Alkali Catalyst

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Effects of Molar Ratio, Alkali Catalyst Concentration and Temperature on Transesterification of Jatropha Oil with Methanol under Ultrasonic Irradiation

Effects of Molar Ratio, Alkali Catalyst Concentration and Temperature on Transesterification of Jatropha Oil with Methanol under Ultrasonic Irradiation

el technologies for production of biodiesel using Jatropha oil and Karanja oil. At present, the biodiesel is usually produced by reacting methanol and a vegetable oil in a batch stirred tank reactor using a liquid alkaline catalyst. Ultrasound assisted transesterification process offers a number of advantages over current technology, namely the simplification of the process and downstream separa- tion. The present study involved transesterification of Jatropha oil with methanol catalyzed by alkali catalyst. Effects of various parameters were studied.

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Production of Biodiesel from Vernonia Galamensis Oil using Ethanol with Alkali Catalyst

Production of Biodiesel from Vernonia Galamensis Oil using Ethanol with Alkali Catalyst

Biodiesel was produced using sodium hydroxide and ethanol alcohol catalyst at constant reaction time of 2 hours, mixing rate of 500 rpm and at atmospheric pressure. Production of biodiesel was performed by batch process system. The effects of amount of sodium hydroxide catalyst, reaction temperature and molar ratio of alcohol to oil on biodiesel yield were determined. By using Design Expert 7.0.0 soft ware three levels; three factor Central Composite Design with full type, when reaction temperature, catalyst amount and molar ratio of alcohol to oil were increased, the biodiesel yield increased until the optimal amount. However, further addition of these working variables during trans esterification reaction results in reduction of biodiesel yield due to formation of emulsion which made difficulty in the separation of biodiesel from glycerol.

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Optimization of esterification and transesterification of Mahua (Madhuca Indica) oil for production of biodiesel

Optimization of esterification and transesterification of Mahua (Madhuca Indica) oil for production of biodiesel

For maximum bio diesel production the transesterfication reaction shows that the concentration of alkali catalyst is 8 % Sodium Methoxide, alcohol/oil ratio = 0.33%v/v, reaction time = 1 hr , temperature = 65 0 C and excess alcohol = 150%v/v. For tranesterification alkali catalyst is a better choice because the reaction is very fast and requires less amount of catalyst. (Fig 6-9)

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													Optimization of tung oil methyl ester from transesterification process and fuel characterization as diesel substitute

1. Optimization of tung oil methyl ester from transesterification process and fuel characterization as diesel substitute

As the demand of biodiesel increases, the interest in nonedible oil such as Jatropha, castor, Neem, Sesame, Jojoba and Tung oil has grown. Out of these nonedible oils, tung oil is pressed from the nuts of the tung tree (Vernicia fordii), and the nut has an oil content of 30 to 40%. Tung oil is used as a protective coating or drying agent [13-14]. Because of tung oil has a high acid value (AV), the esterification using solid acid catalyst, KOH, employed to produce biodiesel more efficiently. The fuel properties of tung oil methyl ester (TOME) produced from preheated tung oil by alkali catalyst were analysed.

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In situ biodiesel production from residual oil recovered from spent bleaching earth

In situ biodiesel production from residual oil recovered from spent bleaching earth

Currently, semi-refined and refined vegetable oils are used as a feedstock in biodiesel production. However, due to competition with conventional fossil fuel, economic reasons, shortage supply of food and its social impact on the global scale has somewhat slowed the development of biodiesel industry. Studies have been conducted to recover oil from mill palm oil operation especially from the spent bleaching earth. Hence, the study was to investigate the potential recovery of oil from spent bleaching earth to be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The effect of different types of catalysts (sodium hydroxide alkali and sulfuric acid catalysts) on biodiesel yield was studied. In addition, the effect of volume addition of methanol to the weight of spent bleaching earth on the product yield was also studied. Furthermore, the effect of ratio of hexane to methanol was also carried out to determine its product yield. The studies were carried out in an in-situ biodiesel reactor system and the biodiesel product was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Result shows that the use of alkali catalyst produced the highest yield of biodiesel and the most optimum biodiesel yield was obtained when the methanol to spent bleaching earth ratio was 3.2:1 (gram of methanol: gram of SBE) and hexane to methanol ratio of 0.6:1 (volume of hexane: volume of methanol). © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved

