proposals. Such benefit might not necessarily be by reference to the same putatively good ends that are appealed to by science curricula. Curricular warrants are always relative. It is not just that something is to be good enough to be worth autonomy reduction, it has to be more worth it than rival possibilities or else that particular substitute for autonomy won't be warranted. I rehearse such familiar points from the theory of practical reason just to remind us that it is not as if discussions of aims of particular disciplinary curricula are events insulated from consideration of other curricular possibilities. (My impression is that, for rather too much of the time, issues to do with possible science curricula are indeed considered in an overly insular way.) However, in most of what follows, I will put such complications to one side as the broad thrust of what I will suggest is that, regardless of any claims of its rivals to warrant autonomy reduction and to warrant it more robustly than any variation of science education, the latter simply fails anyway. The concern is not so much that other things are better, it is that, regardless of their merits, science education might not be good enough to even get on a "shortlist" for prioritisation as it seems to achieve nothing worthy enough to warrant the loss of autonomy involved.
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Abstract. This study aims to explore graduate science education students’ views of elementary science teachers’ TPACK competencies by employing a Delphi technique. 9 graduate science education students enrolled in a graduate course participated in the study. In the first round, participants were asked to list the competencies of an elementary science teacher with high level of TPACK and a total of 88 competencies were listed. In the second round, all participants investigated these competencies and eliminated the similar ones. In the third round, the number of competencies was narrowed down to 35 and participants rated them on a 7-point Likert type scale. In the fourth round, participants investigated the interquartile range and median values for those competencies, their own previous ratings and rated the competencies again. At the end, a total of 29 competencies were agreed on by all participants. For agreement criteria interquartile range and median values were used.
This study, through revealing the linkage between the theories of scientific explan- ation in philosophy of science and explanation instruction in science education, aims at refining existing framework by unpacking how a potential progression of scientific ex- planation might happen. The method used in this paper is a systematic review of litera- ture (Bennett et al. 2005; Evans and Benefield 2001). The first step of this review method is identifying review research question. Transferring from above purpose of this study, the review research question of this study is that what and how research about scientific explanation can help conceptualize scientific explanation in K-12 sci- ence education and develop a hypothetical learning progression of scientific explan- ation. The second step is charactering the literature that establishes the foundation of the review. Two groups of literature were characterized: research in science education and research in philosophy of science. Then (the third step) we set the inclusion cri- teria: Educational articles should be closely relevant to research topics and published in a Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) journal; Philosophical articles or books should be cited by the two most authoritative review work of this area by Salmon (1989) and Woodward (2014). In step 4 we conduct an overview of each articles and synthesize the literature. Finally, we develop our result and disseminate it in the following sections.
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two case–studies: 1) the role played by dialectic of mathematics–physics relationship to show that Galileo wrote Theoremata – compared to the mechanical works cited – strictly following the archimedean idea of experimentation and method of composition and de– composition and not as a primitive cognitive process on the improbable theory of a system of bodies. he used archimedes’ method compositing circumscribed and inscribed figures, each of which has its own centre of gravity. then, the centre of gravity of the figure made by Galileo is found, in fact, through an algebraic–geometric result obtained by calculating the ratio. 2) the complex net of relations which, in Mysterium, tides the experimental part of astronomy with theoretical and, in case of Kepler, the metaphysical one. after the descriptive part we would like to understand why Kepler reached such a strange, genial and original connection between “practice” and “theory”. thus, didactic and foundational aims are to give a contribution to the study of the relation between physics–mathematics–metaphysics and between experiments– observations–theory in two scientists, as Galileo and Kepler, who were two of the “fathers” of modern science.
within the DPC is intra-institutional; for example, within BUILD campuses institution-wide support is reflected in the involvement of multiple campus units (i.e. academic depart- ments and varying levels of administrative authority). Most DPC grantees also have interdisciplinary initiatives involving faculty collaborators and trainees in the biosciences, engin- eering, public health, and the social and behavioral sciences that address research on biomedical topics, health science and disparities, and/or expertise in science education. Inter- institutional collaborations among DPC grantees involve partner institutions in the region, as well as with industry or other NIH grantee institutions, to increase research oppor- tunities for students and faculty. While BUILD sites may be regional hubs of collaborative activity, the growing network that is NRMN is built upon multiple institutions and national involvement of scholars, coaches, mentors, and mentees. Collaboration is also inter-organizational, primarily between NIH and DPC grantees, as funding is dependent on cooperative agreements that are managed in close consult- ation between organizations. Collaboration between Consor- tium members requires regular communication between groups including monthly meetings and webinars, monthly or bi-monthly working groups that discuss evaluation, pro- gram recruitment, and communications and an annual meet- ing of grantee teams. Common outcomes are articulated in a consortium-wide adopted document reflecting Hallmarks of Success , data sharing agreements, and planning docu- ments. This is in contrast to other training grants, for example, where PIs implement programs according to general RFA guidelines and reporting requirements, often working independently within an institution or with limited collaboration outside of the grantee institution. The primary exception is if the training grant calls specifically for collabor- ation between institution types, in which case, there can be successful outcomes across shared resources . The DPC depends on multiple types of collaboration for success and has a shared purpose, works on problems that arise and then reaches consensus to forge directions.
