This list emphasises a number of important factors regarding raw food commodities. Firstly, there are generally two discrete stages to raw food commodity manufacture: growth cycle (the rearing of livestock or growth of a food crop) and processing (the sorting, cleaning and conditioning of the product prior to sale). In some cases these stages are carried out by separate companies (e.g., beef cattle farmer and abattoir). Therefore, HACCP procedures may require co-operation between all parties involved. Secondly, production information should take into account growth cycles. Peters (1998) identified this as a key component of the effectiveness of the current Australian approach to HACCP. Certain activities are only permitted either prior to raw food commodity production (e.g., bio-solid application) or at specific stages during the growth cycle (e.g., pesticide use during cereal production). Thirdly, all production and processing sites should be identified and the ‘times of use’ should be recorded, as both of these factors can affect likelihood of hazards occurring and (when they do occur) the degree to which they occur. For example, fishing is commonly prohibited at certain times of year or in close proximity to sewage discharges (Ahmed, 1992). The product description is commonly used to construct a flow diagram of the overall production sequence (e.g., see Bryan, 1992; CAC, 1993; ILSI, 1993). Within the food-manufacturing sector this is normally relatively straightforward, because many operations are highly standardised, particularly in large food processing plants where high levels of quality assurance and automation are possible. By comparison, many operations within the agricultural sector can appear ad hoc. For example, a farmer may decide to add additional nutrients to feeds if cattle appear to require them, or decide not to apply a pesticide if a crop that appears to be growing well without it. Such inherent variability must be carefully considered when developing raw food commodity flow diagrams.
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This paper assesses the impact of Arab integration arrangements on intra-Arab Agrifood trade. The main results indicate that Arab regional integration efforts have been ineffective in promoting Agrifood trade flows among the Arab countries. The results also show that actual intra-Arab Agrifood trade is consistently lower than the predicted values by the gravity model. Furthermore, Arab sub-regional trade agreements have had a modest impact on intra-Arab Agrifood trade. Taken together, these findings suggest that i) there is untapped trade potential in agricultural and food commodities among the Arab countries and thus they could potentially attain deeper levels of Agrifood trade integration, and ii) despite the significant progress that has been made over the past two decades in lowering tariff barriers, Agrifood trade among Arab countries has remained below its potential which in turn points out to the existence of non-tariff barriers that restrain the trade effects of Arab economic integration.
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the defined reference period, below-average realization of wheat in Austria was proved (by –36.23%) but, on the other hand, above-average in Germany (36.25%). In milk and milk products, the most fa- vourable realization was achieved in trading with Thailand in the period 1995–2002. Export of vegeta- ble to other countries was realized most favourably in 1993–2002. With respect to the unspecified struc- ture of particular kinds of goods of the commodity it is not possible to generalize given argumentation. It same applies butter and other fats for their short-term presentation. The finding referring the export unit price of butter amounting to CZK 69.12 per kg achieved in Slovakia in the period 1995 až 2002 as against its average price CZK 46.88 per kg is of a higher informative potential. Objective evaluation of the given event in the unit export price of sugar is excluded by heterogeneous time intervals of the studied phenomenon. Export of consumer eggs to Slovakia and other countries was carried out above the average export price of CZK 1.67 per one egg in the period 1995–2000. The average export price of honey amounting to CZK 46.77 per kg was exceeded by export to Austria (by 24.07%) and Germany (by 2.63%) in 1993–2002. In the same period, exports of beef to other countries was realized below the average price (by –2.31%). Exports above the average price of beer were realized to the United King- dom and other countries, however, below the average price to Slovakia (by –40.48%) and Germany (by –4.61%). Presented average values of unit export prices of hops given in Tab. II show that their highest level was achieved in trading with Japan and the United Kingdom. The description of developmental trends of time series of the export prices of selected commodities as the fundamental stage of investi- gation is presented in Tabs. III to XII. A graphic picture on the trend of studied indicators is given by diagrams in Figs. l to l0. A marked average annual
