Abstract. The harmful use of alcohol causes a large burden with respect to diseases, social and economic problems to the society. Alcoholism is a serious problem in Kenya today. Many adults are addicted to alcohol. Mass media campaigns against alcohol acts as sources of information to halt alcohol abuse and its potential harmful effects. In this research we developed a deterministic models for alcohol abuse driven by the light and heavy drinkers taking into consideration the influence of pre -exposure to mass media campaigns. A model is developed with perfect pre-exposure campaigns. The model is analyzed through the determination of the model’s steady states and it’s respective stabilities analysis in terms of the alcohol abuse reproduction numbers R 0 . The analysis shown that
Alcohol consumption by professional educated women and mothers is rising. Drinking alcohol in the home is, for many, becoming a normalised and daily ritual. Previous research focuses on causality, risk factors and health related damage. Few studies focus on mothers of school age children specifically or why some mothers pursue and sustain alcohol free lives. The role of social media in enacting and sustaining abstinence is under researched, as are other factors important for this group in remaining abstinent. Aims: This qualita- tive study explored the reasons why mothers drank alcohol, and factors con- tributing to their decision to become alcohol free. It also explored the value and utility of social media in the form of a specific web-site aimed at provid- ing support in abstinence. Methods: Six UK mothers with school age children who had become abstinent after previously drinking over official limits were recruited via a social network website and interviewed. Transcripts were ana- lysed thematically and inductive themes emerged. Results: Participants used alcohol to self-medicate, as a reward/relaxation strategy and because it was a normal part of their professional and daily lives. Reported reasons for absti- nence included the negative effects alcohol had upon lives, inability to mod- erate/drink within guidelines and “trigger” events. Participants reported that their use of social media was inspirational, giving them a platform to share stories and help others and was preferred to traditional support. The use of social media in this way represented a supportive community and assisted vi- gilance toward the danger of relapse. Positive parenting identity, alternatives to alcohol, abstinence rewards and support from abstinent others were all factors in sustaining abstinence. Conclusions: Health professionals should recognise this hidden and hard to reach group and the potential efficacy of social media in assisting recovery from alcohol related issues.
Pt and Pd supported on carbon microspheres (CMS) are used as electrocatalysts for alcohol (methanol, ethanol and ethylene glycol) electrooxidation in alkaline media. The results show that Pt and Pd supported on carbon microspheres give better performance for all alcohols electrooxidation than that supported on carbon black. The activity order of alcohol oxidation on Pt/C and Pt/CMS is ethylene glycol (EG) > methanol > ethanol. The EG shows the highest activity and ethanol shows the lowest activity. However, the activity order of alcohol oxidation on Pd/C and Pd/CMS is ethanol > EG > methanol and the ethanol gives the best performance. The results show that Pt is a good electrocatalyst for EG oxidation and Pd is a good electrocatalyst for ethanol oxidation. The increased magnitude order of alcohol oxidation on catalysts supported on carbon microspheres to catalysts supported on carbon black is ethanol > methanol > EG. The results show that carbon microspheres are good support for ethanol oxidation and not good support for EG oxidation.
This review has the following strengths and limitations. It is the ﬁ rst comprehensive systematic review of evidence of the effectiveness of mass media to reduce alcohol consumption, allowing those who make decisions about whether and how to develop and implement such cam- paigns to do so informed by a synthesis of the evidence base. A strength of the review lies in the common features shared by all the included mass media campaigns as a result of focused inclusion cri- teria, such as incidental exposure and the absence of person-to-person contact. In addition to exploring effects of campaigns by outcome, the presentation of ﬁ ndings by common target population (general adults/ young people/pregnant women) further strengthens the ability of the review to guide policy and practice. The review has also identi ﬁ ed gaps in knowledge for further research. The quality of studies included in the review was generally weak, most outcomes were self-reported and evidence in high risk sub-groups was not reported consistently enough to be synthesized in the review. There is a need for evaluations of high- er quality that demonstrate valid and reliable measurement of out- comes, adopt a cluster-randomized or robust natural experiment design where feasible and identify effects in high risk sub-groups. Aims of campaigns were extracted from included reports and were often lim- ited in detail. For a better assessment of whether mass media cam- paigns achieve their aims, pre-campaign documents should be sought that set out a priori aims, against which study ﬁndings can be assessed, although such documents are unlikely to be available to researchers. The ﬁndings have limited generalizability beyond developed countries. The inclusion only of studies published in English and indexed in elec- tronic databases may have introduced language and publication bias.
