Rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, along with increasing demand for energy is a matter of serious concern. To solve both the energy concern and environmental concern, the renewable energies with lower environmental pollution impact should be necessary. Biodiesel is renewable and environmental friendly alternative dieselfuel for dieselengine. It can be produced by trans-esterification process. Trans- esterification is a chemical reaction in which vegetable oils and animal fats are reacted with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The products of reaction are fatty acid alkyl ester and glycerin, and were the fatty acid alkyl esters known as biodiesel.
This study is about the effect of bio additives; Di Methyl Poly Siloxane Power (DMPS Power) and Palm OilMethylEster (D20 Booster) performances and emissions in dieselengine fueled with Bio DieselFuel (BDF) i.e., Crude Palm oil, Jatropha Curcas oil and Waste Cooking oil. Furthermore, due to alternative fuels for dieselengine are becoming increasingly important because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum-fueled engines. Several developed countries have introduced policies encouraging the use of BDF made from grains, vegetable oil or biomass to replace part of their fossil fuel use in industries in order to prevent environmental degradation by using cleaner fuel and to reduce dependence on imported, finite fossil supplies by partially replacing them with renewable, domestic sources. The DMPS and D20 Bio-additives can remarkably improve the fuel economy of Compression Ignition (CI) engine while operating on all kinds of BDF. The power output of BDF depends on its, blend, quality, and load conditions under which the fuel consumed. Hence, the performance, combustion characteristics and emissions of dieselengine learnt under different speed and load conditions.
Engine performance parameters and exhaust emission char acteristics of different varieties are quantified with SOME blends and equated to dieselfuel behaviour. The engine test results showed that, better performance and lower emissions are produced at B30. N.Venkateswara Rao et al.  have analysed the engine characteristics of tobacco seed oil and blends. The tests are conducted on a dieselengine for pre-heated temperature at dissimilar nozzle pressures, injection timings and comparative studies were made and it was seen that the Smoke levels diminished and NOx levels expanded with biodiesel. The examination discoveries shows that the diesel can be replaced with the biodiesel. Thiyagarajan Subramanian  studies the features of a twin-cylinder tractor engine with neat Camphor oil and fuel additives such as Diglyme, Eugenol, Acetone and Cumene - bio-additives which runs at a constant speed of 1500 rpm and summarized that with the addition of DGE, EU, A the NOx emissions can be reduced without affecting the performance parameters. M. Vijay Kumar et al.  have done the experiments on a modified dieselengine with modified nozzle hole diameter at 20% blend of Mahua oil for different EGR rates. The results exposed that the characteristics of the altered engine were improved at Exhaust Gas Recirculation rate of 10% for sole fuel and B20 Mahua oil. G Lakshmi Narayana Rao et al.  analysed the characteristics of Used cooking oilmethylester and its blends on a 4.4kW compression ignition engine. They briefed that the SFC, peak pressure, the NOX emissions increases and the brake thermal efficiency, CO, Unburnt Hydrocarbons emissions and smoke intensity decreases with extended with the percentage of UCME. Dharmendra Yadav et al.  investigates the performance of neem oilmethylester on a dieselengine at different blends 20% , 50% , and 100% of neem oil biodiesel and concluded that the performance of the blends are deprived. A.P Sathiyagnanam et al.  have considered the potential of using Waste Pork Lard methyl esters blends of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in a 5.2kWpower dieselengine. K. Sri Rama Murthy, S. Sudhakar Babu, Venkata Ramesh Mamilla
the utilization of Biodiesel and it blends in diesel engines have done. Raju et al.  conducted experiments on compression ignition engine with mahua seed oil as alternate feedstock and reported that the mahua seed bio- fuel blends shown enhanced BTE and lowered exhaust emissions when analyzed with conventional diesel. Biodiesels contain inherent oxygen content; better lubricity and higher Cetane are the main reason for the improvement in thermal efficiency with biodiesel However, most of the cases the work is on to use as single biodiesel and blends. From literature studies [10-14], biodiesel play a vital role in dieselengine. Finally, it is concluded that biodiesel is one of the potential alternative fuel for the diesel to minimize the tailpipe emissions towards the sustainable green environment. The characteristics of biodiesel are close to mineral diesel, and therefore tamarind seed oil become a potential fuel source to replace partially or completely the mineral diesel if need arises.
