that our study was cross-sectional in nature. To elucidate the contribution of developmental trajectories and illness bur- den on brain networks, future studies should independently examine EO-MDD and AO-MDD cohorts longitudinally. In addition, we only investigated amygdala IC with the rest of the brain. It is also possible that other networks are prominently disrupted in EO-MDD and may be related to early age of onset per se, not illness burden. Thirdly, we used global signal regression (GSR) as a preprocessing step.
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Age of onset of disruptive behavior of residentially treated adolescents

Age of onset of disruptive behavior of residentially treated adolescents

Presence of disruptive behavior during childhood was de- termined, based on the age at which help was sought be- cause of disruptive behavior, special education was indicated due to disruptive behavior, and the age at which the youngster started to commit criminal offences. For each individual the presence and age of onset of disruptive behaviors was determined. For age of onset the earliest age reported by any of the sources was used. Disruptive behavior included aggression (overt, destructive: e.g. phys- ical abuse, sexual offences, threatening someone), opposi- tional behavior (overt, non-destructive: e.g. disobedient, doing things own way), status offences (covert, non- destructive: e.g. running away, truancy, substance abuse), and property violations (covert, destructive: e.g. lying or deceiving, selling drugs, vandalism) (Frick et al. 1993). Subsequently, a distinction was made in two groups labeled early-onset (EO) and adolescent-onset (AO). The EO group will most likely develop as a LCP group and the AO group as an AL group. Patients with disruptive behavior starting prior to age 12 were considered members of the EO group and those whose disruptive behavior started from age 12 on were members of the AO group (De Boer et al. 2007, 2011). In the sample, both EO (n0 134, 66 %) and AO (n 0 69, 34 %) groups were found.
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Age of onset of episodic and chronic cluster headache – a review of a large case series from a single headache centre

Age of onset of episodic and chronic cluster headache – a review of a large case series from a single headache centre

Confirming what has already been reported by several au- thors [1–8], the review of our case series of CH patients shows that the mean age of onset is around 30 years. If we consider ECH and CCH separately, we can see that the mean onset age is older (33.9 ± 16.6 years) in the latter, but this is only due to the figure (38.5 ± 18.8 years) for the CCH subtype that until the 2004 international headache classification [15] was called primary CCH, i.e. chronic ab initio; by contrast, the onset age of secondary CCH, i.e. CH that has become chronic only after several years with a periodic time pattern, is entirely comparable to that of
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Age of Onset of Physical Abuse: Implications for Adult Anger and Aggression

Age of Onset of Physical Abuse: Implications for Adult Anger and Aggression

The second hypothesis, that Hostile Attributional Bias would moderate the relationship between the age of onset of abuse and Trait Angry Temperament and Anger Expression Out, was supported by this study. That is to say, biases in attributed hostility are responsible for part of the relationship between age of onset of abuse and Temperament and outward expression of anger, but not the entire relationship. The establishment of HAB, a cognitive construct, as a factor linking early childhood experience and self-reports of both emotion related and behavioral measure of adult anger/aggression provides much support for Social Information Processing views of the origin and maintenance of untoward behavioral tendencies.
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Effects of age of onset on clinical characteristics in schizophrenia spectrum disorders

Effects of age of onset on clinical characteristics in schizophrenia spectrum disorders

In stabilised schizophrenic patients, assessment of sub- jective QOL has good reliability and concurrent validity [55,56]. Hence, measurement of subjective QOL may be considered as a pertinent indictor of the state of health of stabilised schizophrenic patients [56]. The present study tested the relationship of age of onset with the QOL of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders by using t-tests. The results showed that patients with an early onset of schizophrenia spectrum disorders were likely to have worse QOLs than those with an adult ill- ness onset. A partial explanation for this may lie in the fact that an early onset of illness has been found to be a predictor of unfavourable prognosis and is correlated with higher global severity [57], higher rates of chroni- city, and more probable impairments in cognitive per- formance [58]. However, this significant effect was largely reduced after controlling for illness duration. The findings suggest that the difference in QOL levels between the two groups may be strongly affected by ill- ness duration. Besides, in patients with schizophrenia, adaptation and significant improvement in subjective QOL may be assumed to occur at a later stage of illness [59]. This finding is compatible with the results of our study, which showed that older patients are more satis- fied with their lives than younger patients are. (Pearson’s r = 0.218, p < 0.01).
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Intrinsic thalamocortical connectivity varies in the age of onset subtypes in major depressive disorder