Table 2 shows the crude and adjusted association between movie alcohol exposure (and covariates) and both drinking outcomes. In the crude analysis, only gender and school SES were not associated with trying drinking without parental knowledge, and only school SES was not associated with binge drinking. Exposure to movie alcohol use remained a significant predictor of adolescent drinking in the multivariate analysis, with the adjusted relative risks ranging from 1.42 to 2.00 comparing quartiles 2 and 4, respectively, with quartile 1 for drinking without parental knowledge and 1.44 to 2.23 for binge drinking (Table 2). Based on the percent reporting trying drinking in quartile 1 (17%), the rela- tive risks imply that higher movie alcohol exposure in quartiles 2, 3, and 4 was associated with drinking rates of 24%, 33%, and 34% respectively. Adolescent drinking without parental knowledge was also significantly asso- ciated with having a television in the bedroom, age, parent and friend alcohol use, and sensation seeking/ rebelliousness; there was no multivariate association with gender, school type (measure of SES), school per- formance, or parenting style. Binge drinking was also significantly associated with movie alcohol exposure; based on the percent reporting binge drinking in quartile 1 (6%), the relative risks reported in Table 2 imply that higher movie alcohol exposure in quartiles 2, 3, and 4 was associated with binge drinking rates of 8.6%, 12%, and 13% respectively. Binge drinking was also associ- ated with age, parent and friend drinking pattern, and sensation seeking/rebelliousness. The response pattern across quartiles confirmed that the largest media effect was for the lower-exposed adolescents. For example, for drinking without parental knowledge, increasing expo- sure from quartile 2 to quartile 3 raised the adjusted relative risk from 1.42 to 1.94, but increasing exposure from quartile 3 to quartile 4 raised the adjusted relative risk only from 1.94 to 2.0. Another observation is that controlling for confounding had a larger effect on the estimate for high-exposure adolescents. For binge drink- ing, adding controls dropped the crude estimate for quartile 2 on binge drinking from 1.82 to 1.44; for quar- tile 4, the estimate dropped from 4.34 to 2.23. Compar- ing the strength of the association, being in quartile 4 of exposure gave an adjusted relative risk of binge drinking (2.23) comparable with the adjusted relative risk associ- ated with having most/all friends drink (a condition reported by only ⬃ 3% of adolescents) or having parents drink every day (a condition reported by only ⬃ 5% of adolescents). Having a television in the bedroom had only a weak effect on trying alcohol (adjusted relative risk: 1.08) that barely reached statistical significance, and a somewhat stronger effect on binge drinking (adjusted relative risk: 1.60).
Owing to the rise of Instagram, SMI have become more popular by publishing photos and videos about their “daily life” (Socialbakers, 2019). This daily life includes drinking wine with friends at dinner, celebrating someone’s birthday, or presenting a new outfit. In short, creating ‘self-branding’ by marketing their person (Marwick, 2010). As young people feel connected to SMI by identifying with the displayed “life on Instagram,” these influencers are seen as credible opinion leaders and role models (Shamsudeen & Ganeshbabu, 2018). Hence, the possibility is given that if influencers drink alcohol, users aim to be like the influencer. Accordingly, SMI are used by several companies as an advertising method (Ju, 2018). The alcohol brand Jägermeister, for instance, launched an Instagram- focused social media campaign by asking SMI to create Jägermeister-themed content for the audience. As a result, Jägermeister’s audience increased by more than 60% (Hall, 2015). This example might indicate that the trend for alcohol brands using SMI as a platform to influence users’ behaviour can be successful (Bruhn et al., 2011).
The analyses also included age, race/ethnicity (three binary variables for Black, Hispanic and other ethnicity, coded with Whites as the reference group), gender, household income and parental education, media- viewing habits d hours watching television on a school day and how often the participant viewed movies together with his/her parents d and receptivity to alcohol marketing (based on whether or not the adolescent owned alcohol-branded merchandise at waves 2e4). 31 Family predictors included perceived inhome availability of alcohol, subject-reported parental alcohol use (assessed at the 16 M survey and assumed to be invariant) and perceptions of authoritative parenting ( a ¼0.80). 32 Other covariates included school perfor- mance, extracurricular participation, number of friends who used alcohol, weekly spending money, sensation seeking (4-wave Cronbach’s a range¼0.57e0.62) 33 and
About 1,000 respondents (n=1,002) accepted to participate in the campaign evaluation. Re- sponse rate is 37.1%. Global perception of the campaign – measured by the capacity to identify the campaign adequately – is 18.8%. This perception varies between age groups and education levels: 30% of the youngest age group (14-35 yrs) have seen the campaign, 13% of people aged 56 and over (p<0.001). The lower the education level, the lower the probabil- ity to have seen the campaign (11% in the lowest group, 25% in the highest one, p<0.001). Among the respondents who have seen the campaign, newspapers are the most often cited media for the oldest age groups. Inversely, young people have mainly identified the cam- paign on street boards or on post cards.