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Prices of food commodities in recent years have been on the increase due to continuous fall in agricultural food production relative to population increase (for example, the contribution of the food section to the national GDP has not only been fluctuating but also falling). Ladipo and Adesinmi (1979), explained that in countries such as Nigeria, where agriculture is predominant, the increment of agricultural prices can have a ramifying effect on the economy. The findings of various studies according to Ladipo and Adesinmi (1979), point in this direction. In one of such studies, it was argued that the prices of food crops and the movement of such prices explain to a large extent the skewness of a nation‘s income distribution especially as regards the rural sector. Olayemi (1976), buttressed this point by showing empirically how higher food prices paid by consumers are not being paid back to farmers in significant proportions. He opined that for
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The institutional arrangements are also found to cause inflation in some studies. Mitra (2008) studied the crop specific causes for the global food price inflation. The study has found there was a steady rise in the rice eating population in India accompanied by a dramatic rice crop failure in 2002 has left the food stocks depleted. The failure to recover food stocks have lag effects on the supply side and abetted the rice price inflation. Mitra and Josling (2009) has analyzed the implications of agricultural export restrictions. The study discussed the structural problems relating to Public distribution systems like problems of corruption, theft, lack of accessibility of rural population in the context of food security. The study has concluded that the failure of demand management mechanism like PDS in India as primary reason for food price inflation in India. Singh and Blanc (2009) used Monte Carlo simulation technique to examine the impact of trade policy on global rice prices in different policy scenarios. The study analyzed the impact on rice prices given the export/import restrictions. The study had found that the international rice price rises when India imposes trade restriction at the same time the study established that the world rice price stabilized when India allowed free trade. The study has inferred India’s intervention in the rice market March 2008 drove up world prices. Iqbal and Van Der Merwe (2010) analysed the various aspects of food crisis and examined the trends in production, procurement and availability of state wise food grains. The study has found that the ineffective and inefficient marketing strategies lack of adequate storage facilities and black marketeering or hording as India is prone to uncertain weather.
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The sector has remained the backbone of Africa’s economic development for centuries without having taken on a real structural transformation. This lack of transformation perpetuates the characterization of Africa as a cheap and secure source of primary commodities required to feed the growing needs and changing demands of the tra- ditionally established and newly emerging industrial super-economies. In line with both Abuja High Level Con- ference on Agribusiness and Agro industries and the Malabo Declarations, which respectively 1) urged the African Union AU member states not only to establish the requisite legal, regulatory and institutional frame- works to support agribusiness and agro-industry development, but also to put in place programs to accelerate the development of the value of strategic food commodities; and 2) committed to halving poverty by the year 2025 through inclusive agricultural growth and transformation. As such the heads of state committed to ensure that the agricultural growth, to sustain annual agricultural GDP growth of at least 6%, to establish and/or strengthen inclusive public private partnerships for at least five priority agricultural commodity value chains with strong linkage to smallholder agriculture. It is with this background and within the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) new framework that the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), in collaboration with the African Union Commission (AUC), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), has launched an initiative for the devel- opment of strategic commodities regional value chains in Africa. As no agricultural development initiative should look away from climate change issues, UNECA decided to analyse the Greenhouse Gas emission along the val- ue chains, which is a factor most often overlooked. The Value Chain Analysis-Greenhouse Gas (VCA-GHG) model implemented for this study provides insight into the relationship between output maximization and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to help define optimal intervention approaches that minimize GHG emissions while maximizing the potential economic yield.
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This paper examines that formation of bubbles episodes in food and agricultural commodity prices and identifies the origin and collapse of bubbles (if any). Over the last decade, commodity markets have experienced a drastic price fluctuation and from a herding and speculation perspective, food commodities are considered as a profitable investment in comparison with alternative assets due to its direct association with food security (Mcphail et al. 2014). Excessive price hikes and bubbles in food prices may not only cause a huge shock in domestic markets but create a political turmoil in global markets owing to its adverse and negative welfare implications among market entities (Bekkers et al., 2017). Furthermore, it may intensify poverty and trigger political turbulence, particularly in countries where large share of household budget is constituting towards food commodities (Sanders and Irwin, 2010; Algieri, 2014). Subsequently, food price bubbles have become an intensive debate and global concern.