Intrinsic thalamocortical connectivity varies in the age of onset subtypes in major depressive disorder

could not be accounted for higher age in AO-MDD than in EO-MDD or HC, and therefore, it is more likely related to the adult age of onset in MDD. However, it remains unclear why this abnormality was absent in EO-MDD. One pos- sibility is that prolonged exposure to antidepressants in the context of longer duration of illness in EO-MDD than in AO-MDD might have normalized this abnormality in EO- MDD. Another possibility is that thalamic abnormalities may be rare in EO-MDD as the neurodevelopmental trajectory suggests nonlinear increases in thalamic volumes during childhood and adolescence and linear volumetric decreases in thalamus starting in the early adulthood continuing into the old age. 30 This might explain why the volumetric reduc-
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Correlation between Severity of Alcohol Dependence with Age of Onset and Family History.

Correlation between Severity of Alcohol Dependence with Age of Onset and Family History.

seeking (impulsive, exploratory, excitable, disorderly and distractible) (2) low harm avoidance (confident, relaxed, optimistic, uninhibited, carefree and energetic) (3) low reward dependence (socially detached, emotionally cool, practical, tough minded, and independently, self- willed). These individuals frequently encountered legal problems, accidents, inability to abstain alcohol and significant alcohol related problems before the age of 25. Males predominated in this group and found that the risk of developing alcoholism was nine times more than the general population. This group were referred as “male-limited” 12 . While familial alcoholism being severe has been recognized for a much longer period, Cloninger’s work brought heightened focus on the aspect of Age of Onset and its relationship to severity of Alcoholism and Outcome.
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Distribution and age of onset of psychopathological risk in a cohort of children with Down syndrome in developmental age

Distribution and age of onset of psychopathological risk in a cohort of children with Down syndrome in developmental age

Ninety-seven patients (46 females and 51 males, mean age: 12 years), in follow up at the Department of Medical and Translational Science of Federico II University in Naples, from February 2015 to January 2017, were evalu- ated for the presence of psychopathological risk factors and to defined behavioral phenotype. The Department is a regional reference center for DS and evaluation was performed during regular follow-up neuropsychiatric visit and through administration of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), a self-assessment questionnaire com- piled by the patient’s parents for the assessment of the psychopathological risk. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS-T), a rating scale used to assess the presence of autistic behaviors [1, 15], was assessed to verify the pres- ence of autistic behaviors. These tools have been chosen for ductility, reliability and correlation with DSM-5 diag- nostic criteria. Follow-up was scheduled every 6 months, during outpatients visits. They were included all patients that not have yet a diagnosed psychiatric condition and that not made psychopharmacological treatment.
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Measurement Error for Age of Onset in Prevalent Cohort Studies

Measurement Error for Age of Onset in Prevalent Cohort Studies

we use the same strategy to generate length-biased survival data with measurement error in disease onset times as in Section 3.2. The “correct” likelihood is considered here in two scenarios: the variance of the measurement error ( φ = log σ ) is known or unknown. Figure 3 shows the estimated survivor functions based on the condi- tional and unconditional likelihood approaches which ignoring the measurement error and “correct” conditional and unconditional likelihood approaches based on (12) and (14). From this figure, we can find that the proposed “correct” likelihood approach adjusts the measurement error well and leads to better estimates of the survivor functions. Table 4 summarizes the empirical properties of the estimates based on the naive parametric condi- tional likelihood, the “correct” parametric conditional likelihood, the naive parametric unconditional likelihood, and the “correct” parametric unconditional likelihood. For the corrected likelihood we maximize (12) and (14) both with respect to ψ (i.e. when φ is treated as unknown) and with respect to θ when φ is fixed at the true value. Whether the variance of error ( ) φ is known or unknown, the “correct” likelihood approach reduces the bias of estimates, and the resulting empirical coverage probabilities are all within the acceptable range. These simulations therefore provide empirical support to the claim that the “correct” likelihood approach adjusts for the measurement error and yields consistent estimators. Notable is the only modest increase in the empirical or average standard errors of parameter estimates when the variance of the measurement error distribution is es- timated, especially for the shape parameter κ . The “correct” likelihood approach also provides a good estima- tor of φ , and the empirical bias of estimator for φ is small at 0.03 with standard error 0.27 for the conditional analysis and 0.01 with standard error 0.11 for the unconditional analysis, when φ = log1 0 = , for example.
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Age of Onset of Lactose Malabsorption

Age of Onset of Lactose Malabsorption

Committee on Nutrition, American Academy of Nutrition: The practical significance of lactose intolerance in children. Pediatrics 62:240, 1978[r]

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The age of onset of cannabis use and executive function

