Al Foil

Top PDF Al Foil:

Solid  and Liquid Solid Reactions in Aluminum Coated Titanium Substrate Fabricated by Using Explosive Energy

Solid and Liquid Solid Reactions in Aluminum Coated Titanium Substrate Fabricated by Using Explosive Energy

The coating operation was carried out using an exper- imental apparatus shown in Fig. 1(a). The Al foil was combined with a supporting plate of steel with a thickness of 2 mm to play a role as a flyer plate. These bonding were performed by using organic glue. This combined plate was fixed parallel to the Ti plate. The distance between the Al foil and the Ti plate was 5 mm. The powdery explosive consisting mainly of ammonium nitrate was set on the combined plate. The amount of the explosive whose detonation velocity is about 2400 ms 1 was 43.2 g. The flyer plate velocity during * Graduate Student, Kumamoto University. Present address: Nippon Yakin
Show more

6 Read more

Enhancing Performance of a Lithium Ion Battery by Optimizing the Surface Properties of the Current Collector

Enhancing Performance of a Lithium Ion Battery by Optimizing the Surface Properties of the Current Collector

The merits of higher anti-corrosion ability and better interfacial contact property of the COL-Al were highlighted by long-term cycle life testing. We carried out life tests for the LIB full cells using pristine commercial and OCL-Al foils as current collectors respectively. The design capacity of the batteries is 25 Ah which is same as our commercial products volume, for we expected to examine the possibility for realizing the achievement in real commercial applications. The test results are shown in Figure 8. The discharge capacity of the cell with pristine commercial Al foil as cathode current collector experienced fading at No. 250 cycle which decreased to 85% of the initial capacity after 2000 cycles. It illustrates that the texturing surface of the Al current influences the capacity retention of the cells mainly on an extended time scale, because we can observed that the cell with bared Al current collector as well did not have a significant capacity fading when the cycle number was less than 250 [30].
Show more

12 Read more

Estimating Aluminum Leaching into Meat Baked with Aluminum Foil Using  Gravimetric and UV Vis  Spectrophotometric Method

Estimating Aluminum Leaching into Meat Baked with Aluminum Foil Using Gravimetric and UV Vis Spectrophotometric Method

Baking meat by wrapping them in Aluminum (Al) foil is common in many countries. The excessive use of Al foil in baking and the disagreement about using Al foils were the motivation to do this study especially after the 2007 WHO/FDA Report. In this investigation, a gravimetric and a UV-Vis spectrophotometric method are used to estimate Aluminum (Al) leaching into meat baked by wrapping in Al foil. Three kinds of meat were used fish, cow stakes and chicken. The importance of Al exposure area was neglected by many studies. Five factors affecting Al leaching into meat are studied (baking temperature, baking time, additives, Al exposure area and weight of meat). The effect of cooking times (20, 40, 60 minutes) at 180˚C and cooking temperatures (160˚C, 180˚C, 200˚C) at 60 minutes on the amount of Al leaching were evaluated. It was found that Al leaching into meat increased with increasing temperature, baking time, additives and Al exposure area. Moreover, Al exposure area was more effective than the weight of the meat. The Al leaching was highest in fish and lowest in chicken. Comparing the present results with the Provisional Toler- ance Weekly Intake of Al approved by WHO/FDA, it shows that Al leaching into meat baked by wrapping in Al foil may add considerable doses into the diet. Continuous monitoring of Al foil used for baking meat is recommended.
Show more

8 Read more

Effects of different pH, temperature and foils on aluminum leaching from baked fish by ICP-MS

Effects of different pH, temperature and foils on aluminum leaching from baked fish by ICP-MS

