In Edge of Tomorrow, Earth is invaded by aliens called ‘Mimics’ who are actuated by the Omega (their ‘queen’). When the humans plan an attack, Major William Cage, a former advertiser, is to be send to the front as a campaign tool. Except, Cage is not exactly a war hero and refuses to go into battle. After his refusal to comply he is arrested and tasered. The next day he wakes up on the tarmac of Heathrow Airport, from which the attack will be launched. Cage no longer holds the status of Major but is now a private and a deserter. When he is sent into combat, unwillingly and unprepared the following day, he is killed within minutes by a distinctive blue mimic, only to find himself waking up on the airport tarmac again. Cage is inexplicably caught in a time loop (a power that belongs to the Omega), forcing him to relive the day after he dies in combat. He soon realizes that every day is exactly the same. This enables him to plan his moves ahead. Cage seeks the help from Rita Vrataski, a decorated soldier, and finds out the same phenomenon befell her. Together they charge into battle with each encounter giving them a better understanding of their enemy. Through trial and error, they slowly manage to drive the Mimics back. When Cage starts to have visions of the Omega he figures out where it is hiding and moves to kill it. Upon reaching the destination Cage finds the Omega is gone and realizes the visions were a trap. The Omega purposely allowed Cage to come so close in order to study human combat methods. Cage and Vrataski now understand how the Mimics were able to advance so quickly. With the help of a special device Cage learns the real location of the Omega and devises a plan to kill it. He can no longer fare on his knowledge of how the day will progress but manages to kill the Omega through all his experience. He dies in the process but wakes up once again. This time he is back in London and learns the Mimics are unable to fight, offering no resistance to the human attack. With the Omega gone, Cage is able to pursue his desires and seeks out Vrataski.
Conservation and environmental protection in Antarctica is never far from discussions about the continent and it plays a role in particular in Happy Feet, which shows many creatures that live in Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic, including three species of penguins, skuas, leopard and elephant seals and orcas, all anthropomorphised. Further, the Antarctic ecosystem plays a major role in the plot of Happy Feet. It is the upsetting of the ecosystem, the removal of one link in the food chain – fish – by humans that is
The process of invasion of an alien species can be divided into three phases (see Richardson et al. 2000 for terminology): introduction (transporta- tion by humans across a major geographical bar- rier), naturalization (surmounting the abiotic and biotic barriers regulating regular reproduction) and invasion (producing reproductive offspring in areas distant from sites of introduction). Different factors limit the distribution or abundance of spe- cies during the different phases of invasion. For introduction, the transportation of propagules, i.e. propagule pressure (Lockwood et al. 2005, Colautti et al. 2006) is a major issue. Naturalization is pri- marily controlled by climatic factors, suggested by decline in species richness of alien plants with in- creasing latitude (Sax 2001, Pyšek and Richardson 2006). For invasion, factors related to habitat such as habitat availability (Pyšek et al. 2005, Chytrý et al. 2009, Jauni and Hyvönen 2010), disturbance re- gime (Hobbs and Huenneke 1992, Kiss and Béres, 2006), resource availability (Davis et al. 2000) and residence time (Pyšek and Jarošík 2005, William- son et al. 2009), as well as the characteristics of the species (e.g. Thompson et al. 1995, Pyšek and Richardson 2007), are of importance. A compre- hensive evaluation of the risk of invasion should include consideration of the species representing each of the three phases of invasion and the factors controlling them.
The fluvial systems in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula are highly disturbed habitats, with wide- spread occurrence of alien species. Previous studies have shown that alien species have a major impact on native freshwater fauna, but it is not known what effect they have on semi-aquatic reptiles. Here the author investigated the factors that influence the occurrence of three species of semi-aquatic reptiles, one turtle (Mauremys leprosa) and two snakes (Natrix astreptophora and Natrix maura), at 261 sites in seven rivers/streams in Girona (north-eastern Spain). The studied semi-aquatic reptiles are habitat generalists which can occupy sections of rivers with altered regimes. The relationships of reptile presence to abiotic niche parameters and the presence of alien species were evaluated, as well as the patterns of pairwise co-occurrence between the reptiles. The presence of alien species did impact one out of three reptiles in this community. The association between both species of natricines was weakly negative, suggesting that interspecific competition does not structure their co-occurrences. The removal of alien species is the most appropriate strategy to preserve the complete diversity of native semi-aquatic reptiles.
Alien species comprise a considerable proportion oITasmania's plant biodiversity. T he most recent catalogue ofTasmanian vascular plants (Buchanan 2004) lists 774 plant taxa at specific and subspecific rank as being naturalised or 'sparingly naturalised'. T his equates to nearly 30% of the total vascular plant flora of Tasmania.