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live in burrows and form mixed social groups containing up to 200 individuals, which frequently interact among one another . It is yet unknown whether they also trade different commodities with each other. In our experiment, 37 dyads of female wild-type rats were tested in four different situations, each consisting of an experience and a test phase (Figure 2). During the experience phase, focal rats experienced their partner as cooperating or non-cooperating in one commodity (either allogrooming, which was induced by applying saline solution to the neck of the focal rat ; or food provisioning, which was induced by enabling a potential donor to pull a tray with food into the focal rat’s reach). During the following test phase, focal individuals were enabled to return the received service to the same partner by using the opposite commodity than their partner had used in the experience phase. We recorded the delay until focal rats provided help to their partner for the first time, and how often they helped their partner during the test phase. Allogrooming is a naturally occurring affiliative behaviour where no training was involved. In contrast, rats had been taught at young age how to donate food to a social partner by pulling a tray loaded with food into its reach (see Methods below; [9,13])
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Agriculture forms a key sector in African economies and plays a crucial role in trade and regional integration. According to the World Bank (2013), Africa now earns 23% of its annual growth from farming. Agricultural commodities form an important share of African trade, both regionally and internationally. However, the continent still records a negative trade balance with other international markets, and this trade deficit is increasing. The United Nation Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD, 2014) reported that in Africa, net food imports increased by US$ 14.3 billion from 1999-2001 to 2009-2011. This net food imports as a share of GDP increased from 3.2% in 1999-2001 to 3.6% in 2009-2011.
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Perspective analysis through the MP3EI study intended to analyze in depth the various aspects that are the key aspects to push inter-islands rice trade of South Sulawesi. There were at least three main aspects of the focus of the analysis: (1) assess the relative position of South Sulawesi in the yield of rice compared to other regions as well as the relative position of rice to other agricultural commodities. This study primarily aimed to identify whether rice commodity is a commodity that can be relied upon in the regional economy and to identify other areas that could potentially be a major rival in the yield of rice. From this aspect, it can be stated that the South Sulawesi rice has prospect if the rice has comparative advantage to be developed, as well as South Sulawesi has a comparative advantage compared to other regions in producing rice, especially if the production system is done with the pattern-based farming groups. (2) Assess the trends and performance of the rice trade in various regions of South Sulawesi for rice inter-island trading purposes. This aspect, mainly aimed to find out whether South Sulawesi ‘rice has the Table 1. Surplus-Minus Rice in South Sulawesi in 2013 broken down by district
The fluctuating crude oil prices significantly influence the economy of both oil exporting and oil importing countries by impacting different sectors of the economy. The growth in commodity markets around the globe has also provided immense opportunities to global investors, speculators and traders. Now, inves- tors and other market participants have started using commodities in their port- folios for hedging and risk management (Baffes and Hanitis ). Such use of commodities as an asset in portfolio significantly influences the integration rela- tionship between agricultural commodities and crude oil (Nazlioglu et al. ).
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The development of commodity markets has had major economic implications. They have, over the course of the 19 th century, been at the forefront of improvements in transportation, storage and financing facilities, making greater interstate and international trade possible. In recent years, commodity markets have been an upturn in the volume of trading, with prices of many commodities such as gold, silver, aluminium, nickel, lead, zinc, copper, corn, oil & oil seeds, etc. Commodity exporting countries have benefitted immensely from this trend due to rapidly growing export revenues. Even investments made into the commodity sector have expanded, with money entering these markets through indices, hedge funds, exchange traded funds and short-term momentum players. The trading of commodities in commodity markets consists of direct physical trading and derivatives trading. A market in which goods are sold for cash and delivered immediately is called the physical market. Deals in these markets are immediately effective. The physical market is also known as the cash market or spot market, because prices are settled in cash on the spot at current market prices, as opposed to forward prices. In the physical markets, participation is restricted to people who are the involved with that commodity, say, the farmer, processor, wholesaler, etc.
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The reintroduction and expansion of the commodity futures trading in India, has opened discussions on concept, development and issues associated with it. The liberal economic policy and opening up and integration of Indian financial and commodities markets with world markets have certainly necessitated studies vis-à-vis derivative trading in commodities. This is supported by other reforms in agricultural marketing sector such as amendment to APMC Act by many state governments, setup of electronic spot commodity exchanges, etc. Futures contracts perform two important functions viz., price discovery and price risk management with reference to the given commodities, which are useful in various segments of the economy. It is useful to producers because they can get an idea of the price likely to prevail at a future point of time and therefore, decide between various competing commodities. It enables the consumer to get an idea of the price at which the commodity would be available at a future point of time. India basically an agrarian country has a long history of commodity derivatives as back in 1875 1 . But this sector remained underdeveloped due to constant government intervention
Romania’s international agrifood trade increased significantly during the last decade, and mostly after the EU accession. Since 1990, the Romanian agrifood trade balance showed an almost continuous increasing deficit trend until 2008. In four years only, the trend reversed and in 2013, for the first time in the last two and a half decades, the agrifood trade balance turned positive. The present paper is analyzing the evolution of the trade evolution and its structure, separating the agrifood products in three categories: agricultural commodities, primarily processed products and secondary processed products. A higher ratio of processed products in exports is indicating an increased competitiveness, resulting from higher unit values incorporating more added value, and showing, at the same time, a higher development degree of the country’s food industry. The results for total trade show that the processed products represented at most 46% of the Romanian exports, and at least 63% of imports, indicating a low-competitive structure of the agrifood trade. The analysis is detailed for intra and extra-EU trade and by main partners and groups of products.