The age of onset of cannabis use and executive function

While it is not clear if putative neurotoxicity or dopaminergic dysfunction is explaining the cognitive deficits found in human cannabis users, it presents a possible mechanism to explai[r]

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Health-related quality of life in adults with epilepsy: the effect of age, age at onset and duration of epilepsy in a multicentre Italian study

Health-related quality of life in adults with epilepsy: the effect of age, age at onset and duration of epilepsy in a multicentre Italian study

From our analysis, it emerged that duration of epi- lepsy had a consistent significant negative effect on HRQOL in both single and pairwise unadjusted models. This is still in agreement with findings from studies on epilepsy adolescents, where a longer duration of epilepsy had a significant negative impact on the memory and concentration subscale of QOLIE-AD-48 [19] and on the overall HRQOL [17], and with various reports on the effects of disorder duration for other chronic condi- tions, such as Parkinson’s disease [46]. However, in Sza- flarski and coauthors [10], duration had a significant positive effect on HRQOL in the simple regression model. Even in presence of working adjustments of the social and psychological consequences of the disorder and coping mechanisms, cognitive decline and emo- tional-behavioral distress, together with a potentially increased number of drugs, may lead epilepsy subjects to give a poorer evaluation of HRQOL. Indeed, some studies assessing verbal learning and memory skill of epilepsy patients with ad-hoc inventories suggested a slow cognitive decline with increased duration of epi- lepsy [32,33]. A relevant investigation [28] demonstrated that increasing years of duration of temporal lobe epi- lepsy was modestly associated with increased and gener- alized self-reported emotional-behavioral distress, even after adjustment for potentially confounding clinical variables (including age of onset), and that this comor- bid emotional-behavioral distress was significantly asso- ciated with a poorer HRQOL.
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Anxiety related emotional disorders in primary school children

Anxiety related emotional disorders in primary school children

Madden, Bucholz, Heath, 2004). To clarify whether gender was associated with early anxiety disorder onset in addition to being associated with a higher rate of occurrence, we compared the mean age at onset for female and male anxiety cases (current and recovered).The mean onset ages for male and female cases did not differ (girls: n=97, M=8.0 years, SD=3.9; boys: n= 45, M=8.5years, SD=3.8), r(141)=0.77, p>.05 .In addition, no significant gender differences were obtained for mean onset ages for any of the specific anxiety disorders (Peter et al., 1998). Social anxiety disorder is known to appear at an early age in most cases. Fifty percent of those who develop this disorder have developed it by the age of 11 and 80% have developed it by age 20. This early age of onset may lead to people with social anxiety disorder being particularly vulnerable to depressive illnesses, drug abuse and other psychological conflicts (Stein and Stein, 2008). Physical symptoms often accompanying social anxiety disorder include excessive blushing, sweating, trembling, palpitations and nausea. Stammering may be present, along with rapid speech. Panic attacks can also occur under intense fear and discomfort. An early diagnosis may help minimize the symptoms and the Table 1. Mean, S.D. and ‘t’ value of gender differences i.e. boys and girls on different anxiety related disorders
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Dimensional Characteristics of Children and Adolescents with Mood Disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorders

Dimensional Characteristics of Children and Adolescents with Mood Disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorders

Descriptions of age, gender and age of onset (age at which the parents first became concerned that their child had a significant problem) are examined along with di- mensional characteristics that include activity and activi- ty patterns, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, sleep time, cognitive measurements, multi-dimensional person- ality factors and operationally defined and repeated ob- servations. A baseline assessment included a review of a biopsychosocial history, clinical and available educa- tional testing and records, a mental status examination, operationally defined symptom history and psychological assessment. DSM IV criteria were applied and those with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, mood dis- order, NOS, autistic disorder and pervasive developmen- tal disorder, NOS were invited to participate in the study as actigraphic devices were available.
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Cognitive deficits in early onset alcoholism

Cognitive deficits in early onset alcoholism

associated with recurrent of alcohol abuse without externalizing spectrum disorders or anti-social problems or positive history of alcoholism in the biological parents. These subtypes later named as Type I and Type II (22). Clinical characteristics of Type I alcoholism are anxious personality traits, rapid development of tolerance and dependence on the anti-anxiety effects of alcohol. This leads to loss of control, difficulty in terminating once initiate, guilt feelings, and liver complications. It occurs in both sexes, has a later age of onset (after 25 years of age), less severe and associated with low degree of novelty seeking and high degree of harm avoidance. This subtype has a better response to treatment. Whereas, a person with type II alcoholism is characterized by early onset (before 25 years of age), having antisocial personality traits and persistent seeking of alcohol for its euphoric effects, spontaneous alcohol seeking behavior and fighting, less feeling of guilt, low harm avoidance and high thrill seeking behaviors. This subtype of alcoholism has more severe course, more alcohol related social problems and has a poor response to treatment.
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DISEASE EXPRESSION AND HLA TYPES IN EARLY AND LATE ONSET DISEASE OF MALAYSIAN PATIENTS WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

