Today, mass media and social media have turned into powerful forces. They can transfer a large amount of information within the society very quickly. In the present century, media audiences can easily access the media and receive a great deal of information, comments and photos from all around the world. But the issue that many media audiences do not realize is that based on the agendasettingtheory, a great majority of information published in the media is filtered in different ways before being published. For example, a certain news network puts a certain presidential candidate in its news headline. Then this person becomes the day’s top news. In fact, media makes the audience believe that this topic is very important (Adams, Harf & Ford, 2014).
On the whole, in Malaysia the media reflect the policy of the government and the society in which they operate . Firdaus  explained that the Malay political party, UMNO, and the Chinese political party, MCA, are components of the ruling coalition, Barisan Nasional. However it cannot be denied that each party cares for its ethnic interests. A cursory look at the different newspapers should indicate different agenda. These agenda are then relayed back to their readers, “for example, the Malay Mail and the New Straits Times are both owned by the News Straits Times Press but cover different types of stories with the Malay Mail running more human interests and sensationalistic stories. Utusan Malaysia is closely linked to the Malay political party (UMNO), while the Star is closely affiliated to the Chinese political party (MCA)” . Khiang, Ahmad and Kee  see the differences of interest and the upholding the rights of the community served by the ethnic newspapers can be seen from its focus and suggest that future researches should consider English newspapers. In conclusion, the ownership of newspapers probably influenced to a greater degree the AgendaSettingTheory.
Agenda-SettingTheory can easily be applied to how the media either over-reports or under-reports terrorist attacks in countries such as France and Nigeria. To assert the value of this theory, analysis was conducted on the method of reporting done by the media. To be more precise, by examining how mainstream U.S. media outlets present the information in their papers, a comparative analysis on the news reports discussing the terrorist events in France and Nigeria was conducted to determine if they were under- reported or over-reported in the United States. The extent to which a certain attack is covered could, in turn, affect the salience and public opinion of the intended audience. The media filters, shapes, and concentrates on these attacks, thus leading the public into thinking that the issue is more important than it really is. The sources used were the news websites of The New York Times, The Washington Post, and USA Today. To find articles on terrorist attacks in France and Nigeria, we conducted separate searches on these three search engines.
Based on the assumption of Agenda-settingtheory, this study provided evidence on the implication of using visuals to evoke audience‟s specific prejudices against Islam. Nigerian newspapers used more violent photos in reporting Islam than Malaysian newspapers. Though the use of violent photos in the selected newspapers tends to be minimal, these kinds of photos might generate inordinate consequences. These negative visuals are highly consequential, and if this continuous, Muslims are likely to become victims of the media journalistic content instead of benefiting from the public enlightenment that supposed to be awakening people to the true nature of reality. The findings indicate that Malaysia is more sensitive to media control on religious issues than Nigeria. It should be noted that newspapers in Nigeria are mostly owned by private individuals and groups, unlike Malaysian newspapers which are mainly dominated by the government with strong self-censorship and restrictive regulation (Thomas, 2014).
The paper describes an agenda-setting study of national day coverage in state and national newspapers. The specific aspects examined were the framing of the national day news in episodic or thematic terms, quotation of sources, and priming strategies. The theoretical framework of the study was the agenda-settingtheory on how the salience attached to issues is influenced by the mass media. The media discourse data analyzed were 48 news articles related to national day that were published on 31 August 2016 in four newspapers. Textual analysis of the headlines and articles were conducted. The results showed that the national day articles were mainly in episodic frames, reporting particularly parades and events or competitions where the national flag is displayed. The thematic frames were mainly on the ordinary Malaysians’ experiences as well as those with links to the 1957 events. The newspapers deemed politicians as the most important source to quote for newsworthiness. The politicians played an important role in priming the readers or the Malaysians to appreciate what they have. One priming strategy was to bring up positive values on unity in diversity, patriotism and freedom which had been achieved due to the sacrifices of past Malaysians. The other priming strategy was mentioning or showing symbols of national identity, particularly the national flag and sometimes the national anthem, to invoke feelings of patriotism. The findings suggest that the Malaysian newspapers tell readers what and how to think about national identity and ethnic relations.
attitudes and information needs of the public two-times per year since July 2000. In the view of the political communications, the media are considered as the necessary factor in the exchange of the messages between the political actors and institutions on one hand, and public on the other (McLeod, Kosicki, and McLeod 1994; McQuail 1994). Indeed, in the communication strategy, the media and journalists are considered as the main creators of the public opinion, since they are the principal source of information for the majority of population, and they influence the views of the general public in the best and most rapid manner (Pejčinović Burić 2002). Consequently, it can be expected that the public will predominantly rely on the presentation of the issue in the media to base their opinion about it. Therefore, the underlying motivation for this study is to examine the relationship between the presentation of the EU and integration process in the media, and the public opinion on the issue. This study will rely on the agendasettingtheory and examine the relationship between the media and the public by looking at the importance of seven topics related to the issue of the EU and Croatian Integration process in three subsequent periods.