When the relationship between temperature-time and Al leaching based on meat type was analysed, it was found that when the temperature was increased while cooking salmon in Foil (2) (r = 0.728, P < 0.05) and when the time of cooking was increased in case of in Foil (1) (r = 0.363, P < 0.05), the extent of Al leaching was higher. In the literature, there are stud- ies showed that Al leaching into foods increased with increasing temperature and time. Ranau et al. (2001) determined Al leaching into foods based on different cooking methods. In the study, 4 dif- ferent types of fish (codfish, coalfish, seabass and mackerel), wrapped with Al foil, were baked as plain or with vinegar and salt or were grilled as plain or with onion rings and 1–2 g of mixed spices by using coal. As a result of baking and grilling process, it was Ta ble 2. E
Show more

8 Read more

Characterization of proton and heavier ion acceleration in ultrahigh-intensity laser interactions with heated target foils

Characterization of proton and heavier ion acceleration in ultrahigh-intensity laser interactions with heated target foils

tinely performed. Due to their higher charge-to-mass ratio, parasitic protons are more efficiently accelerated than any other ion species and effectively screen the acceleration po- tential, reducing the efficiency of heavier ion acceleration. It has also been shown, using Thomson parabola spectrometers and CR-39 plastic track detectors, that sufficient heating of the solid target removes contamination layers increasing the numbers of heavier ions accelerated [ 4,10 ] . The application of nuclear activation techniques to quantify ion acceleration from moderately heated targets demonstrated, for an Al foil target heated to ⬃ 400° C, a reduction in the accelerated pro- ton flux and the production of heavy ion fusion-evaporation reactions, which were not observed with the unheated target [ 11 ] .
Show more

6 Read more

Anodization of nanoporous alumina on impurity induced hemisphere curved surface of aluminum at room temperature

Anodization of nanoporous alumina on impurity induced hemisphere curved surface of aluminum at room temperature

With regards to the impurity effect on the anodization of the low-purity Al, Figure 4 shows the schematic pro- cedure of the hemisphere curved surface formation through the impurity during the HPA anodization method. The low-purity Al foil contains higher contents of impurities including the primary Si and Fe summed about 0.6% and others of Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Ti ele- ments being about 0.3% to 0.4%. When the anodizing process reaches these impurities, especially the elements with much higher electric resistivity, the local Joule heat significantly increases too. It is well known that both formation and dissolution of porous alumina are tem- perature-dependent processes, and the rate increases with increasing temperatures. It is noted that the resis- tivity of Si is much larger than that of Al (pure Al, 2.8 × 10 -8 Ω m and intrinsic Si, 3.2 × 10 3 Ω m at 20°C) in dominating and accelerating the electrochemistry reac- tion during the AAO process. The about eleven-order- higher resistivity Si possesses, the greater Joule heat the foil can generate around the spot of impurity. The HPA then took over the growth of nanostructures timely by suitably directing the growth of nanopores on the tem- plate. The impurity-induced thermal point source can be seen as a three-dimensional heat conduction pro- blem. The heat flow in the x, y, and z directions can be expressed as follows:
Show more

6 Read more

Preliminary Experiments on Human Sensitivity to Rhythmic Structure in a Grammar with Recursive Self-Similarity

Preliminary Experiments on Human Sensitivity to Rhythmic Structure in a Grammar with Recursive Self-Similarity

The very limited proficiency our participants achieved may be due to the fact that the foil grammars were too similar to the target grammar to be discriminated. While our exposure grammars were similar to those used in Saddy (2009) and Shirley (2014), our foil grammars differed in that ours did not include repetitions of both Xs and Ys, and thus could not be discriminated using repetition detection. By making the difference between target and foil grammar more subtle to avoid this method of discrimination, it might be that some of our foils were substrings of the Fibonacci-grammatical space, generated by one of the infinite iterations of the rewrite rules (Krivochen and Saddy, personal communication). This would have made discrimination between the target and foils more difficult in our experiment than in the experiments by Saddy (2009) and Shirley (2014), in which foils were part of the L-system space but not Fibonacci-grammatical. We can therefore not conclude whether or not participants are able to learn a Fibonacci grammar when presented with musical sounds. In future research, in order to be able to draw conclusions about whether musical rhythm differs from linguistic rhythm, and whether participants are able to use some sort of rhythmic structure to learn Fibonacci grammars (rather than surface properties of the stimuli) foil grammars should be calibrated to an optimal tradeoff between the structural properties of Shirley’s foils and the surface properties of those used here. In addition, a different paradigm, such as Serial Reaction Time or EEG, may help illuminate what cues in the sequence participants attended to and at which point they detect an error.
Show more

7 Read more

Apology and Medical Mistake: Opportunity or Foil?