rately for the two groups. Among baseline nondrinkers, the de- pendent variable was onset of drinking between baseline and follow-up. Among baseline drinkers, the dependent variable was maintenance of drinking (follow-up report of increased amount of lifetime drinking plus drinking in the past month). To examine associations between exposure to each type of media and alcohol use, adjusted for exposure to other media types, age, sex, and ethnicity, all variables were regressed simultaneously on each dependent variable. No evidence for collinearity in any of the models was found. As effect sizes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated from the resulting parameter estimates and standard errors for an exposure unit of 7 hours per week, or an average of 1 hour per day, for each type of media use. All tests of statistical significance were two-tailed, with a 5 0.05.
For the advertising and marketing of food to children, self-regulatory practices have also been promoted at EU level through the EU Platform for Action on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. The Platform has obtained a total of more than 300 stakeholder commitments. 16 Responsible commercial communication for alcoholic beverages also accounts for 25% of more than 200 commitments undertaken by members of the European Alcohol and Health Forum. Self-regulation of marketing and advertising of alcoholic beverages has thus substantially improved in terms of media services and Member States covered. Further work will have to establish the contribution that these initiatives make to attaining the level of protection required and whether common definitions need to be introduced to reinforce their effectiveness. An evaluation of the Platform for Action on Diet, Physical Activity and Health 17 concluded that stakeholders’ initiatives in the field of marketing and advertising showed good progress, but that their impact could be further strengthened. In the context of these platforms, the Commission will support the development of a definition of stricter age and audience thresholds for advertising and marketing and more consistent nutritional benchmarks across companies. Member States have a key role to play in framing industry-led self-regulatory approaches, in particular with regard to the efficient and well-resourced administration of codes and the handling of complaints.
Cr(VI) is a widespread environmental contaminant and a known human carcinogen. Biosorption is a very common method to remove toxic Cr(VI) from industrial waste water. In biosorption Cr(VI) is re- duced to less toxic Cr(III) and adsorbed in biosor- bent as Cr(III). Effective biosorbents contain hydro- xy groups; it may be aliphatic or aromatic. Kinetics of reduction of Cr(VI) by an aromatic alcohol, benzyl alcohol, (which is an important volatile component of flowers of some night blooming plants) in micellar media have been studied spectrophotometrically. Micellar media is a probe to establish the mechanistic paths of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Effects of electrolytes are studied to support the proposed reac- tion mechanism. Suitable surfactant & suitable con- centration of electrolyte enhance the biosorption pro- perty.
The substrate specificity of AATs is critical to produce target esters . For example, ATF1 exhibits substrate preference for biosynthesis of acyl (C4–C6) acetates while SAAT and VAAT prefer biosynthesis of ethyl (C2– C6) acylates. Even though both SAAT and VAAT are derived from the same strawberry genus, they also show very distinct substrate preferences; specifically, SAAT prefers longer (C4–C6) acyl-CoAs whereas VAAT prefers shorter (C2–C4) acyl-CoAs. To date, none of AATs have been tested for lactate ester biosynthesis. Thus, to enable lactate ester biosynthesis, we began with identification of the best AAT candidate. We designed, constructed, and characterized a library of five pyruvate-to-lactate ester modules (pJW002-006) carrying five divergent AATs including ATF1, ATF2, SAAT, VAAT, and AtfA, respec- tively. AtfA was used as a negative control because it prefers long-chain acyl-CoAs (C14–C18) and alcohols (C14–C18) . For characterization, 2 g/L of ethanol, propanol, butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, and ben- zyl alcohol were added to culture media with 0.5 mM of IPTG for pathway induction to evaluate biosynthesis of six different lactate esters including ethyl lactate, propyl lactate, butyl lactate, isobutyl lactate, isoamyl lactate, and benzyl lactate, respectively, in high cell density cultures (Fig. 1a).
