Gymnopetalum cochinchinensis (LOUR) KURZ fruit is traditionally used by local practitioners of Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya for treating various types of ailments including diabetes. The aqueous extract of the fruits was tested for its hypoglycemic and anti- hyperglycemic effects in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity was observed to be dose- and time- dependent. The aqueous extract reduced blood glucose level 2 h following administration in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. In alloxan- induced diabetic mice, blood glucose was markedly reduced to 56% from that of control at 4 h, while in normal mice the blood glucose level was 59% from that of control. Maximum reduction was observed at 6 h in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Glucose tolerance was also improved in both normal and diabetic mice. The results were compared against those of insulin, glibenclamide, metformin, and the possible mechanism of action discussed.
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rat groups fed with samples containing higher amounts of tigernut had lower fasting blood glucose levels than those of the control group. This could be attributed to the fact that tigernut is a rich source of fibre [29,30]. Fibre has been reported to exert some hypoglycaemic effects in subjects with type II diabetes. It is also reported that arginine an amino acid (not determined) found in tigernut has the potential of stimulating the release of insulin thereby ameliorating the effect of diabetes . This could be one of the reasons for the lowered blood glucose levels after three days of consecutive feeding with the test diet. Several studies have shown that sorghum extracts and sorghum rich diets exert hypoglycaemic effects in either human subjects or lab animals, thus agreeing with the findings of this research [32,33].
From the present study we may conclude that PL extract, in totality, was effective in reducing the blood glucose level in dose dependent manner under our experiment conditions and the extract of the test drug was found to be safe for further biological studies as no behavioral changes and lethality were observed upto 1000 mg/kg, p.o. in mice, after 21 days of the experiment. This extract is having long duration glucose lowering action because maximum effect was observed upto 18 h. Further investigations should be carried out on the purification and identification of the antidiabetic components of PL extract and to elucidate the mechanism of hypoglycemic effect of the extract. The extract showed significant hypoglycemic activity without any side effect and can be a source of new herbal drug in pharmaceutical industry as such or investigating the bio-active constituents from the extract for improving the potency.
The present study evaluated the effect of two crude fruit extract EEMA & MEMA on aloxan induced diabetic mice and the results of the present investigation revealed that treatment with the Morus alba L. fruits significantly improve blood glucose tolerance. Due to the deleterious effects of diabetes on human body, there is an increasing interest in the development of preventive therapy for reducing various effectc of diabetes in human. Morus alba L. fruit is a safe natural antioxidant containing fruit and is found as a potential source of natural antioxidants
The mechanism of decreasing blood glucose levels in Ficus bengalensis is thought due to presence of a glycoside called leucopelargonidin in leaves, wound healing activity is due to enhanced wound contraction it would have either enhanced contractile property of myofibroblasts or increased the number of myofibroblasts recruited in the wound area, In Trigonella foenum-graecum foenum- fracecum is thought due to presence of insulin secretion stimulating compound 4- hydroxy isoleucine in seeds which decreasing blood glucose levels and wound healing activity is due to releases its anti- inflammatory properties and works to maintain the healing process and reduce the inflammation that is no longer needed as the wounds heals. Fenugreek seeds contain fatty acids which build collagen that is promoted wound healing and maintain skin elasticity [20,21].
An aqueous extract of pods of the plant at a dose of 250mg/kg of body weight significantly reduces blood glucose level in normal and alloxane induced diabetic rats. Cyamopsis tetragonoloba showed marginal antihyperglycemic effect on blood glucose level in normal fasted rats, however, the blood glucose lowering effect was significant in alloxane-induced hyperglycemic rats. The fall was seen at 1hr and remained up to 3hr after administration of extract. Sub acute treatment with aqueous extract of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba on alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats produced consistent reduction in blood glucose level. Authors suggest that; this effect can be attributed due to presence of flavanoids and other phenolics of the plant (Mukhtar et al, 2004).
Ethanolic extract of Putranjiva roxburghii (at 250 and 500 mg/kg) exhibited a dose dependent significant anti-hyperglycemic activity on 4th, 7th and 10th day post treatment. The extract dose of 100 mg/kg also caused reduction in blood glucose level but the results were found statistically insignificant. The antihyperglycemic effect of ethanol extract at was found less effective than the reference standard, Glibenclamide. Glibenclamide produced a significant reduction in blood glucose compare to diabetic control. The results are shown in the Table 1.