Apology and Medical Mistake: Opportunity or Foil?

debriefed the mock jurors, they learned that the failure to disclose the error "exacerbated the belief that the organization should be punished for more than compe[r]

41 Read more

Design and CFD Analysis of Air Foil

Design and CFD Analysis of Air Foil

Based on the CFD analysis of the flow over NACA 0012 air foil we can conclude that at the two degree of AOA there is no lift force generated and if we want to increase amount of lift force and value of lift co efficient then we have to increase the value of AOA. By doing

5 Read more

Elemental Analysis of Some Nigerian Food Legumes by ko ENAA and INAA

Elemental Analysis of Some Nigerian Food Legumes by ko ENAA and INAA

In this work, the single comparator method of epithermal neutron activation analysis ko-ENAA which uses Al-0.1%Au thin foil as the single comparator and the instrumental neutron activati[r]

11 Read more

Graphene Oxide Based Nanocomposites Decorated with Silver Nanoparticles as an Antibacterial Agent

Graphene Oxide Based Nanocomposites Decorated with Silver Nanoparticles as an Antibacterial Agent

An LDH test (In Vitro Toxicology Assay Kit, lactic de- hydrogenase based, Sigma-Aldrich, Hamburg, Germany) was used to evaluate cell membrane integrity. The resulting reduced NAD (NADH + ) was utilized in the stoichiometric conversion of a tetrazolium dye. When cell-free aliquots of the medium from cultures were assayed, the amount of LDH activity could be used as an indicator of membrane integrity. If the membrane was damaged, intracellular LDH molecules were released into the culture medium. Bacterial and yeast cells were cultured on foils (GO, Ag-NPs, and GO-Ag) located on inserts inserted in 6-well plates (200 μL MH broth with 5 × 10 3 cells per foil) and incubated for 24 h. Cells cultured on foil without nanoparticles were used as a control. After this time, the samples were transferred to microcentrifuge tubes and centrifuged at 1200 rpm for 5 min. One hundred microliters of supernatant were transferred to 96-well plates, and 100 μL of the LDH assay mixture was added to each well. The plate was covered and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. The optical density of each well was recorded at 450 nm on an ELISA reader (Infinite M200, Tecan, Männedorf, Switzerland). LDH leakage was expressed as the percent- age {(OD test − OD blank ) − (OD control − OD blank )/(OD control
Show more

17 Read more

Würl, Matthias
  

(2018):


	On the spectrometry of laser-accelerated particle bunches and laser-driven proton radiography.


Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Physik

Würl, Matthias (2018): On the spectrometry of laser-accelerated particle bunches and laser-driven proton radiography. Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Physik

eters into an online diagnostic device. An online WASP, which is capable to measure both ion and electron spectra has been recently presented [Lindner et al., 2018]. It is based on the RadEye pixel detectors and a dedicated double-slit configuration at the aperture of the magnetic field (see figure 3.2). This spectrometer was used as standard diagnostic device in experiments performed at the Laboratory for Extreme Photonics (LEX Photonics). Since the magnetic deflection alone is not sufficient for separating ions with different charge-to-mass ratios and for a wide energy distribution, magnetic spectrometers are best suited for experiments where protons are the dominant ion species. However, with increas- ing proton energies, high magnetic fields and large distances between magnetic field and detector are required to maintain a reasonable energy resolution. This makes magnetic spectrometers bulky and hence rather impractical for diagnostics of high-energy protons. Moreover, using this diagnostic device simultaneously to an application is limited, as the initial particle bunch is almost entirely lost. Nevertheless, for some applications the mag- netic deflection can be useful to obtain a quasi-monoenergetic proton distribution at a certain position and without x-ray background [Bin et al., 2012].
Show more