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This work builds on previous studies by the Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU) at Lincoln University (2016A:C) assessing consumer’s willingness to pay for credence attributes in agri-food products. This work was centred on key export markets (both current and potential) for New Zealand agri- food exporters, the included countries were: China, India, Indonesia, Japan and the United Kingdom (UK). This paper concludes a three-year research effort as part of the Maximising Export Returns (MER) research programme, by the AERU funded by the New Zealand Ministry for Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE). This project aimed at valuing the potential of credence attributes in foreign market as a method for adding value to New Zealand exports.
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integrated system of techniques to control the growth and harvesting of animals and vegetables. After the green revolution in mid – sixties, there has been no major technological innovation, which could give a fresh impetus to agricultural productivity. Insufficient extension services and poor access to information further widen the gap
On the other hand, there are also instances when vol- untary cancellations are used as a negotiating tool by the US EPA or would not have been requested without some amount of regulatory pressure. For instance, mevinphos was voluntarily cancelled in the USA by the registrant once the US EPA made it clear that it intended to sus- pend the pesticide due to human health concerns . With aldicarb, the manufacturer agreed to an extended voluntary phase-out in exchange for the US EPA not ini- tiating cancellation proceedings . Additionally, of the 20 agricultural OP pesticides that have been voluntarily cancelled in the USA, 10 were cancelled after the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) amendment to FIFRA began to be implemented in the early 2000s (Additional file 3: Table S20) . Nine of those 10 were used on food crops and the stricter safety requirements of the FQPA regarding food exposures likely played a role in the voluntary removal of those pesticide ingredients, as it is believed to be a contributing factor in decreased OP use over the last 20 years .
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in rural areas and encouraging diversification of the rural economy, and 4 – the Leader approach. Area 1 involves measures aimed at improving human and physical potential in agriculture, food production, and forestry, including transfers of knowledge, in- novations and implementation of high production standards. Subsidization schemes addressed at the low output farms that do not supply goods for the market continue to be the subject of much controversy. The low-performance farms contribute to the preservation of the historical agrarian structure. The high rate of the farmland conversion to non-agricultural uses is a serious problem in Poland and the EU, and poses a threat to food security (Wilkin 2011). The European Union sets stringent qualitative requirements for food products traded in the common market. In order to improve the quality of their products, Polish farmers have had to increase capital investments and introduce organizational and technical changes. (Bórawski and Gotkiewicz 2012).`
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alternative policy option is necessary to address the concern of all participants in the market depending on the seasonal severity level of the produce. It is clear that, the recommendation drawn to the Rwandan farmers in the present study can affect the other stakeholders in the market. Hence, the present study further demands the attention of policy makers to further emphasize on the development of Agricultural market infrastructure in the country and create more awareness of the commodity exchange importance. This will benefit farmers to mitigate the risks derived from the seasonal nature of agricultural product through enabling them to sell their produce using warehouse receipt service provided by the commodity exchange.
facilitate border trade with Bangladesh and also the movement of people of both the countries across the border. Officials of Custom Department from Mahendraganj come over Kalaichar Border Haat which is held on every Wednesday to keep the office record. These officials do not have their own office building. The vendors and vendees had contributed money by themselves and have constructed a small makeshift shed with tin roof but without any boundary walls. Agricultural crops in Garo Hills are seasonal and it also depends on monsoon variability, so commodity supply keeps on changing with seasonal availability of crops. Transport facility is another major problem for local vendors as only hand carts are allowed to carry goods on the market day. Since road condition is very poor, motor carrier vans cannot access the roads. There is hardship for the vendors in transportation of commodities in bulk as motor vehicles have difficulty passing through the narrow strip of road. Further few carrier vans which ply have to be parked at a long distance on account of no parking space for the vehicles near the haat area. It is now incumbent upon the concerned authorities to take necessary and adequate steps to solve the existing limitations for a smooth functioning of the border haat which is a lifeline to the poor rural households of the remote border villages of both the neighboring nations.
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