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BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM JATROPHA CURCAS (L.) OIL OF NEPAL BY TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS

BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM JATROPHA CURCAS (L.) OIL OF NEPAL BY TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS

The highest percentage of the oil i.e. 58.3% was found in the seeds (Kernel) collected from Rolpa district. The physico-chemical parameters like moisture content, oil content, specific gravity, density, viscosity, refractive index, iodine value, saponification value and acid value (% Free Fatty Acid), were determined. Then extracted oil was converted into biodiesel by transesterification process with methanol using different concentration of alkali catalyst viz. 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% NaOH. The result showed that 1 % NaOH catalyst was found to be the most effective concentration producing 87% crude fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and 10% crude glycerol. Composition of FAME present in the biodiesel was identified by GC-MS method.

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Alkali Extraction of Kraft Pulp
Fibers: Influence on Fiber and Fluff Pulp Properties

Alkali Extraction of Kraft Pulp Fibers: Influence on Fiber and Fluff Pulp Properties

Fiber networks that have a high resistance to pressure in the wet state will retain more porosity when put under pressure. Consequently, the wet bulk under pressure of fiber networks is of importance in fluff pulp applications. The wet bulk of softwood kraft pulp networks are higher than the wet bulk of birch kraft pulp networks. These differences can be explained by the longer fiber length of the softwood pulp. The effect of alkali extraction on the wet bulk of softwood kraft pulps is minor, although the wet bulk tends to increase with increasing concentration of NaOH in the extraction. The birch kraft pulps show a different trend with a decrease at 2% alkali and then an increase with increasing alkali concentration. The differences are, however, minor, and for the most part within the experimental error. Nevertheless, it seems likely that the trend seen for the softwood kraft pulps is due to increased hornification, cf. Table IV. It can also be noted that alkali extraction of birch pulp with 8% NaOH yielded the highest wet bulk value. One consequence of

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Coccolithophores: functional biodiversity, enzymes and bioprospecting

Coccolithophores: functional biodiversity, enzymes and bioprospecting

Fifty two strains of Emiliania huxleyi, isolated from various geographical locations over a period of more than half a century were acquired from ‗in-house‘ and external culture collections (Table 1). All strains were screened for acid and alkali phosphodiesterase, acid and alkali phosphomonoesterase, EC1.1.1-type dehydrogenase, EC1.3.1-type dehydrogenase and carboxylesterase activity. In addition, strain CCMP2090 (a confirmed axenic strain which provides a useful ‗clean‘ system for studying viral infection dynamics) was infected with the coccolithovirus EhV-86, and following harvesting 72 h later (prior to mass viral induced cellular lysis) included with the other strains. All strains displayed at least residual enzymatic activity in all the screens performed, with all tested substrates (Tables 2–10).

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Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supportedcatalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand.A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilation, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical.

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Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supportedcatalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand.A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilation, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical.

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Promoting Effect of Inorganic Alkali on Carbon Dioxide Adsorption in Amine-Modified MCM-41

Promoting Effect of Inorganic Alkali on Carbon Dioxide Adsorption in Amine-Modified MCM-41