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In Israel, the program ‘Youth Pursuing Science’ (translation from the Hebrew term: ‘Noar Shocher Mada’) operates in 17 tertiary education and research institutions throughout the country. It provides STEM programs for primary and secondary students through out-of- school clubs, school excursions and incursions, out-of-school research workshops for student groups, and STEM summer camps. The presenters are post-graduate students who receive learning scholarships in return for their contributions. The Weizmann Institute of Science extended this program and developed its own institute for STEM education, the Davidson Institute for Science Education. In 2016 it was reported that the yearly rate of school student participation in the programs is 50,000 (Weizmann Institute of Science internet site). One of the programs run by the institute is called ‘Kamatz’ (translated as: ‘Young Science Groups’). It involves low-achieving middle school students in after-school science and technology activities. The program aims at bridging between the school’s formal context and the after- school’s informal context, in a way that increases the motivation and self-efficacy of the students, thereby promoting their achievement in the science and technology classrooms (Falik, et al., 2013). ‘Mind the Gap’ is a program initiated in 2008 by women working in Google-Israel. The aim is to address gender disparity in STEM. The program hosts female secondary school students at Google’s offices and sponsors their visits at research and
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STM education requires that teaching and learning materials be available. This includes laboratory equipment, chemicals and reagent etc. so also computers, video tape instruction, television, models and other learning kits(Opara,2011). But the situation is different, these materials are not available, and in some cases the little available are not utilised and maintained. Some STM education teachers are not competent enough to use them for instructional purposes. Scienc3e is taught in well equipped science laboratories and students learn science with much ease if taught through activities in the laboratory (Njoku, 1990). It is therefore necessary that all schools offering science subjects should have well equipped laboratories with competent teachers and the auxiliary personnel needed to facilitate the work of the science. If science is properly taught in a well equipped science laboratories, the students especially the less able ones will develop more positive attitudes to science (Abdullahi, 1979) it will help the students see the relevant and meaningful to the students.
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There appear to be a number of possible reasons for promoting the use of IRPs in school science lessons. First, the notion of ‘ the students as scientist ’ is attractive, allowing students to ﬁ nd things out for themselves by pursuing an idea about which they are curious. Second, IRPs are seen as a means of providing students with a realistic taste of scienti ﬁ c research that may motivate them to undertake further study of science. Third, the characteristics of IRPs may be identi ﬁ ed in broader, international initiatives of the last twenty years or so, for example ‘ inquiry-based science ’ , ‘ problem-based learning ’ in science and ‘ authentic science ’ . These approaches have in common the desire to encourage students to engage in activities where at times they behave like scientists, i.e. their work is authentic in that it follows the approaches scientists take when they are trying to solve pro- blems to which there may as yet be no agreed solution. These approaches are primarily aimed at improving cognitive and procedural outcomes for students, though also aspire to have a ﬀ ective bene ﬁ ts.
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There were three principal contexts in which students engaged in IRPs. In some cases, undertaking IRPs was linked to national policies/agendas. For instance, several USA studies reported on interventions that had secured funding for local initiatives through linking them to policy statements by organisations such as the AAAS (American Associ- ation for the Advancement of Science) or the NAS (National Academy of Sciences) (Adams et al., 2009; Dolan, Lally, Brooks, & Tax, 2008; Gibson & Chase, 2002; Sahin, 2013). Secondly, as noted earlier, IRPs were very often associated with wider initiatives, including: authentic science, for instance in Israel (Zion et al., 2004), The Netherlands (Bulte, Westbroek, de Jong, & Pilot, 2006) and the USA (Burgin, Sadler, & Koroly, 2012; Dolan et al., 2008; Rivera Maulucci, Brown, Grey, & Sullivan, 2014); problem- based learning, for instance in Qatar (Faris, 2008) and Singapore (Chin & Chia, 2004); and project-based learning, for instance in the USA (Krajcik & Blumenfeld, 2006; Schnei- der, Blenis, Marx, & Soloway, 2002).