In this situation of emergence of many a diseases in the event of global warming, advances in biotechnology, molecular biology, immunology, genetics and nanotechnology need to be exploited to their full potential for formulating appropriate disease prevention and control strategies as per demand of the hour and thinking about the future dimensions viz., generating and applying rapid and confirmatory diagnostics especially supporting and strengthening the disease surveillance, tracking and monitoring systems; getting safer and effective vaccines for combating these emerging pathogens; and using novel and alternative therapeutic regimens along with following suitable prevention and control measures for checking the global rise in temperature and steps for alleviating its multidimensional effects (Jebara, 2004; National Research Council, 2005; Schmitt and Henderson, 2005; Belak, 2007; Bollo, 2007; Kahn et al., 2007; Ratcliff et al., 2007; Dhama et al., 2008b; Paul-Pierre, 2009; Deb and Chakraborty, 2012; Dhama et al., 2012b,c; Mahima et al., 2012, 2013; Deb et al., 2013; Dhama et al., 2013g,h,i,j,k,l,m; Tiwari et al., 2013a,b). Problems like emerging antibiotic resistance also need to be taken care of by following judicious use of drugs and alternative therapeutics (Dhama et al., 2013j, k,l; Tiwari et al., 2013c). One health approach need to be practiced holistically to combat the emerging infectious diseases due to global warming and climate changes for safeguarding health of humans as well their companion animals (Ahmed et al., 2010; FAO Media Centre, 2010; FAO-WHO- OIE, 2010; The World Bank, 2010; Dhama et al., 2013a).
with the closed glottis or with the mouth and the nose closed (CASTIGLIONI, 1947). Physical exercise has been widely used for prevention and for treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Brazilian organizations such as the Brazilian Society of Sports and Exercise Medicine (SBMEE), Brazilian Society of Cardiology (SBC), as well as international societies such as American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the International Federation of Sports Medicine (FIMS) have recommended physical activity with adequate dose and orientation (BARRETTO; NEGRÃO, 2006; SANTOS et al., 2008). Accordingly, respective guidelines support predominant practice of aerobic physical exercise by hypertensive humans, combined to resistance and flexibility exercise training (AMERICAN COLLEGE SPORTS MEDICINE, 2010; SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE CARDIOLOGIA, 2015; FÉDÉRATION INTERNACIONALE MÉDECINE DU SPORT, 2001).
To address these gaps in our knowledge, we compiled a global data set of regional ﬁrst records of alien species that are now established (following the criteria in ref. 12) in multiple geographic regions worldwide (countries and sub-national regions such as islands). This data set of 45,813 ﬁrst records of 16,926 established alien species from a wide range of taxonomic groups is invaluable for assessing taxonomic and geographic variation in alien species accumulations, and for testing for evidence of slowdown in the accumulation rates. It covers 282 non-overlapping regions from all continents, with particularly intense sampling in Europe, North America and Oceania, and from well-studied taxa such as vascular plants, mammals, insects, birds and ﬁshes (Fig. 1 and Supplementary Fig. 1). This data set allows us to analyse variations in the rate of alien species introductions across space and time in a consistent way over large geographic scales. In particular, we test the following predictions: (1) rates of introductions for species often intentionally introduced such as mammals, birds and vascular plants should decline in recent years as a result of increased awareness of their impacts and tighter biosecurity regulations; (2) rates of introductions for taxonomic groups primarily introduced accidentally such as invertebrates or algae should show steep increases in recent times, as these species are more difﬁcult to regulate and are closely associated with increasing trade; and (3) signiﬁcant geographic differences in the rates of alien species introductions should be apparent, reﬂecting variations in socio-economic histories and the strength of biosecurity regulations. We ﬁnd that the number of established alien species and for most taxonomic groups even the rate of introduction increased until recently with no sign of saturation. We can therefore expect many more invasions to happen in the near future.
For decades, the Alien Tort Statute (ATS) has played a valuable role in human rights litigation in U.S. courts. However, in recent years, the U.S. Supreme Court has limited the ATS’s effectiveness in a number of respects. In response to these decisions, many scholars have predicted that litigants will begin to evade the restrictive ATS jurisprudence by bringing tradi- tional ATS cases in state courts. This comment reveals that this tactic has not become as prevalent as scholars predicted and evaluates the only two state court cases uncovered by the author’s research. This comment then explains why litigating would-be ATS cases in state court will lead to nega- tive policy implications for the United States, including inconsistent treat- ment of these claims and degradation of the federal government’s ability to “speak with one voice” regarding foreign affairs. To prevent these issues from arising, congressional action is needed to clarify the ATS’s intended reach and vest federal courts with exclusive jurisdiction over claims fitting within that reach.
The situation with the female taxi described in the book (“Schenskoje Taxi” – another Russian author's use of Russism, accompanied by a translation into German – “Frauentaxi”) demonstrates this approximation and development of the "alien" in the form of familiar taxis with male drivers that are not very clean and smelling of cigarettes and alcohol that the interior of female taxi is described as “peinlich sauber” (too pure – a combination of a positive characteristic with a negative hyperbolizing amplifier). Thus, the taxi interior is far from being very accurate, the author already regards it as a norm, although this must be alien to the pedantic Germans who like order.
This paper is the first in a series analyzing the photom- etry and spectroscopy of Earth obtained as part of the EPOXI mission and is written in a different spirit than most studies of Earthshine. Rather than attempting to produce a detailed model which exactly fits the observa- tions (a.k.a. “forward modeling”), we make a few reason- able simplifying assumptions which allow us to extract information directly from the data (“backward model- ing”). This approach is complementary to detailed mod- eling and will be especially appropriate when studying an alien world with limited data. This paper is organized as follows: in § 2 we describe the time-resolved obser- vations of the entire disc of Earth used in this study; in § 3 we use principal component analysis to determine the dominant spectral components of the planet in a model- independent way; we use light curve inversion in § 4 to convert the diurnal albedo variations into a longitudinal map of Earth; we discuss our results in § 5; our conclu- sions are in § 6.