230 Read more

EMP control and characterisation on high-power laser systems

EMP control and characterisation on high-power laser systems

energy, when more escaping electrons can be produced. Since the GHz component of the EMP is caused by a neutralization current propagating across the target stalk, by reducing the magnitude and duration of this current one may hope to limit the damaging effects of EMP. In this paper, we present new data that shows how a significant reduction in EMP can be achieved with minimal experimental disruption. Experimental results are divided into two main sections - one for EMP varia- tion with laser parameters and the other for variation with target foil and stalk/mount characteristics. The data presented here is independent of target thickness, of which more details can be found in the Appendix (see Section VII). All data used to produce the figures in this work, along with other supporting material, can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.15124/a5d78c76-0546- 412c-8b02-9edcb75efbb7.
Show more

8 Read more

Studies on New Type Current Collectors for Polyaniline Batteries

Studies on New Type Current Collectors for Polyaniline Batteries

spectra were taken in the same electrolyte. The superimposed sinusoidal voltage signal of 10 mV amplitude was applied. Data were collected within the frequency range of 10 5 to 10 -2 Hz. The CV and EIS were carried out in a standard one-compartment three-electrode cell with a current collector as working electrode, and Pt foil as counter electrode. Saturated calomel electrode (SCE) served as a reference electrode. All potentials presented in this work refer to this reference electrode. The instrument for the charge and discharge experiments of the batteries was an automatic battery tester unit BTSDA (Shenzhen New ware). A Hitachi S-4800 scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the surface morphologies of these current collectors before and after immersed in the electrolyte for 40 days. An analytical balance (Mettler Toledo) was applied to measure the weight of these current collectors before and after immersed in the electrolyte for 40 days.
Show more

13 Read more

Free surface interaction of a ‘T foil’ hydrofoil

Free surface interaction of a ‘T foil’ hydrofoil

Hydrofoils are used to reduce hull drag by lifting a vessel clear of the sea surface or to a lesser extent by reducing a vessel’s dynamic displacement. Once a vessel has been raised above the sea surface, only the hydrodynamic drag originating from the hydrofoils remains. T-foil hydrofoils, are a type of hydrofoil where a horizontal lifting foil is mounted at the base of a vertical strut beneath a vessel. T-foils permit the lifting foil to remain fully immersed, thus providing a smoother ride than surface piercing dihedral foils due to reduced wave interaction. Lifting foils on hydrofoil borne maritime vessels operate in close proximity to the sea surface - at low immersion - due to the requirement to minimize strut drag through reduction of strut immersion and vessel draft restrictions when in displacement mode. Binns et al. (2008) reported a drag optimisation point based on Froude number of particular note for sailing vessels such as the International Moth Class sailing dinghy and the International America’s Cup Class foiling catamaran yacht.
Show more

222 Read more

Automatic Mechanism for the Feeding of Foil Bags in Box

Automatic Mechanism for the Feeding of Foil Bags in Box

the process of packaging Silver foil bags into the boxes and decrease operating costs, I decided to design a machine that would place the foil bags silver coming out of the x-ray machine into the box. With very few pre-existing designs for automated packaging/loading of these types of bags into the moving boxes without making the conveyor carrying boxes to stop, I essentially had to come up with a design from scratch. To make my machine as simple as possible, I decided to make it primarily conveyor system based. Using both the graphical and analytical methods for conveyor linkage synthesis and with the aid of computer aided design software such as Factory I/O, Solidworks; I was able to determine the details of my system to be designed.
Show more