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connection with theoretical physics arise here too: each branch needs to make explicit problematic aims of the discipline, problematic assumptions inherent in these aims, so that they may be critically assessed, developed, and, we may hope, improved as the science proceeds. More or less specific, problematic aims, and associated methods, of each scientific discipline need to be articulated, critically assessed, developed, and improved as an integral part of the discipline itself. Each discipline, in other words, needs to implement its own version of aim-oriented empiricism—the philosophy of the discipline forming an important, integral, influential part of the discipline itself. It may well be an unnecessary extravagance for a science such as geology or astronomy to put a version of aim-oriented empiricism into practice that has a hierarchical structure of seven levels of assumptions—like the seven levels of the version of aim-oriented empiricism indicated above, applied to theoretical physics. On the other hand, the two levels of standard empiricism, evidence and theory, are definitely insufficient. Each scientific discipline needs to acknowledge and represent at least three levels of sustained discussion: evidence, theory, and aims—the latter including problematic assumptions inherent in aims. Once a science is constituted and pursued in this fashion, it brings together, and fuses, the science and its philosophy of science.
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Despite all that, generally speaking we let adult agents with those faults (to varying degrees) choose what to do; we let people make all sorts of decisions even when, in our view, all three elements contributing to the making of such decisions are to some extent deficient. Of course, sometimes we intervene - say with a potential suicide - much seems to depend upon the severity of the consequences of a poor decision. Also, other things being equal, we are more inclined to intervene if the agent is likely to do something impinging upon others. Although there are limits, we grant adults the power to do considerable damage to themselves (lousy marriage decision, lousy job decision, lousy house purchase and lousy educational decision) - however incapable they are as deciders. We would not think of, say, subjecting them to a forcible remedial introduction to the philosophy of science! We do, however, tend to intervene more in the interest of other people affected by an individual's poor decisions. I mention the case of adults here, not because I wished to focus upon them particularly, but because I find it curious that most of the grounds for not letting students make decisions seem to not be applied to adults; yet the differences, I suggest, are not ones of kind but ones of degree (and do not always favour adults anyway).
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The purpose of this educational action is to bring together society and science, combating misinformation and omission of the media, demystifying unfounded fears, promoting reconstructive questioning and enabling citizen protagonism in issues that directly impact on society's everyday life (LEVY; VILLAVICENCIO, 2017). The notes above authorize the discussion of the need for different ways of teaching science as a possibility to strengthen the exercise of citizenship. Formal schooling, from basic education to higher education, should be based on practices linked to the social reality we live in, as a way of contemplating the effectiveness of social inclusion. However, this condition, although advocated in legal national documents, such as tthe Federal Constitution (1988), the Law of Directives and Bases of National Education (1996), as well as international documents, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), are many times neglected in its effective exercise. History guides us towards the rights of citizens. In this sense, most of the changes that occurred over time took place in the twentieth century. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 on December 10, 1948, establishes in its Article II that:
It is like for many years we have watched this thing you call ‘education’ occur in our town. I know there is much that can occur in the school that is good, but it does not make a person wise. In our culture there is nothing more important than the learning that makes a person wise. The main thing the southern culture wants from school is ‘head knowledge’. That is what it has always emphasized. I do not know why. It intrigues me. Your focus is mainly on the gaining of a kind of knowledge that seems to have little value in understanding the world and to make us wise people. I see it has some value, but maybe this value is only to make someone seem better than another. I think that schools can become focused on this. I think this is why many of us in the past
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Michael Byram is Professor Emeritus in the School of Education at Durham University and Professeur invité at the University of Luxembourg. He read French, German and Danish at King’s College Cambridge, and wrote a PhD on Danish literature. He then taught French and German at secondary school level and in adult education in an English comprehensive community school. Since being appointed to a post in teacher education at Durham in 1980, he has carried out research into the education of linguistic minorities, foreign language education and student residence abroad. His books include Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence and From Foreign Language Education to Education for Intercultural Citizenship. He is the joint editor with Adelheid Hu of the Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning, and was until recently a Special Adviser to the Language Policy Division of the Council of Europe.
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However, as developments in Ireland and internationally over the last decade indicate, the concern for change has gathered momentum rather than evaporated. In summary, Ireland is being increasingly criticised by a range of international agencies for the lack of balance in the character of its primary school system, which is so heavily dominated by denominational schools. In Ireland, senior Catholic spokespersons, as well as the collective body of bishops have drawn attention to the unsatisfactory configuration of the primary school system. At least four Ministers for Education, over recent years, have stressed the need for changes, and taken some initiatives in that regard. Agencies, such as the Commission on School Accommodation, have called for a greater diversity of school patronage. The national teachers union, the INTO, has called for change and sought multi-partner talks to pave the way for change. The Constitution Review Committee has raised serious questions about the compatibility of current Rules with the Constitution. The Irish Human Rights Commission has called for a diversity of provision of school type to reflect the diversity of religious and non-religious convictions, now represented in the State.
