In literature with related topic, there are a lot of definitions of the term ”or ganic agriculture”, but all of them consider its environmental and social impacts by eliminating the use of synthetic inputs, which are replaced with traditional specific practices that maintain and increase long-term sustainability of soil fertility and prevent pest and diseases. Even though consumer demand for organic products is concentrated mainly in the developed economies while the member states gave different attention to organic farming, at the level of EU, it registered a rapid growth in the last years. Since the 1990s, organic farming was extended in Europe, the increasing of the operated ecologically area being significant, the organic farming sector being in continuously developing, registering significant increases from year to year. This is the result of political support for the realization of organic farming offered by the governments of each country and the EU, but also due to the growing demand for organic products from consumers. Agriculture plays an important role in the economy of member countries EU, supported both by share of employment in agriculture and the contribution to their gross domestic product. Organic farming is subordinate to sustainable development and sustainable farming systems, but the transition from conventional agriculture to organic takes time because economic structures do not feel the effects of fall in productivity, and manufacturers to gain confidence in ecological systems. Organic farming does not require significant financial investment or large-sized farms but requires a higher workforce (Cicea, Subic&Pirlogea, 2010). Organic farming may represent the same time an opportunity for business development in rural areas, people are becoming more concerned about factors that directly influence health, such as food security and food quality, even for countries that still exists a high level of disparities between rural and urban, as Romania.
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("ironing") or focus on local prices and ignore full price schedules ("spotlight"). In addition, the work by Tversky and Kahneman (1974), and the behavioral economics literature building on it, points out that people might resort to simplified heuristics, or rules-of-thumb, instead of identifying optimal solutions. 3 If agents fail to perfectly optimize their choices and instead rely on heuristics that are affected by sunk fees, employing theoretically optimal fixed fee contracts can induce distortions that reduce their effectiveness in practice. This paper investigates empirically whether agents treat fixed fees as sunk. I study the behavior of public livestock extension workers in Tanzania who are tasked with delivering poultry vaccines and focus on understanding whether introducing a fixed fee component to their contracts affects user fees charged by agents and the equilibrium number of recipients served. As the basis of this study, I investigate the publicly subsidized provision of I-2 poultry vaccines that protect against Newcastle Disease (ND). ND is highly prevalent in East Africa and is lethal for infected birds, therefore posing a substantial economic risk for populations dependent on agriculture. I-2 is the primary ND vaccine used by rural farmers in Tanzania. It is exclusively produced by the government and distributed to farmers by public livestock extension agents. In the status quo, agents receive the vaccine for free from the government and distribute it by travelling to farmers in a geographically defined service area, where they perform veterinary examinations and apply the vaccine. Agents have a local monopoly over the provision of the I-2 vaccine, which they are allowed to exploit by collecting user charges from farmers. They are thus residual claimants on the returns to the vaccine sales.
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The study reveals the fact that the rural infrastructural facilities are not improved in the villages of Cachar district. Out of selected six sample villages of the district, the status of rural infrastructure is developed to some extent only in two villages. But, in four of them, status of rural infrastructural facilities is very poor. Due to the poor state of rural infrastructural facilities in the villages, majority of the farmers do not find it convenient to opt for different types of paddy cultivation, rather they specialize themselves only in one type of paddy cultivation, that is, Sali(traditional).Other varieties of paddy cultivation are not much popular in the villages of the district. The study also reveals that the farmers of infrastructural developed villages adopted many improved methods of paddy cultivation rather than the farmers of less-developed villages. As established theories on agricultural economics concludes improvement in rural infrastructure is a necessary pre-condition for increasing the performance of this sector, therefore, the present study also concludes that there is a significant scope for increasing output by formulating policies for the development of rural infrastructure of the district.
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The absence of effective risk management strategies leaves farmers exposed to the vagaries of the weather, resulting in large fluctuations in agricultural production, income and household consumption. In Zimbabwe, for instance, Kinsey et al. (1998) report that household maize production dropped from more than 3 ton in 1991 to half a ton during the 1992 drought. In 1981-1985 in Burkina Faso, a period marked also by a major drought, the standard deviation in crop income was half the long term average income (Kazianga and Udry 2006). Furthermore, half of the variation in crop income was directly passed into consumption, resulting in median caloric intake 30% below the World Health Organization’s recommendations. In Ethiopia, even relatively common weather conditions, such as a rainfall deficit expected to occur every five years on average, can decrease consumption by 10 to 20 percent (Porter 2012). The impact of a drought is rarely felt equally by all members of the household. Hoddinot (2006) shows that during the 1994-1995 Zimbabwean drought, women and children under the age of 12-24 months bore the brunt of the shock, the males’ body mass index staying relatively stable over the same period. As there are large seasonal variations in rural households’ consumption and, as data collection occurs only once a year at best, a large part of consumption fluctuations might even go unnoticed in most studies (Dercon and Krishnan 2000).
