This study found increased odds of stillbirth associated with pre-existing diabetes, pre-existing hypertension, ante- partum haemorrhage and SGA across most gestational age groups for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous women after adjusting for potential confounders. There were mixed results for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and gestational diabetes. At less than 27 weeks, there were decreased odds of stillbirth associated with diabetes, pre-existing hypertension and SGA for Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous women. Conversely, the odds of stillbirth for diabetes, hypertension and antepartum haemorrhage were 1 ½ times higher at term for Indigenous women as non-Indigenous women. The protective effect observed at lower gestational ages may be due to detection bias or differing causes of stillbirth; higher rates of spontaneous preterm birth have been Table 3 Gestational age-specific risk of stillbirth by medical condition and Indigenous status
In all, ED patients had multiple complications and different clinical manifestations in an age-specific manner. Sexual attempts were an age- and testosterone-dependent phenomenon, and sexual function declining with body functions is a natural physiological and pathological process for elderly males . Distinguishing the clinical features of ED related to age will be helpful for treatment strategies and evaluation of the treatment efficacy. However, the sample size of this study is not large enough, which may cause statistical bias.
synthesis disaggregated by age is currently available. Our main limitation relates to data presentation of the underlying studies which we have included in the review—if published studies did not present data in an age-specific and sex-specific fashion, we were unable to include them. However, what we have synthesised represents the evidence from published data and large international datasets and therefore the knowledge base available to those developing age-appropriate violence prevention programmes and allocating funding. We were also unable to access one dataset which would have met the inclusion criteria (BECAN), and there may be others which our systematic search efforts did not pick up. We produced global average prevalence estimates— where there were enough data, we modelled these using meta-regression techniques and adjusted for differences in definitions of forms of violence and study quality char- acteristics. Although every effort was made to adjust for differences in measurement of violence across studies, there may be residual confounding related to both defi- nitions of violence (including whether studies asked about experience of specific acts of violence and how many questions they asked) and other study quality vari- ables. These differences may in part explain age, sex and regional differences in prevalence estimates. Further, the school-based studies tended to include fewer ques- tions about experience of different specific acts of violence; thus, the school-based estimates may be more prone to misclassification of violence exposure relative to estimates of household and intimate partner violence. For most countries, data were only available from one or two survey years—pooling data from different years may obscure trends in the prevalence of violence over time. As with all studies on violence, there is likely to be under-reporting of certain forms of violence, particu- larly sexual violence, due to the stigma associated with victimisation and potential fear of reprisals. Our esti- mates are also based on population-based household and school-based surveys, which will include far fewer children who live outside of family care, on the street or in institutions and may under-represent experiences of those in conflict settings. In some cases, similar to other global estimates, data from only a limited number of countries are currently available.
Age-specific male mortality patterns. Data averaged for the years 1999 and 2000 for non-Hispanic white males in the United States from statistics distributed by the National Center for Health Statistics , Worktable Orig291. The causes of mortality are based on the International Classifica- tion of Diseases, Tenth Revision . Heart, diseases of the heart; CerVas, cerebrovascular diseases; Accid, accidents (unintentional injuries); Infl, influenza and pneumonia; Suic, intentional self-harm (suicide); Nephr, nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; Sept, septicemia; Canc, malignant neoplasms; ChrRsp, chronic lower respiratory diseases; Liver, chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis; Diab, diabetes mel- litus; Alzh, Alzheimer's disease.
data from France, Italy, and Japan. We compute ROMIs for each age-specific death rate over time; the death rates are smoothed using P-splines (Currie et al. 2004; Eilers and Marx 1996). We then forecast the survival improvements with our second core model via JAGS by letting the Gibbs sample algorithm run with five parallel chains for a total of 5200 iterations after a burn-in period of 200 iterations. The run-length and related settings rely on the Raftery-Lewis diagnostic and trace plots, which are presented in the “ Diagnostics ” section. To avoid dependence between adjacent trials, we only save each fifth iterate for inferences. In addition, we exclude implausibly low and high forecasts for ROMIs by setting thresholds, i.e., they can neither fall below 0.005 nor can they exceed 0.035. These thresholds rely on observed values (see Fig. 1), and they imply a mortality decline for all ages at a minimum of 0.5% and at a maximum of 3.5%. An annual mortality improvement of 3.5% is extraordinarily high and means that mortality can be reduced by half in less than 20 years. In case the model approaches minimum or maximum ROMIs, the forecasted death rates still decline with time. Appendix Table 3 summarizes all parameter settings for our mortality forecasts.