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Ketelhut et al. (2013) states that current science assessments usually produce a series of fact-based questions separately, not fully representing the complexity of science-building in the real world. This should be changed to a more authentic model of practice of science. Therefore, Ketelhut et al. (2013) suggests that good scientific assessments should consist of several key factors: integration of science content with scientific inquiries, questions in the form of constructs, grading efficiency and validity and statistical reliability. Gilbert et al. (2014) using the learning program through real / internship experience among university students. The intervention also provides the effect of active learning at a high level. Rivera Maulucci et al. (2014) explored the experience of six secondary school students in an authentic science inquiry program. The findings of Rivera Maulucci et al. (2014) suggests that an authentic science inquiry project is able to provide students with academic excellence, provide students the opportunity to acquire skills, have the potential to challenge students' knowledge of science, enhance student / student engagement with science, and improve student achievement in science.
Given this, we highlight the constant interactions that exist between economy, nature, society, science and technology, as well as their problems and solutions that emerge over the years. N the World Conference on Science for the twenty-first century highlighted the importance of science education for the promotion of citizenship ensuring the information, with the consolidation and participation in a pluralist perspective able to create a change of attitude and habits in society, proposing thus new practices. For a country to be able to meet the fundamental needs of its population, science and technology education is a strategic imperative […] Today, it is necessary to foster and spread scientific literacy in all cultures and in all sectors. Society in order to improve citizen participation in the adoption of decisions on the application of new knowledge (BUDAPEST DECLARATION, 1999). The restricted presence of the environmental debate as an articulating axis in the subjects of Elementary and High School (GUIMARÃES, 2000), is a good indicator of the challenge of internalization of Environmental Education in educational spaces; Today it is still often treated in isolation or in a fragmented manner. Today's school is being challenged to be more than a place for the appropriation of recognized and accepted knowledge as socially relevant, it should become a place where “educational ecosystems” are installed and maintained, according to Candau (2000, p. 11). This school should therefore be the privileged locus for the dialogue between different knowledge (scientific, social, school) and languages; where the articulation between equality and difference is provided and also, where the issue of citizenship is fundamental as a daily social practice that progressively broadens its horizons, aiming for a different society and humanity within the framework of social and environmental issues. To encourage the implementation of Environmental Education by education systems was created in 1999 the National Environmental Education Policy with Law no. 9,795, of April 27, which made it mandatory to include Environmental Education in the curriculum across the board, at all levels and modalities of education. In its article 1 we have the definition of Environmental Education: [...]
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Scope and boundaries of Implementation Science In 2017, we reviewed and provided a detailed expla- nation and elaboration of our journal scope . At that point, we did not expand the boundaries of our scope, and we continue to maintain the same scope. Our focus remains on the publication of studies examining the implementation of evidence-based healthcare interven- tions, practices, or policies, or the de-implementation of those demonstrated to be of low or no clinical benefit or even harmful. We retain a strong emphasis on reports of studies with strong study design and a high degree of rigor, across both quantitative and qualitative methods, including mixed methods.
practical methods of instruction in pedestrian skills are the most likely to be effective. Programmes based on roadside training or using realistic simulations have been found to lead to improvements in visual timing and gap selection, to increased ability to identify safe and dangerous crossing locations, and to enhanced learning of appropriate strategies for crossing at parked cars and junctions. Moreover, such training has produced positive results with children as young as five years, making them behave like older, more experienced pedestrians. Finally, and perhaps most importantly of all, unobtrusive observation has provided evidence of generalisation to everyday traffic behaviour. Such behavioural changes have seldom, if ever, been reported following traditional road safety education. However, these results in themselves tell us little about which aspects of such training are important and thus worth further refinement. For example, the behavioural programmes implemented in Holland (e.g. Rothengatter, 1984) were deliberately designed to employ the principles of Social Learning Theory, which emphasises the acquisition of new behaviours via the imitation of actions modelled by others (see e.g. Bandura and Walters, 1963). This might seem to provide a clue to the source of these programmes' effectiveness, except that it is hard to explain the improvements in safe crossing location produced by Thomson et al. (1992) in these terms: their method only presented ostensible
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The issue then concludes with Devine’s article Aims of education in a post- neoliberal context, in which a Foucaultian genealogical approach is taken to respond to the inadequacy of “current official aims for education” in regard to student needs in our current rapidly changing world. Devine reflects on neoliberal agendas and educational policy in the New Zealand context, exploring the question of which social and educational direction might come after the economic and subsequent political downfall of neoliberalism as prevalent ideology. It is not as simple as a fallback to the Keynesian welfare state model, Devine argues, but new answers have to found.