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Women’s involvement in agriculture and allied activities: According to Swaminathan, “some historians believe that it was woman who first domesticated crop plants and there by initiated the art and science of farming. While men went out hunting in search of food, women started gathering seeds from the native flora and began cultivating those of interest from the point of view of food, feed, fodder, fibre and fuel”. In India women producers are focused on value, volume and number of hours worked for producing food. But some works like collecting fuel, fodder and water, growing vegetable, farm production are unrecorded in the census country. The women who have work on family land also not recorded as a workers but 78% of women are found who are engaged in agriculture particular in the rural area. They are found as third workers on the land. The traditional gender division of labour ensures that these women get on average 30% lower wages than men. Women’s livelihood strategies and their support on food security are diverged and complex, from cultivating crops, rearing the family, gardening etc. They make above contributions unequal access to land, inputs and information. Women have played a key role for improving the agricultural production and other allied activities in India. It is prove that the women farmers performance in labour intensive job like weeding, picking, cotton stick collection etc. During the harvesting and weeding time the women labour is needed in the work of transporting by carrying a bundle of crops and weeding from the field. The physical strain among the female workers is high because of the heavy work in agricultural activities. Multiple works like transporting, land preparation, cleaning of animals sheds, feeding the animals and disposal of cow dung which have directly effects on women health. Due to poverty most of the women face lack of required protein which has got a very poor health.
to make the reduction of rural poverty a corporate social responsibility. It equally highlights the social and environmental concerns of this highland community in consonance with the stakeholder approach popularised since the mid-1980s by Richard Edward Freeman . This study revolves around the stakeholder theory . Stakeholders’ knowledge and experience in development management, participation in development planning and development processes and long-term community involvement have played an important role in rural area management. Though some stakeholders are more important than others in determining the outcome of development activities  in the Belo community of the Kom Highlands, Freeman  contends that it is necessary to evaluate all persons or groups who have interests in development planning. Sustainable rural development therefore involves both personal and contextual components, meaning what is perceived as sustainable practices in one location may well differ significantly when compared to another. As such, identifying the key stakeholders in implementing sustainable rural development and understanding of how each group of stakeholders exert their interests in Kom is our main objective in this study. Specifically, it would be important to diagnose current and potential stakeholders, determine their interests/rights, and investigate the process through which each stakeholder affects community development in Belo. This article thus assessed the rural development sustainability using the normative, descriptive and instrumental dimensions of the stakeholder theory.
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In the Nepali context, the goal of rural development means to achieve commercialization of agriculture, rural employment, ensuring food security, infrastructure development and modernization of overall development (Acharya, 2008). Similarly, gender issues, climate change, social inclusions are other key issues of rural development. Therefore, we assessed NAP-2004 from the aforementioned dimensions of the rural development.
The Nigeria government is interested in how to increase productivity and yield of small holder farmers using cooperative model and technological advancement of Brazil. Brazil has achieved self-sufficiency in rice production and export 20% of her rice to more than 65 other countries. There is a yield gap of rice production of 1.5 metric tons of rice to 2 million tons of rice and the Nigeria government will adopt measures borrowed from Brazil to meet Nigeria’s self-sufficiency in rice production and processing (Awa and Rufus, 2017). Therefore in the preparedness to achieve this laudable objective, the Present Federal Government banned the importation of rice that gulps foreign exchange, decrease foreign reserves and raise inflation. On the 17th of November 2015, the Federal Government through the Central bank of Nigeria started to implement its policy — Anchor Borrowers Programme designed to assist small scale farmers to increase the production and supply of feedback to agro-processors. The CBN has set aside N20 billion from the N220 billion Micro, small and Medium Enterprises Development Fund (MSMEDF) for farmers at single digit interest rate of nine per cent. Implementations are hinged on a three pronged approach. These are out- grower support programme, training of farmers, extension workers and bank as well as risk mitigation (FMARD, 2016). From the foregoing, it can be deduced that the agricultural policy adopted by the Buhari administration is the Brazil model of cooperatives and school feeding and this can lead to food sufficiency and export of excess to other countries.