Studies have shown that race may also be an important factor in setting a reference range Enormous efforts were made to establish agespecific reference ranges through out the world. Black men with prostate cancer have higher PSA levels 3 3 , 4 0 than whites even after adjustment for age and stage of the disease. Morgan et al 3 3 showed that using standard agespecific reference ranges 41 % of cancers were missed in black men and suggested the following reference range for black men; for men in their 40s, 0 to 2ng/ml, for men in their 50s 0 to 5ng/ml, for men in their 60s 0 to 4.5 ng /ml, and 0 to 5.5 ng/ml for men in their 70s.
I also looked at the genetic architecture of growth regulation in chapter 2. Even with environmental perturbances during early development, individuals can return to normal body size via compensatory growth in order to “catch-up” with animals whose growth was not altered. Compensatory growth narrows the range of final adult size in mammals (so-called targeted growth), as evidenced by a reduction in phenotypic variance later in ontogeny (Riska et al. 1984). Mammals use a feedback mechanism via endocrine signals (Hornick et al. 2000), which allows the individual to assess their growth versus the target growth and alter growth accordingly. The genetic architecture of compensatory growth has not been studied, primarily because previous age-specific QTL mappings find no evidence of compensatory growth in mapping populations (Cheverud et al. 1996; Vaughn et al. 1999). Several publications have demonstrated mice from the restricted index selection demonstrate compensatory growth in ontogeny (see Atchley et al. 1997; Rhees and Atchley, 1999; Atchley et al. 2000). The restricted index selection lines allow me to explore the genetic architecture of compensatory growth, relative to the traits subject to selection criterion.
many regions. However many recent reports indicate a global change in seroepidemiological patterns of hepatitis A infection [9,10]. In Delhi (India), seroprevalence in people younger than 35 years old was similar to that of the more developed European countries . In Thailand, the prevalence of anti-HAV was 1.95% in Bangkok and 12.7% in other provinces in people younger than 25 years . In Italy like in many Western European countries , following the improvement of the standard of living in the industrialized world, age-specific HAV seropreva- lence in the general population has decreased steadily and risk of acquiring HAV infection is high for travellers to high HAV endemic areas in developing countries. Typically, improved sanitation facilities are provided in metropolitan regions first; thus, exposure to HAV remains more common in rural regions and small cities where it principally affects the youngest inhabitants. This study in an urban setting suggested that Antananarivo, and like- wise Madagascar, were hyperendemic for HAV with very high infection rates in the first years of life and most of the population acquiring antibodies to HAV before 10 years of age. HAV seroprevalence remained high in all age Prevalence of HAV antibodies according to age in subjects aged between two and 10 years old, Antananarivo 2004 (χ 2 test for
In this paper, we derive a formula that expresses age-dependent sensitivity in terms of probabilities that are directly observable in screening trials/programs and discuss the characteristics and generalization of this formula. We apply the formula to breast cancer screening trial (Health Insurance Plan) data to estimate the mammogra- phy sensitivity .
The paper aims to explore whether the attitudes and preferences of the elderly are distinct to those of others. Are they affected by circumstances in the same way as other age groups? Do their aspirations differ significantly? Why does happiness increase in old age after a dip in the middle age, once the negative impact of unpleasant life circumstances is eliminated? Which aspects of their lives may be influenced by policy, and which may need to be left for the choice of individuals, however important they might be for the promotion of happiness? Although the relationship between age and self-happiness appears to be methodologically simple (age being an “exogenous” variable), and has been studied since the beginnings of well-being research, surprisingly, there is considerable controversy between the various findings. The effects, however, are normally found to be small.