Rat treatment with alloxan (150 mg/kg/ip) caused a critical rise in glucose levels (250- 600 mg/dl) after three days of injection. It also caused a reduction in body weight and an increase in values of certain biochemical parameters, such as serum SGPT and creatinin. Alloxan didn’t affect the total cholesterol level. In the present study, we used the alloxan-induced diabetes in rat to investigate the effect of CS leave extract in normalizing the blood glucose level, the serum SGPT or ALT levels as a marker of safe liver function, the serum creatinin level as a marker of renal dysfunction, and the total cholesterol level and body weight increment. We investigated the effect of different single oral doses of CS leave extract in normalizing the blood glucose level in diabetic rats. The dose of 400 mg/kg/po had shown the most effectiveness in reducing the blood glucose concentration, so it was chosen in subsequent experiments. It reduced significantly the blood glucose concentration from 404.83±72.10 mg/dl to 239.5±50.73 mg/dl after 8 hours of diabetic rat treatment (p<0.05), and to 213.33±50 mg/dl after 24 hours of treatment (p<0.01, table 4).
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Group V: Alloxan (150mg/kg.ip)+Standard drug, Glibenclamide (5mg/kg, p.o). 2.8 Collection of Blood Sample and Determination of Blood Glucose level Blood samples were collected from tail tip of rat at an interval of 5 days till the end of study (i.e., 2 weeks). Estimation of Fasting blood glucose and body weight measurement carried out on day 1, 5, 10 and 14 of the experiment. Estimation of Blood glucose determined by one touch select simple electronic glucometer by glucose test strips.
DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2018.82005 50 Journal of Diabetes Mellitus Table 5 represents the proximate composition of the mixed spices. The analyses showed that, macronutrients such as carbohydrate, protein, fat were present in the mixed spices at satisfactory level in all cases. The carbohydrate content of the stipulated mixed spices was 52.34%, which is obviously an adequate amount in terms of spices. Therefore, surely, the sample will meet the daily requirement of carbohydrate. In case of fat content, it was found to have around 7.76% which is low in amount and good enough in all respects. Again, the dietary fiber content was satisfactorily high (30.51%) in the mixed spices which made the recipe unique as many studies showed beneficial effects of dietary fiber in diabetic sub- jects imparting the blood glucose level lowering capabilities and decreasing the glycemic index of foods . The levels of all other associated nutrients includ- ing protein were up to the mark.
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Aim: The present study was aimed to design the effect of poly herbal formulation against alloxan induced diabetic rats. The formulation was prepared by using three common herbal plants namely Alternanthera sessilis Linn., Amaranthus viridis Linn., and Boerhavia diffusa Linn., and glibenclamide as a standard. Methods: The rats were divided in to five groups each group comprising of five rats. The animals were grouped as: Group I-Normal control, Group II- Alloxan induced (150mg/kg b.wt), Group III- Alloxan + Poly Herbal Formulation (200mg/kg b.wt0, Group IV- Alloxan + Poly Herbal Formulation (400mg/kg b.wt) and Group V-glibenclamide (1mg/kg b.wt) for 30days. After the experimental period of 30 days, the blood and tissue samples were collected for preclinical trials. The parameter studied were fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, glucokinase, glucose -6- phosphatase, total protein, hepatic glycogen, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum urea and creatinine, lipid peroxide and superoxide dismutase. Results: Alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant increase in fasting blood glucose, glucose -6- phosphatase, serum urea and creatinine, serum cholesterol and triglycerides and lipid peroxide and it also decrease in serum insulin, glucokinase, serum protein, hepatic glycogen and superoxide dismutase. Oral administration of Poly herbal formulation restored the levels of biochemical parameters and the level of glucose metabolizing enzymes. Conclusion: From the above findings, suggested that the poly herbal formulation possess antidiabetic activity and it can be used as starting point for the development of herbal based novel drug against diabetes.