Globally the demand for diesel and petrol is alarming due to speedy depletion of fossil fuel and hyper increase of automobiles in the current years. It results in seeking an alternate for fuel that led to many findings of alternative fuels. The previous researchers have exposed the utility of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for dieselfuel. However, there is a constraint in using vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In this study, raw cotton seed oil is converted into biodiesel (MethylEster of Cotton Seed Oil) through transesterification process and finds the impact of injection pressures (190, 200, 210, 220 and 230 bar) and injection timings (21 o , 23 o and 25 o bTDC) on combustion, performance and emission parameters of optimized blend (B25) of cotton seed oil biodiesel with diesel in a single cylinder dieselengine. From the investigation, it is found that in a dieselengine the optimum injection pressure is 200 bar and injection timing is 23 o bTDC for the optimized blend of B25 cotton seed oil biodiesel and could be used as an alternative fuel with no modification of the dieselengine.
from vegetable oils [6-8]. It has many advantages that include low emissions, biodegradable, non-toxic, environment friendly and better lubricity . Petroleum fuel supply has become scarce, and its use has been associated with the increase in environmental problems. Diesel engines are widely used as power sources for medium and heavy duty applications . The viscosity of vegetable oils is many times higher than that of dieselfuel. The viscosity is reduced when triglycerides are converted into esters by transesterification reaction. Thus, three smaller molecules of ester and one molecule of glycerin are obtained from one molecule of fat/oil .
Wolfgana Held et al. (1990)  have suggested that, the use of urea is usually regarded as safe, it is easy to transport in the vehicle in an aqueous solution, which make it also easy to dose as necessary. Copper - exchange zeolite catalysts can selectively convert nitrogen oxides over a much wider range of fuel-air ratios than nobel-metal catalysts and they achieved only 65% of NOx reduction, the urea dosage was not analyzed, also they have not given the required construction la out of engine arrangement. Also they have not explained the secondary reaction.
After ambient temperature and pressure were measured and the biofuel blends density and calorific values determined, the water pumps to the engine and dynamometer were turned on. The engine was connected to the battery terminal. The start button was pressed while the choke is in return position. The throttle was placed at relative low speed, 800 rpm and allowed to run idly for about 15minutes to attain a uniform temperature. The value of the torque was recorded. The time for a given value of the fuel to be consumed at the speed of 1500 rpm was measured by using the stopwatch to measure the time for the fuel to move between appropriate spacers while supply tank fuel gauge is turn off. The manometer reading, oil temperature and oil pressure were measured. Also the readings on the two water systems for both engine and dynamometer viz.: the water inlet temperature, water outlet temperature and water flow rate/head were measured. The process starting from recording the torque was expected for higher torque values: 10, 20, 30, 40 Nm.
The world today is in need of alternate fuel sources because of fuel depletion and increase of fuel demand. The yearly reports in pollutants of atmosphere are also in increasing trend, the need is to develop the eco- friendly fuel to meet the fossil fuel depletion.These reasons increase the attention towards vegetable oil as an alternate fuel source. Biodiesel is the name of clean burning fuel, produced from domestic renewable resources. It contains no petroleum but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to greater biodiesel blend. It can be used in CI engine with no major modifications. It is simple to use, bio degradable, non-toxic and essentially free of sulphur and aromatics. The choice of vegetable oil as enginefuel naturally depends upon the local conditions prevalent availability of a particular vegetable oil in excess amount. There are various oils which are being considered worldwide for use in the engines. But Mahua biodiesel is one of the most promising biodiesel options among these. Mahua (Madhuca Indica) is one of the forest-based tree- borne non-edible oils with large production potential of about 60 million tons per annum in India . Many researchers investigated the effects of diesel-biodiesel blends on performance and emission characteristics in dieselengine and concluded that partial or full replacement of diesel with biodiesel is feasible [1-10].The major properties of Mahua biodiesel include calorific value, diesel index, flash point, fire point, cloud point, pour point, specific gravity, and kinematic viscosity. The various physicochemical properties of diesel and Mahua biodiesel are measured and listed in Table 1 for comparison.