Abstract: This article considers the relationship between feminist theory and feminist critique. It points out the current divorce between feminist theory and feminist action and bets on the need for both to go hand in hand. Several areas of feminist theory’s work are able to help reconnect it with feminist action. The first is the critique of individualist social ontology and the proposal of an alternative ontology based on a relational ontology and mutual responsibilities. The second refers to the need to address the singularities of the feminization and precariousness of women's labour. Third and last, the need to rethink and discuss the category of patriarchy, from a non-essentialist conception. It concludes by proposing a redefinition of patriarchy as a form, among others, of structural injustice.
In order to make a policy or program, the government follows procedures based on the Act Number 25 Year 2004 about the National Planning System. At the agenda-setting stage, a program should refer to the foundation of RPJMD; thus, the emergence of a program would be impossible if it did not reveal in the planning document. The policy-making process can be seen in Figure 3, which is the RPJMD arrangement process in which the creation of RPJMD is intertwined with RPJMN and other documents. The procedure scheme is evidence that the creation of RPJMD is consistent with and based on the related documents mentioned above (RPJMN, RPJP). This means that in the process of policymaking, it always includes the participation of all stakeholders through a meeting called ‘Development and Planning.’ The sustainability of the program can be defined in terms of how regional governments maintain and are always committed to conducting the entrepreneurship policy. It is shown from the process scheme, where the program conducted is always aligned with other documents.
meanings, contexts and venues for the representation of DSH (i.e. the Internet) and which engages with different kinds of (non-medical or clinical) DSH populations 77 .We use the points above as the basis for arguing the need for a mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) research agenda that aims to identify a continuum of DSH behaviours and the frequency of these amongst a non-clinical population; whilst exploring the diversity of meanings, contexts and functions of DSH for young DSHers in the South West. A suggested research plan is set out in the accompanying proposal. Additionally we argue that any research agenda should aim to determine the information needs and support mechanisms preferred by different segments of DSHers as this would feed into policy-level decisions (such as the allocation of resources based on pertinent real-world data. Finally, we argue that any kind of intervention needs to take the above-mentioned benefits and gains bestowed by DSH into account and that a relevant exchange will be one that is co-created by young self-harmers. This is in keeping with the emphasis placed on co-creation by, amongst others, the Improvement and Development Agency, who argue for an approach to behaviour change that “sees citizens and communities as the co- producers of health and well-being, rather than the recipients of services. 78 ”
we establish an ethics agenda for psychiatric genomics as it relates to both these contexts: we review the main translational challenges, identifying and reviewing three distinct ethical concerns, before outlining a novel research agenda to tackle these issues. Section I examines concerns around genetic essentialism which could inadvertently exacerbate stigma against individuals with mental disorders. Section II discusses the promises of genomic medicine, which raises potential therapeutic consequences of ‘genetic responsibility’, explored in Section III. Section IV probes how individualised genomic medicine and public health applications of genomic research could together divert attention away from ethical examination of key environmental and systemic factors which contribute to mental illness. Section V outlines the need for an interdisciplinary, clinical ethics research agenda to examine the impact of the genomic revolution on mental disorders research and treatment. We further suggest that biogenetic and genomic research into mental disorder must work in concert with ethically informed, evidence-based therapeutic interventions which do not lose sight of the individual situated within unique environmental circumstances.
Methods: Our methods included policy document review and expert interviews. We identified policy reforms proposed by different government appointed committees on issues concerning nurses ’ leadership and its progress. Experts ’ accounts were used to understand lack of progress in several nursing reform proposals and analysed using deductive thematic analysis for ‘ legitimacy ’ , ‘ feasibility ’ and ‘ support ’ , in line with Hall ’ s agendasetting model. Results: The absence of quantifiable evidence on the nurse leadership crisis and treatment of nursing reforms as a ‘ second class ’ issue were found to negatively influence perceptions of the legitimacy of nurse leadership reform. Feasibility is affected by the lack of representation of nurses in key positions and the absence of a nurse-specific institution, which is seen as essential for creating visibility of the issues facing the profession, their processing and planning for policy solutions. Finally, participants noted the lack of strong support from nurses themselves for these policy reforms, which they attributed to social disempowerment, and lack of professional autonomy.