The thermal stability of amines and various inorganic alkali-modified MCM-41s was evaluated by TGA, and the curves are shown in Figure 3a,b. For TEPA-modified samples (as shown in Figure 3a), there are two main obvious weight loss processes in the curves. The first stage is from room temperature to 120 °C with a mass loss of around 3%, which is attributed to the moisture evolving, and the second stage from 120 °C to 400 °C with a loss of around 30% is due to the degradation of amines. The actual amine loadings can be determined by the weight loss of the second stage. The weight losses of four samples at this stage are comparable to each other at around 30%, which is lower than the calculated value of 40% added at impregnation. This may be caused by the amine volatilization during the drying process. The weight loss difference of four samples may be due to the tiny difference of combination force between amine and MCM-41 influenced by inorganic alkali species. The TGA curves of PEI modified samples in Figure 3b show that the initial decomposition temperature of PEI is above 200 °C, which is higher than TEPA. This indicates that PEI-modified adsorbents possess better thermal stabilities and can be applied for long-term use at relatively high temperatures compared to TEPA. Contrasting the curves of TEPA-modified samples in Figure 2a, the weight loss takes place in a narrower temperature range. The faster weight loss rate of PEI-modified samples confirms that PEI degrades more quickly than TEPA at temperature-programmed conditions. The importance of alkali loadings to CO 2 adsorption capacities has been confirmed by

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Effect Of Loaded Alkali Metals On The Structural, Basicity And Catalytic Activity Of Zeolite Beta

Effect Of Loaded Alkali Metals On The Structural, Basicity And Catalytic Activity Of Zeolite Beta

Cesium oxide is known as a strong base. Thus, a higher basicity is expected when cesium oxide was introduced into zeolite Beta. However, the results showed no significant increment in the basicity. This may be due to the small amount of the number of mole cesium used to impregnate the zeolites (even at 8% loading,). Nonetheless, the base strength was enhanced slightly by the small amount of cesium introduced into HBeta. This could be seen as a slight shift of desorption peak at ~260° towards higher temperature as the cesium loading is increased, as shown in Figure 6. In general, the number of basic sites created by the introduction of sodium into zeolite Beta framework is higher than potassium and cesium (Table 1), except for 8%w/w loading, which is slightly lower than sample K-8. Potassium is found to have a higher contribution to basicity strength in comparison to sodium, where it needs about 2-fold more amount of number of mole sodium in comparison to potassium in order to achieve the basicity (> 40 µmole/g) as contributed by potassium. The number of moles of CO 2 desorbed per mole of alkali metal was found to decrease as %w/w of the

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A Cr⁶⁺⁻ Free Extraction of Chromium Oxide from Chromite Ores Using Carbothermic Reduction in the Presence of Alkali

A Cr⁶⁺⁻ Free Extraction of Chromium Oxide from Chromite Ores Using Carbothermic Reduction in the Presence of Alkali

leaching steps. The first leaching step was performed with water by removing as much sodium- bearing compounds as possible from the non-magnetic fraction. This is essential for the process since, if most of the sodium is extracted at this point, the alkali can be recovered and recycled back into the process, which will then help decreasing the consumption of acid during acid leaching.

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Effect of Alkali Treatment on the Quality of Hemp Fiber

Effect of Alkali Treatment on the Quality of Hemp Fiber

hemp bast [10-11]. Although this treatment remarkably improves fiber quality [12-14], it gives rise to salient environmental pollution. Therefore, bioiological or physical processes are used to replace chemical processes in the production of hemp bast [15]. However, replacing chemical processes completely by a single biological or physical process cannot achieve the appropriate effects required in practical application [16], because hemp bast contains massive non-cellulose compositions. Hence, to date, alkali treatment is still the most direct and efficient way of improving hemp fiber quality.

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STABILITY STUDIES ON NICLOSAMIDE USING DERIVATIVE SPECTROSCOPIC AND CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS

STABILITY STUDIES ON NICLOSAMIDE USING DERIVATIVE SPECTROSCOPIC AND CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS

NA contains an unusual amide group which show high susceptibility to chemical degradation through hydrolysis due to the electrons withdrawing effect that exerted by the nitro- substituted aromatic ring and the two chloro substituents (Fig 2). The first derivative spectrophotometry and HPLC methods were applied as stability-indicating methods to study the effect of different conditions (pH, alkali and light) on the stability of NA.

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Alkali roasting of bomar ilmenite: rare earths recovery and physico-chemical changes.

Alkali roasting of bomar ilmenite: rare earths recovery and physico-chemical changes.