The so-called war on drugs has been waged for decades, yet teenagers con- tinue to use and abuse a variety of sub- stances, especially tobacco and alco- hol. The contribution of the media to adolescent substance use is only re- cently becoming fully recognized and appreciated. The Master Settlement Agreement has greatly restricted to- bacco marketing by the tobacco com- panies that signed the agreement. However, tobacco continues to appear frequently in movies, and this fact con- trasts markedly with US reality (ap- proximately half of the US population lives in a community with restrictions on indoor smoking). Moreover, the case is strong for the argument that smoking shown in entertainment me- dia plays a causal role in smoking on- set. Certainly, it is time to eliminate all tobacco advertising and to decrease greatly the depiction of smoking in mainstream media. Because alcohol use is still condoned in many venues and use in moderation may be health- ful for adults, such severe restrictions on alcohol advertising and program- ming may not be indicated. On the other hand, underage alcohol use does pose a clear and immediate threat to the teenagers who use it. Taken to- gether, the evidence supports strong actions aimed at the entertainment industry about media depictions of tobacco use and strong actions aimed at motivating and assisting parents of children and young teen- agers to restrict access to adult me- dia venues with excessive substance use exposure.
Despite the fact that significant resources have been allocated to prevent high-risk alcohol use among college students, college drinking rates have remained unchanged over the past 35 years (Grucza, Norberg, & Bierut, 2009; Johnston, O'Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2011; Nelson, Xuan, Lee, Weitzman, & Wechsler, 2009; Staff et al., 2010; Wechsler et al., 2002). Additional research is needed to identify the complex factors which might influence college students in their decision to drink and engage in alcohol-related risk behaviors. More specifically, how can researchers and practitioners promote positive decision-making in a social and physical environment that rewards high-risk behavior? Deterrence theory (Beccaria, 1963; Cherniak, 1986; Cook, 1980) hypothesizes that when choosing whether or not to engage in prohibited behaviors, individuals consider how likely they are to be punished for committing that behavior, and how swiftly and severely they may be punished. Social media is a source of information for which little is known in terms of what content is displayed. College students interpret this content, and that interpretation may impact their perceived risk of being apprehended for unlawful alcohol use. The goal of the current study was to better understand whether the information relayed by a crowdsourced social media platform was associated with college students’ alcohol consumption, risk-taking behavior, and perceived susceptibility to alcohol-related legal consequences.
Objectives: The investigation of antimicrobial activity of water-alcohol plant extracts Ruta graveolens L., Nepeta cataria L., and Stellaria media (L.) Vill. and the detection of the synergism of their antimicrobial action with erythromycin against the skin isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with different mechanisms of acrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (MLS)-resistance. Materials and Methods: It has been carried out by the micromethod of diffusion into agar and the method of diffusion of active substances into agar using paper disks. Results: The direct antimicrobial effect of the investigated extracts to the test strains was established. The synergistic antimicrobial effect of 1/4 and 1/64 minimum decreasing concentration of erythromycin to all strains of staphylococcus was demonstrated by extracts from R. graveolens L. The biologically active substances of medicinal plants more effectively restore the sensitivity to erythromycin for staphylococcus with low MLS-resistance through blocking reflex mechanisms. High-level MLS-resistance undergoes to a modification influenced considerably less. Conclusion: The investigated plant extracts of R. graveolens L. show antimicrobial activity against all tested strains of microorganisms: Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Candida tropicalis. N. cataria L. extract influenced some of the tested cultures of microorganisms. Extract of S. media (L.) Vill. inhibited the growth of microorganisms, mostly to streams of Streptococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and S. aureus ATCC 6538 in a dose of 200 mcg/ml.
For these reasons identifying the behaviours of consumers with consideration of the role played by social media at particular stages of the purchasing process seems justified. In the first part of the article a definition and various classifications of social media, together with examples, are presented on the basis of studied literature. Young consumers have been characterized as a comparably new segment of the market. In the second part of the article the results of a survey conducted by the author concerning the influence of chosen social media on the purchasing process of young consumers are presented. For the purpose of verification of the role played by social media in the decision-making processes of young people, a quantitative survey on a sample of 1000 people aged 16–26 — students of upper secondary schools and universities in Poznań — was carried out. The survey was carried out by means of the following research technique: direct individual questionnaire interview. The main goal of the survey was the identification of the scope of young consumers' activity in social media, the identification of the activities of fashion brands in social media, as well as the assessment of the profiles of fashion brands in the decision-making process among young consumers.
Volume 2, Issue 5, May – 2017 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology ISSN No 2456 2165 IJISRT17MY49 www ijisrt com 703 Securing Image Transfer In Social Media Ajay Kumar T[.]