DISEASE EXPRESSION AND HLA TYPES IN EARLY AND LATE ONSET DISEASE OF MALAYSIAN PATIENTS WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

The association of HLA antigens and the age of onset has been studied by several investigators (12,30,31). In this study, HLA DQA1*0103 was found to be significantly associated with late onset disease. A previous study reported no significant differences in DR3 or DR2 haplotypes in patients below 18 years of age compared to the older onset group (31). However, Bell et al (30) found HLA DR3 was significantly increased in female patients with late disease onset (above 35 years). In patients with age of onset below 30 years, Davies et al (12) found elevated frequencies of DQA1*0501, and DR3. When the onset of disease was set at 30 years of age, we found that Chinese patients in the later age of disease onset (30 years or more) were significantly associated with DQA1*0102 while in the Malays, there was no DR or DQ association with early or late onset disease. The differences in the immunogenetic profiles of early and late onset SLE, with the classical markers particularly prevalent, may help explain some of the differences between the two groups (32).
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Age Related Sexual Dimorphism in Temporal Discrimination and in Adult Onset Dystonia Suggests GABAergic Mechanisms

Age Related Sexual Dimorphism in Temporal Discrimination and in Adult Onset Dystonia Suggests GABAergic Mechanisms

FigUre 4 | graphic illustrating the relationship between age-related sexual dimorphism in temporal discrimination thresholds, mean age of onset and sex ratios in phenotypes of adult-onset isolated focal dystonia. Temporal discrimination (in milliseconds) is inverted on the left Y-axis so that worse discrimination is lower on the axis. The X-axis represents age in years (open arrow at the top of the figure). Each of the five phenotypes (musician’s dystonia, focal hand dystonia, cervical dystonia, laryngeal dystonia, and blepharospasm) are represented by filled bars, positioned at their mean age of onset, with the sex ratio for each phenotype illustrated by the colored inserts (pink for women: blue for men) (right Y-axis); the increasing female:male sex ratio with age is illustrated by the relative size of the filled bars. The regression lines (red for women; blue for men) from the analysis of the temporal discrimination thresholds (TDTs) in the unaffected first-degree relatives are drawn to illustrate the age-related sexual dimorphism of the TDT in relationship to the increasing female predominance with age of the phenotypes.
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Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of children with febrile seizures

Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of children with febrile seizures

seizure recurrence was associated with both age of onset of febrile seizure at one year or below (p value <0.002) and family history of seizures (p value <0.04) but significant association with sex, seizure duration, temperature at presentation, interval between seizure and onset of fever and type of seizure were not found. This study had inherent limitations being a hospital based study. Recall bias regarding history of febrile seizures in parents as well as exact duration of seizure and details of first episode of febrile seizure could not be minimized and these patients were not followed up to determine the risk of epilepsy.
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Clinical and descriptive analysis of chronic daily headaches

Clinical and descriptive analysis of chronic daily headaches

Population characteristics according to CDH type are illus- trated in Table 2. As far as gender is concerned, female prevalence was far more marked among CCMTTH and CM cases, even though women prevailed in all the forms of CDH. In patients suffering from “migrainous” CDH (CCMTTH and CM), episodic headache started earlier. As regards age of onset, on average CDH began during the fourth decade in all forms, even though CCMTTH tended to begin earlier. Finally, the time span from the beginning of episodic headache to CDH onset was shorter in CTTH patients compared to CCMTTH and CM patients.
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Age of Alcohol-Dependence Onset: Associations With Severity of Dependence and Seeking Treatment

Age of Alcohol-Dependence Onset: Associations With Severity of Dependence and Seeking Treatment

All of the observed relations persisted after also con- trolling for numerous characteristics associated with early age onset of alcohol dependence, including demo- graphics, personal history of smoking and illicit drug use, family history of alcoholism, childhood antisocial per- sonality disorder, and major depression. This suggests that the association of early age of onset of alcohol dependence and chronic relapsing dependence may not be solely a function of greater risk taking of those first dependent at a young age as reflected by these measures. Of course, there may be other markers of risk taking not included in the study that could not be analytically controlled.
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