9 Read more

Measurement of antibacterial properties of foil-backed electrospun nanofibers

Measurement of antibacterial properties of foil-backed electrospun nanofibers

Development of this antibacterial testing method was driven by the desire to exam- ine whether plant oils or extracts provided antibacterial qualities to foil-backed ace- tate-based electrospun nanofibers. Therefore, antibacterial efficacy of the foil-backed acetate-based electrospun nanofibers made with full-spectrum hemp extract or cold- pressed hemp seed oil was quantitated as the percent reduction of viable bacteria recov- ered from those samples after a 4  h incubation at 37  °C, using the amount of viable bacteria recovered from foil-backed 100% acetate nanofiber samples, run at the same time, as a baseline. Figure 3 shows representative images of S. aureus bacterial colonies growing on TSA plates. The same load of bacteria was applied to all samples. The num- ber of bacterial colonies on the TSA plates reflect the load of viable bacteria initially applied to the samples, and the load of viable bacteria recovered from the samples after a 4 h incubation at 37 °C.
Show more

11 Read more

Progress status in fabrication of HBC stripper foil for 3-GeV RCS at J-PARC in Tokai site

Progress status in fabrication of HBC stripper foil for 3-GeV RCS at J-PARC in Tokai site

Some vapor deposition conditions for new foil fabrication are different from the original conditions because of repair and overhaul of the deposition apparatus. Furthermore, detailed procedure to fabricate the HBC foils prescribed by Sugai is not available. In such an environment, we started an attempt to fabricate the new foil at the Tokai site by recalling how he had fabricated the HBC foils previously. And the vacuum components were treated with extra care to prevent any contamination. For example, the glass plates were washed with an ultrasonic cleaning machine, and the deposited foils both before and after their release from the glass plate were stored in a desiccator. After several trial deposition tests, we successfully fabricated a new HBC foil at the JAEA Tokai site. (As mentioned before, we call the new foils J-HBC foil.) Subsequently, the performance of the J-HBC foil was evaluated before installation in the RCS and to use for the user operation.
Show more

7 Read more

The solution of the two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problem with the use of the FEM in combination with Trefftz functions

The solution of the two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problem with the use of the FEM in combination with Trefftz functions

Boiling incipience is recognised as a sudden drop in the heating surface temperature that follows its systematic increase, at constant capacity of the internal heat source. It is called “boiling front” and it shifts in the direction opposite to the liquid flow in the minichannel with the increase in the heat flux supplied to the heating surface [5,9-13]. Figure 6 shows hue distribution on the foil surface during increasing heat flux, obtained with liquid crystal thermography, with a visible “boiling front” (BI). The “boiling front” occurrence for the investigated enhanced heating foil was analysed in [9] of this collection of conference papers.
Show more

11 Read more

Learning to merge - language and vision: A deep evaluation of the encoder, the role of the two modalities, the role of the training task.

Learning to merge - language and vision: A deep evaluation of the encoder, the role of the two modalities, the role of the training task.

mantic similarity between the original word and the foil (computed as the cosine between the two corresponding word2vec embeddings Mikolov et al. (2013)); 2) frequency of original word in FOIL-COCO captions; 3) frequency of the foil word in FOIL-COCO captions; 4) length of the caption (number of words). The mixed-effect model was performed to get rid of possible effects due to ei- ther object supercategory (indoor, food, vehicle, etc.) or target::foil pair (e.g., zebra::giraffe, boat::airplane, etc.). For both LSTM + norm I and HieCoAtt, word2vec similarity, the frequency of the original word, and frequency of the foil word turned out to be highly reliable predictors of the model’s response. The higher the values of these variables, the more the models tend to provide the wrong output. That is, when the foil word (e.g. cat) is semantically very similar to the original one (e.g. dog), the models tend to wrongly classify the caption as ‘correct’. The same holds for frequency values. In particular, the higher the frequency of both the original word and the foil one, the more the models fail. This indicates that systems find it difficult to distinguish related concepts at the text-vision interface, and also that they may tend to be biased towards frequently occurring concepts, ‘seeing them everywhere’ even when they are not present in the image. Caption length turned out to be only a par- tially reliable predictor in the LSTM + norm I model, whereas it is a reliable predictor in HieCoAtt. In particular, the longer the caption, the harder for the model to spot that there is a foil word that makes the caption wrong.
Show more

140 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...