the points above as the basis for arguing the need for a mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) research agenda that aims to identify a continuum of DSH behaviours and the frequency of these amongst a non-clinical population; whilst exploring the diversity of meanings, contexts and functions of DSH for young DSHers in the South West. A suggested research plan is set out in the accompanying proposal. Additionally we argue that any research agenda should aim to determine the information needs and support mechanisms preferred by different segments of DSHers as this would feed into policy-level decisions (such as the allocation of resources based on pertinent real-world data. Finally, we argue that any kind of intervention needs to take the above-mentioned benefits and gains bestowed by DSH into account and that a relevant exchange will be one that is co-created by young self-harmers. This is in keeping with the emphasis placed on co-creation by, amongst others, the Improvement and Development Agency, who argue for an approach to behaviour change that “sees citizens and communities as the co- producers of health and well-being, rather than the recipients of services. 78 ”
The formation of a regulatory agenda is of critical import to the regulated; determination of the agenda dictates regulatory direction and, ergo, the economic costs and benefits that may accrue to the regulated (Arrow 1951, Plott 1976). Accordingly, self-interested constituents have strong incentives to lobby for agenda admission of regulatory initiatives projected to be net- beneficial and exclusion of projects expected to result in net costs. Within accounting, prior research has explored the influence of constituent lobbying in the determination of US GAAP; however, this literature has focused primarily on the exposure draft to final standard stage due to data availability in the form of constituent comment letters (e.g. Watts and Zimmerman 1978). By contrast, the agendasetting process is largely characterized by archival opacity, severely limiting the development of empirical research, despite recognition by that agendasetting is potentially the most “crucial determinant of accounting standards” (Gipper et al 2013), yet remains “one of the least understood and least appreciated” (Beresford 1993). 1
national language, see e.g. Klitmøller, 2013). Turning to sociolinguistics and applied linguistics (e.g. Canagarajah, 2000; Jaffe, 1999) such an understanding language as a ‘technical’ skill vs. part of an individual’s repertoire and sense of self has already been addressed. Recent work (e.g. Piller, 2016) has further problematised the treatment of language as a commodity that individuals possess on the grounds that it is based on a narrow and static view of language. Linguists argue that there is a need to conceive competence in a dynamic, situated way that goes beyond static lists of can/cannot do. It is widely argued that the very notion of ‘efficient’ communication in the globalised economy has had a commodifying effect on the understanding of language. ‘Language’ or ‘foreign’ language in this context acquires value in relation to the activities of an organisation (Heller, 2010, for a review) and the symbolic power associated with the language users in any given context. Language varieties are socially and locally valued and hence a situated and context sensitive approach is necessary for unpacking the dynamics of language use in any workplace setting. We return to this point in the last section of our paper.
While some of the above mentioned research challenges have been addressed in the presentations at the workshop and in the papers included in this volume, we are still far from comprehensive solutions. One of the observations that could be made about the workshop is that a quite small proportion of the contributions dealt with both visualization and decision support. This reflects the general situation, in which there has been limited synthesis and cooperation between the research communities focusing on (geo)visualization and on spatial decision support. To achieve significant advances, both in creating tools and in developing the theory, focused efforts of truly multidisciplinary teams are necessary, where “visualizers” closely cooperate with “decision analysts” as well as experts from other related disciplines. That is one of the reasons why the organizers of the workshop, in particular, the Commission on Visualization of the International Cartographic Association, decided to define and popularize the concept of Geovisual Analytics for Spatial Decision Support. This new research direction and the opportunity to re-focus geovisualization research is designed to attract the attention of scientists with relevant expertise and interests and to promote the development of the kind of cross-disciplinary research that is required to move the community forward in addressing the pertinent research issues outlined and discussed here.
As the evidence for CTP for health and nutrition in hu- manitarian contexts is limited, a research agenda-setting exercise was commissioned by the WHO as part of the work plan of the GHC Task Team on Cash. The re- search agenda presented, which is the product of a four- stage process, defines nine research categories and pro- poses a framework to understand their interdependence. Literature reviews confirm there currently is little quality evidence on the efficiency or effectiveness of CTP for health and nutrition in humanitarian settings and a need to better understand how CTP compares to, and/or adds value to complement, direct support to service delivery or supply side financing approaches. While there is some evidence from stable contexts on the positive effects of CTP, related to several research categories identified in this agenda-setting exercise, these findings cannot be generalised to humanitarian contexts as conditions are incomparable. Research categories and questions out- lined in this paper are not exhaustive and consulted re- search questions should be seen as illustrative and adaptable to specific contexts. The agenda is intended to serve as guidance for researchers, policy-makers, imple- menters, and funders.
The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board ("PCAOB" or "Board") seeks to establish and maintain high-quality auditing and related professional practice standards for audits of issuers and brokers and dealers in support of PCAOB's overall mission to protect investors and the public interest. The PCAOB's Office of the Chief Auditor ("OCA"), with a continued focus on improving the effectiveness of PCAOB standards, takes a priority-based approach in establishing the standard-settingagenda which may include developing new standards or rules, or amending existing standards or rules.