Abstract: In this work, the alkali roasting of ilmenite (FeTiO 3 ) is presented as a process route for integrated beneiciation of the mineral for rutile-rich phase and rare earth oxides; the latter is released as a consequence of physical changes in the ilmenite matrix, during the water leaching ater roasting. The oxidative alkali roasting transforms ilmenite mineral into water-insoluble alkali titanate and water-soluble ferrite. Ater roasting the insoluble alkali titanate is separated from rare- earth oxide mixture in colloidal form and water-soluble ferrite. Further leaching of alkali titanate is carried out with oxalic (0.3M) and ascorbic (0.01M) acid solution which removes the remaining Fe 2+ ions into the leachate

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Protonation Equilibria of L-Methionine and L-Cysteine in Cationic Micellar Media

Protonation Equilibria of L-Methionine and L-Cysteine in Cationic Micellar Media

0.4M of sodium hydroxide(Merck, India) and CTAB(Hi-media) were prepared. Sodium chloride(Merck, India) of 2.0 M was prepared to maintain the ionic strength in the titrand. Triple- distilled deionised water was used for preparation of all the solutions. The acid and base solutions were standardised by standard methods. To assess the errors that might have crept into the determination of the concentrations, the data were subjected to analysis of variance of one way classification (ANOVA) 16 . The strengths of alkali and mineral acid were determined using the Gran plot method 17,18 .

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Milk Alkali and Hydrochlorothiazide: A Case Report

Milk Alkali and Hydrochlorothiazide: A Case Report

In the milk-alkali syndrome, hypercalcemia develops because the input of calcium (dietary intake and intestinal absorp- tion) exceeds the output (primarily renal excretion). About 4 to 60 g/d of calcium carbonate has been reported to induce the milk-alkali syndrome, indicating that factors besides calcium intake contribute to the development of the milk-alkali syndrome [9]. Factors that can increase calcium input include increased dietary calcium intake, ingestion of supplemental calcium, enhanced intestinal absorption of calcium usually resulting from stimulation by vitamin D that is present in some calcium supplements, and other dietary factors. Calcium-containing compounds have also been shown to directly increase gastric acid secretion by stim- ulating the CaSR (calcium-sensing receptor) when ingested orally, which in turn increases the availability of free calcium for absorption [10, 11].

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Synthesise of ZnO Nano Particle as an Alternative Catalyst for Photocatalytic Degradation of Brilliant Red Azo Dye

Synthesise of ZnO Nano Particle as an Alternative Catalyst for Photocatalytic Degradation of Brilliant Red Azo Dye

These series of experiments illustrated that the degradation efficiency was inversely affected by the concentration (Fig. 7). The decrease in the degradation with an increase in dye concentration was ascribed to the equilibrium adsorption of dye on the catalyst surface which results in a decrease in the active sites. This phenomenon results in the lower formation of OH · radicals which were considered as primary oxidizing agents of the organic dye [22]. On the other hand, according to Beer-Lambert law: as the initial dye concentration increases, the path length of photons entering the solution decreases. This results in the lower photon absorption on the catalyst particles, and consequently decreases the photocatalytic reaction rate [23].

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PERFORMANCE OF ALKALI ACTIVATED SLAG WITH VARIOUS ALKALI ACTIVATORS

PERFORMANCE OF ALKALI ACTIVATED SLAG WITH VARIOUS ALKALI ACTIVATORS

Copyright to IJIRSET www.ijirset.com 386 Mr. Venkata Tilak Uppalapati received his MSc Structural Engineering (Eng) from Sheffield University, United Kingdom and B.Tech Civil Engineering from Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla. He is the only MSc student from India who got distinction in the year 2008 from „The Civil and Structural Engineering Department‟, Sheffield University, UK. He is currently Lecturer in the Department of Civil and Strutural Engineering, Bapatla Engineering College (Autonomous), Bapatla. Previously he worked as a Structural Design Engineer at Artefact Projects Limited. is research interests include alkali activation of Pozzolanic materials, static non-linear analysis, Alternative cementitious materials, Improving Ductility of Concrete by alternative materials.

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