The fumigation technique offers the advantage of easy conversion of the dieselengine to work in the dual fuel mode with volatile fuels and vegetable oils. The dual fuelengine with appropriate conversion has superior characteristics than those of a straight fuel operation (Ghazi A.Karim (1987)). Orange oils are fumigated up to 35% and high cetane number fuel was injected as pilot fuel for ignition. In this study diesel, Jatropha oil, and methylester of Jatropha oil are used as pilot fuels (Senthil kumar M et al (2001)). Reduction in NO x emission, brake thermal efficiency and marginal increase in HC and CO emission is observed by using
to be successful in dropping diesel emissions. Then the metal based particles are to drop the dieselengine pollution and fuel consumption values. The cause for emission drop is that the metal reacting with water to create hydroxyl radicals.  This is to get better soot oxidation. Wehave to conduct a number of experiments in direct injection dieselengine using aluminumnanoparticles with biodiesel and diesel fuels. To observe a considerable increase in the brake thermal efficiency and drop in dangerous pollutants compared to that of neat biodiesel and neat diesel.
Abstract: currently, the world faces two major crises, depletion of fossil fuel and environmental degradation. So, to solve both problems, renewable alternative fuel is necessary with a minimum impact on the environment. Therefore, the search for biofuels has been raised in the earth world, to preserve the global environment and to replace fossil fuels by biodiesel. In this work, performance and emission characteristics of a dieselengine are studied using cottonseed oilmethylester as biodiesel and CuO nanoparticle as an additive in a single cylinder four strokes computerized variable compression ratio engine. The copper oxide acts as a catalyst to provide oxygen for the oxidation of CO or otherwise absorbs oxygen for the reduction of NO X . The carbon
combustion temperature and reduces the oxygen intake gases that adversely affect the smoke emission and soot formation. They also suggested that for a given level of oxygen concentration the cooled EGR reduces more NOx with less EGR rates than does at hot EGR. . Saravanan et al. (2008) performed a series of test on a single cylinder water cooled DI dieselengine with hydrogen was used as dual fuel mode with EGR technique. They reported increase in brake thermal efficiency and lowered smoke level, particulate and NOx emissions due to absence of carbon in hydrogen fuel. . Hountalas et al. (2008) have presented 3D-multi dimensional model to examine the effect of EGR temperature on a turbocharged DI dieselengine with three different engine speeds. They reported that high EGR temperature affects the engine brake thermal efficiency, peak combustion pressure, air fuel ratio and also soot emissions, and the combined effect of increased temperature and decreased O 2 concentration resulted low NOx emissions. Also they suggested that EGR cooling is necessary to retain the
Pugazhvadivu et al.  conducted the experiments to investigate the suitability of preheated mahua oil as fuel in dieselengine and they concluded that preheated mahua oil can be used in emergency. Sukumar puhan et al.  also studied the performance of methylester of mahua oil and explained the suitability of MOME to dieselengine. Banapurmath et al.  studied the effect of biodiesel derived from honge oil and its blends with diesel when directly injected at different injection pressures and injection timings in a single cylinder water cooled C.I. engine. The results show that honge oil and honge oilmethylester gave better results for B20 blend at retarded injection timing of 19◦ BTDC and injection pressure of 260 bar. Anirudh Gautam et al.  studied performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a cotton seed biodiesel fueled in four stroke locomotive dieselengine. They suggested that B20 can be implemented because it shows the performance same as the diesel. This has one more advantage that it produces less smoke.
observed. From the study conducted by Rajesh kumar et al  using octanol as blend component with diesel, he suggested that the usage of octanol had prolonged the ignition delay thereby creating higher cylinder pressure resulting in an increased heat release rate. Adding octanol resulted in the reduction of emission along with increase of performance for naturally aspirated mode. The results of EGR mode showed reduction of NOx and smoke emission but increased CO, HC and BSFC rates. Sundar R et al.  conducted an experiment using diesel/hexanol blends with varying hexanol percentage by volume in CI engine. He found a substantial reduction in smoke opacity whereas a surge in NOx emission along with improvement in performance using hexanol/blends over diesel. Jeya Jeevan et al.  had investigated the performance and emission characteristics of dieselengine operating with biodiesel/diesel blends, diesel/butanol blends and diesel/pentanol blends as fuel respectively. Deep et al.  found reduction in NOx and CO emissions of single cylinder dieselengine when octanol is blended in neat diesel in comparison to diesel. BSFC is found to decline for lower fraction of octanol but increases with increment in octanol proportion.