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It is to be noted at this juncture that Rural Development is not synonymous with Agricultural Growth or development.Rural development though leads to agricultural growth but transcends above it. Indeed, Successive governments miscontrued rural development for agricultural development,hence their efforts to pump money into agricultural development did not yield the meaningful change desired. Therefore, Oigidefa (2010) opined that for meaningful rural development to take place, efforts should be made to include provision of modern infrastructure, primary health care,food and shelter,employment opportunities,recreational facilities, affordable and compulsory primary and secondary education, loans and other incentives for the benefit of rural dwellers. On the other hand, Olayiwola and Adeleye (2005) construe rural development as a broad based re-organisation and mobilisation of the rural masses in order to enhance their capacity to cope effectively with the daily task of their lives and with changes consequent upon this.The foregoing analysis asserts that rural development is not an immediate and snap phenomenon but a gradual and progressive towards perfection having a set standard in mind.
Desalination by countries in public infrastructure is deficient, the living environment of poor quality. The first few years in rural areas, to develop the "every village access roads", "drinking water project" policy, with the policy implementation, so that many rural areas of traffic and water quality has been greatly improved. However, living garbage litter misplacing sewage random emissions still exist, resulting in the ecological environment pollution, also caused the rural health security risks. At the same time, the rural information network, medical and educational facilities such as lack of, is our urgent need to solve the problem. Also, the rural traditional AC entertainment places and traditional characteristic activity decreased, the village folk interpersonal relationship is more weak.
Small and medium scale farming is the leading enterprise in Nigeria agricultural sector with food production decision mainly made by the small scale farmers who face a number of risks which include droughts, flood, diseases, pest, windstorm, accident ,fire, theft, damages, and several other unplanned events whose occurrence cannot be readily predicted (Dahiru, 2015). This scenario, therefore, calls for effective risk management in the agricultural sector on several grounds; even if reducing farming risk does not always improve farmers` welfare, failure to manage risk has direct repercussions on farmers` incomes, market stability and potentially food security. It is in realization of this reality that the Federal Government of Nigeria launched the Nigeria Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) on the 15 th December,1987 to provide relief to farmers in the event of crop or livestock losses resulting from national disasters among many other things (Eleri et al, 2012).
individual can grow 1,000 faddans instead of growing one faddan, or by more effective use of agricultural resources to increase agricultural production. Agricultural development and sustainable growth depend on a number of following important factors (Figure 1); they are: finance, agricultural policy, agricultural inputs, search,extension, marketing, transport, transport, and education, these factors represent a continuum of episodes affecting the family farm, breaking any of these factors lead to break of this cycle and the reduction effectiveness of other factors. The higher council for agricultural renaissance (HCAR, 2008) reported that, the agricultural needs may be grouped into five headings: agricultural inputs; extension education; agricultural technology; agricultural credit; and marketing, modern farm inputs are needed to raise small farm productivity, these inputs may include fertilizers, improved variety of seeds and seedlings, feeds, plant protection chemicals, agricultural machinery, and equipment and water. According to Hamad (2013) agricultural development is a complex process that is affected by the interaction and inter-relation of many factors, these factors range from natural resource development in respective area, socio-economic, cultural, and political factors, as a part of agricultural development in certain agro- ecosystem, the agribusiness involves the use of appropriate
The aim of the paper was to access the impact of subsidies from the Rural Development Programme of the Czech Republic for the years 2007–2013 on the technical inefficiency (efficiency) of Czech farms. A sample consisted of farm which received the Single Area Payment. An unbalanced panel included 454 Czech farms and 2103 observations for years 2007–2013. Using the Stochastic Frontier Analysis, a Cobb-Douglas function in the linearized form was estimated. The distribution of the stochastic term was normal; in the of inefficiency term we supposed the truncated normal. A “True” Fixed Effects model with the RDP subsidies explaining the heteroskedasticity (variance of inefficiency term) was constructed. The RDP subsidies contributed to the decrease of variance of the inefficiency term. The dummy variable showed that when the farm was granted an amount from the RDP, its inefficiency declined. This was expected and desirable. However, the effect was statistically significant only at the 90% level.