A key event during epidermal differentiation is the proteolytic breakdown of profilaggrin into “free” filaggrin monomers. A recent study has shown that the skin specific retroviral- like aspartic protease (SASPase) plays a key role in profilaggrin-filaggrin processing (Matsui et al., 2011). SASPase cleaves the linker peptide between the individual filaggrin monomers of profilaggrin and on a hairless mouse background, loss of SASPase leads to dry, scaly skin with reduced stratum corneum hydration accompanied by accumulations of profilaggrin-filaggrin intermediates but an absence of filaggrin monomers (Matsui et al., 2011). In this same study several missense mutations in the SASPase gene in atopic eczema patients and controls were identified, some of which were shown to have a detrimental effect on the ability of SASPase to cleave the profilaggrin linker peptide. Given the important role of filaggrin in skin barrier function and maintaining stratum corneum hydration (O’Regan and Irvine, 2010), these results prompted us to question whether aberrant profilaggrin- filaggrin processing due to altered SASPase activity could provide an alternative pathogenic mechanism for atopic eczema or clinically dry skin.
The aim of this paper is to investigate harvest-induced evolution in life-history strategies of a harvested single-species population. In particular, we analyze evolution of the trait age at ﬁrst reproduction. The population is grouped into four age classes, namely, zero-year-olds (newborns), one-year-olds (juveniles), two-year-olds (small adults), and individuals aged three years or older (large adults). The population is assumed to consist of a ‘resident’ group and a ‘variant’ group that are identical except that the resident group usually ﬁrst reproduces as a large adult and the variant group usually ﬁrst reproduces as a small adult. The eﬀect of various age-dependent harvesting strategies on the dynamics is studied both analytically and numerically. It is shown that age-dependent harvesting strategies can cause evolution from the resident group to the variant group. In addition, we show that a limit on the harvesting of the resident group can yield a sustainable ﬁshery of the commercially preferred resident group.
Second, since our study rests on a simple statistical model, it has a number of further limitations. We describe the generation time distribution via a one-parameter family and it is possible that allowing a second parameter, in making the distribution more realistic, may potentially elevate the probability of extinction [23,33]. Furthermore, it should be remembered that the success of travel restriction depends on travel volume, and this can substantially vary across the world. We examined a plausible number of 10 imported cases per day for the first 50 days through a single port of entry, the sce- nario most likely to allow effective border closures, but countries with much fewer importations can potentially expect some naturally-occurring delay (e.g. small island nations in Melanesia). Moreover, big countries with multiple ports of entry (e.g. USA and Australia), countries with unmonitored land borders (e.g. those within the Schen- gen area) and shorter distance of school trip among school-age children as compared to intercontinental travel by adults could prevent the implementation of such a strat- egy even if it were effective in territories such as Hong Kong. To improve our under- standing of this subject further, it might be valuable to account for more detailed heterogeneity (e.g. household and community) and other outcome measurements (e.g. timing and height of epidemic peak), as well as the additional effect of entry screening policies on top of travel restrictions , which would help further our understanding of the effectiveness of travel restrictions in realistic settings. Moreover, we should be able to estimate and compare the cost of available policy options. To help relevant pol- icy decisions in the future, we would need more objective epidemiological criteria con- cerning the severity of disease or an imminent public health risk by elaborating epidemiological details of descriptions given in International Health Regulations [12,35]. The decision may also depend on other available options of control (e.g. if it were realistic to contain an outbreak at local levels, we would not need travel restrictions).
One-way analysis of variance was used to compare categorical clinical/demo- graphic variables between groups, and independent samples t tests were used to compare continuous variables. Because %BF values were normally distributed (Fig 1), independent sam- ples t tests were used to compare data between groups. One-way analysis of variance testing was used to compare %BF between the 3 gestational age groups. This testing was also used to determine if there was a signiﬁcant difference in %BF between days of PEA POD measurement. Stepwise linear re- gression was used to determine the in- dependent effect of gestation on %BF. Statistical signiﬁcance was accepted at P ⬍ .05.
Demographic parameters (age, sex), lifestyle factors (smoking habits and alcohol use) and measurements of height and weight were recorded in all subjects. BMI was calculated as weight(kg)/(height(meters)) 2 . A trained research nurse recorded body temperature and heart rate and drew 30 ml of blood from a cubital vein. A standardized brachial blood pressure measurement was taken after 10 – 15 minutes rest in a sitting position using an Omron 705CP automated blood pressure monitor (Omron Healthcare, Milton Keynes, UK). The study had UK National Research Ethics Service (NRES) approval. All participants gave written informed consent.