Biodiesel is a safe alternative fuel to replace traditional petroleum diesel. It has high-lubricity, is a clean-burning fuel and can be a fuel component for use in existing, unmodified diesel engines. More specifically, biodiesel is defined as an oxygenated, sulfur-free, biodegradable, non- toxic, and eco-friendly alternative dieseloil. Chemically, it can be defined as a fuel composed of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable sources, such as vegetable oil, animal fat, and used cooking oil designated as B100, and also it must meet the special requirements such as the ASTM and the European standards . The demand for diesel is five times higher than the demand for petrol in India. But while the ethanol industry is mature, the biodiesel industry is still in its infancy. India's current biodiesel technology of choice is the transesterification of vegetable oil. The Government of India has launched an National Biodiesel Mission in 2003 comprising six micro missions covering all aspects of plantation, procurement of seed, extraction of oil, trans- esterification, blending & trade, and research and development to replace 20 percent of petroleum fuel consumption with biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) by end of 12th Five-Year Plan (2017). 
5.2 T. Mirunalini et al :- This paper presents the research work on Jatropha oil as a source of biodiesel as an alternate to dieselfuel for its application in diesel engines. Jatropha oil can be obtained from Jatropha curcas plant. In this paper the property of jatropha oil are studied and is used in dieselengine and the results are investigated. Jatropha oil being highly viscous and low volatile makes it difficult for its direct application in the engine. The direct use of Jatropha oil in dieselengine may result into poor vaporization and atomization of the fuel during the injection process and may even harm the engine parts. To overthrow this, Jatropha oil is blended with dieseloil. Blending will result into the lowering of viscosity and it also increases the cetane number of the fuel. The researchers have created a blended mixture by amalgamating dieseloil with different proportions of clean jatropha oil. They have used the blended biodiesel fuel to run a 4 stroke single cylinder engine and at the end the performance and emission of the engine is reviewed. In order to load the engine electric dynamometer is used. They have initially carried out this experiment by using pure dieseloil and later blended mixture is used and comparisons are done.
In this experimental study, cylinder head, inlet and exhaust valves and piston were coated with Yttrium stabilized Zirconia using plasma spray technique. The effects of Sunflower methylester from Transesterification method blended in diesel as a fuel in diesel was studied in both performance and emission aspects. An increase in engine brake thermal efficiency and decrease in specific fuel consumption was observed for pure diesel and the characteristics of methylester were better in case of coated engine rather than uncoated engine. Significant reduction in emissions were observed for methyl esters except CO at full load and NO x at all load conditions in case of
Many researches of vegetable oil fuels have investigated that the vegetable oils can be used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. The viscosity of crude vegetable oils is rather high than dieselfuel. High viscosity has negative effect on atomisation quality, and so engine performance and exhaust emissions are affected badly and become failure on engine parts. To decrease of viscosity of cottonseed oilmethylester was produced and tested as alternative fuel in a single cylinder, four strokes, air-cooled dieselengine. Engine tests carried out at full load- different speed range, the engine torque and power of cottonseed oilmethylester with dieselfuel blend was lower than that of dieselfuel in range of 2-3 % and specific fuel consumption was higher than that of dieselfuel of approximately 3 %. CO 2 , CO and NO x emissions of cottonseed methylester were lower than that of dieselfuel.
ABSTRACT:Alternative fuels have received much attention due to the depletion of world petroleum reserves and increased environmental concerns. The desire to reach higher efficiencies, lower specific fuel consumption and reduced emissions in modern engines has become the primary focus of engine researchers and manufacturers over the past three decades. Thus processed form of waste cooking oil (Biodiesel) offers attractive green alternative fuels to compression ignition engines. Biodiesel used in the experiment is a methylester of free fatty acid made from waste cooking oil (WCO).The fuel properties of biodiesel are very similar to the dieselfuel, so it can work in existing infrastructure of conventional dieselengine without any modification in the engine.The present work investigates and compares the engine performance parameters such as brake power and brake specific fuel consumption and emission characteristics such as CO, CO 2, HC and NO x emissions of direct injection Kirloskar dieselengine using various blends of waste