India is an agrarian country. Without agriculture, the country’s existence will be a doubtful, questionable and debateable matter. According to 2011 census, country’s population was 121.1 crores and in 20102011 foodgrain production was 235 million tonnes. According to estimation, in 2030 country’s population will be 140 crores and food requirement will be 380 million tonnes, hence there is need to enhance (380235) 145 million tonnes more in 20 years (20102030) respect. It is really a biggest challenge in our country. Because, our country’s approximately onethird population still live in below poverty line (BPL), simply poor. Our country is the home of maximum illiterate people in the world, home of maximum malnourished population in the world. These illiterate people and malnourished people are living in maximum in rural India. Hence, rural India’s development is need of the hour and rural India’s development is possible only through agriculture (as a seventh largest country in the world, we have vast agricultural land) not by industrial development because we are still toddling in this sector due to lack of sufficient skilled labourers and resource crunch in field of every aspect of development, though service sector is comparatively fruitful. Therefore, it is proved that agriculture is the only way to develop rural India. To accelerate rural India’s development NABARD is playing a pivotal role or we can say NABARD is rural India’s all round assistance provider. As we analyse the data it shows that NABARD is working for the 360 degree development of rural India. Every year the financial assistance received by NABARD and the disbursement made out of it are increasing. The balance sheet size also increased from Rs.81220 crore to Rs.98706 crore & profit after tax from Rs.856 crore to Rs.1226 crore. In short we can say that NABARD is providing rural India all round assistance and proved to be an institution where "Growth with Social Justice" exists. At present, the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) has various international partnerships including leading global organizations and World Bankaffiliated institutions that are Table 8. Public sector and private sector banks related with NABARD
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In the Kolli hills of Tamil Nadu, a genetically diverse pool of minor millet varieties has long been traditionally grown by the tribal farming communities for their own consumption without being formally traded. Despite a traditional consumption preference for minor millets by the local population, in recent years the area devoted to minor millets has declined considerably. They have tended to be substituted by market-oriented cash crops such as tapioca, coffee, pepper and fruit crops. In response to this development, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF), a leading non-governmental organisation based in Chennai, has been attempting to create an economic stake for farmers in the conservation of these crops over the last 10 years in the Kolli Hills. These programmes aimed to increase the market potential of minor millets through value addition by involving the local farming community (MSSRF, 2002).
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quality is not hearsay anymore, in fact it is measurable and quantifiable. According to Ritzberger (2008), journal rankings offer relatively objective information about the scientific quality although they suffer from bias and the main reason is their inability to cover all sub-fields of Economics. The two main ranking approaches are peer review and citation analysis (Pujol, 2008). The first approach is based on experts’ opinion while the second approach is based upon the received citations and offers an objectivity advantage. Pujol (2008) presents an alternative matching approach in which the principal factor is top scholars’ publishing pattern. The author argues that top scholars tend to publish in top journal, so top scholars’ preferences indicate the journals with higher academic impact.
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The massive surplus in the world wine production and the shift to the premium direction means that an intensive use of knowledge is essential within the industry. An innovative management attitude is required. But the wine industry is typically com- posed of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), and the innovation capacity of SMEs can be very limited. The development and the maintenance of such capabilities are usually at the limits of these companies. Their limited internal resources and the unused economies of scale force them to use external resources for the development of their organisational knowledge and for the effective use of the results of innovation (Kühne and Gellynck 2010a). It is a general concept that the SMEs use their innovative capacities in order to gain and maintain competitive advantages (Alston 2010).
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The true success of any comprehensive, economic and social development programme in Nigeria is primarily dependent upon the extent to which it contributes to the well being of those living in the rural areas. This is because the bulk of the country’s population, resources particularly land, natural and mineral resources are in these areas. Much as the problem of rural poverty has been noted, even globally, there are yet controversies among policy makers on appropriate concepts of rural development and by extension, appropriate policies and strategies for eradication of rural poverty . Various governments of Nigeria have tried several programmes, approaches and strategies aimed at improving the conditions of the rural poor and while some of the efforts are still on course, many have since gone moribund. Central in the varying objectives of the programmes was the target of alleviating poverty, which was heavily biased towards agriculture and rural development.
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The multitude of other instruments may exercise an effect in both directions: positive as supplement and reinforcing activities or adverse effects (trade-off of objectives): We experience counter-productive side effect of the CAP premiums and compensation allowances, including incentives for production. Sectoral/commodity instruments are not able to cope appropriately with the needs of LFA: mainstream CAP support is therefore, in general, not oriented to extensive farming systems. Low agricultural incomes and less developed regional economies in LFAs go often hand in hand, underscoring the need for cross-sectoral approaches. The effectiveness of the scheme suffers from a lack of co- ordination with other systems of transfers to rural areas.
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Virtually all householders in the study area rely solely on agricultural activities for their livelihoods. Small holders, rainfed subsistent farming is widely practiced. Groundnut, sesame, watermelon and Roselle are cultivated as cash crops added to Gum Arabic tree plantations. Millet and sorghum are grown as staple food crops. Food gaps and shortages are frequently encountered due to biotic and a biotic factors that curb their crop production. The overall objective of the current study was to evaluate the level of food security and impacts of climate change variables on the food security of rural householders in the study area.