A freshly prepared solution of alloxan hydrate (Purchased from Spectrochem, PVT , Mumbai, India) in normal saline was injected into the caudal vein of inbred Wistar rats (70 mg/kg body wt), three times on every third day ([4). Seven days after administration, blood samples were drawn from the caudal vein by the pinch clip method. Animals with a blood sugar level of 250 mg/dL were considered to be diabetic and they were used in this study. The animals were divided into several groups and kept under uniform husbandry conditions. Blood glucose was determined by the O-toluidine method. The blood glucose concentrations were measured at 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 24h in Shimadzu UV 160 spectrophotometer at 620 nm. The blood glucose was calculated using the formula given below
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Antidiabetic activity of SA extract on normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats: The mean blood glucose concentration of control and different doses of S. anacardium extract treated animals were estimated on 0, 2, 6, 16, 24 hours respectively as shown in figure 1. In case of alloxan induced diabetic rats metformin reduced blood glucose level were significantly compared to diabetic control rats. The blood sugar levels in rats of Group DSA100, Group DSA 200 and Group DSA 400 were lowered after 2, 6, 16, 24 hours of treatment and the effects were dose-dependent. Group DSA 200 and Group DSA 400 rats showed significant glucose lowering efficacy between hours 2- 16 and were comparable to group diabetic standard.
Present study was designed to evaluate hypoglycaemic effect of aqueous extracts of Benincasa hispida stem. Rabbits of either sex weighing 2 – 2.5 kg were included in the study. Alloxan monohydrate was given 120mg/kg i.p. to induce experimental diabetes. The animals with fasting blood glucose levels 200-250mg/dl were included in the study. The animals were divided into five groups. Group one and two received 1ml of normal saline (negative control), 0.5mg/kg of glibenclamide (Positive control) and the other three groups were received graded doses of aqueous extract of test drug (Benincasa Hispida) i.e., 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg respectively. The glucose estimation was done by a glucometer (Accu-Chek, Roche Diagnostics, USA) and the blood was obtained by puncturing marginal vein of the rabbit’s ear. The extracts showed dose-dependent significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the blood glucose levels, when compared with that of the control rabbits. The most effective percentage reductions in blood glucose level were observed at 200mg/kg. From the experimental findings, it is possible to conclude that aqueous extracts of Benincasa hispida studied exhibited promising hypoglycaemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.
Methanolic extracts of leaves at dose of 500 mg/kg exhibited significant and consistent (p<0.001) reduction in blood glucose levels in normoglycemic euglycemic rats and alloxan induced diabetic rats at 4 hr and was maximum at the end of 6 hr. This effect is comparable to that produced by standard drug, Glipizide (5 mg/kg b.wt). Muntingia calabura L. leaf extract (500 mg/kg b.wt) is well tolerated and markedly reduced the progressively elevated blood glucose levels in glucose loaded rats. The hypoglycemic effect was significantly (P<0.001) pronounced from 60 to 90 min when compared to control group. This indicates that the extract may be acting by direct stimulation of existing ß-cells to release insulin or increase the glucose uptake. Our investigations revealed that the Muntingia calabura L. leaf extract effectively regulated the blood glucose levels in normal euglycemic rats and alloxan induced diabetic rats indicating the presence of antidiabetic activity.
Hypoglycaemic activity of drugs, including the products instead of conventionally used albino rabbits, and their derived from medicinal plants, is conventionally assessed in suitability for serving as experimental animal models for diabetic animal models by observing drug-induced fall in the above stated purpose was evaluated. Sub-optimal fasting blood glucose (FBG) or suppression of glucose doses of alloxan were injected intravenously for inducing tolerance curve. Diabetes is induced experimentally by beta cell destruction partially. The course of partial or total pancreatectomy, exposure to antiislet cell hyperglycaemic state was carefully monitored and changes antibodies, but most commonly by injecting chemical agents, in body weight recorded. It was observed that the low such as alloxan or streptozotocin, that cause widespread dose alloxanated Angora rabbits showed increased destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells 1 . feeding behaviour, gained weight rapidly, leading to
The different extracts of the roots of Bruguiera gymnorhiza (Family- Rhizophoraceae) were tested for anti-diabetic activity, by glucose tolerance test in normal rats and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Aqueous ethanol and butanol extracts had shown significant protection and lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in glucose tolerance test. In alloxan induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after 3h at a dose level of 250 mg/kg of body weight. The percentage protections by aqueous ethanol and butanol extracts were 30 and 48% respectively. In long term treatment of alloxan induced diabetic rats, the degree of protection was determined by measuring blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and urea levels on 0,3,5,7 and 10th day. Both the extracts showed a significant anti- diabetic activity comparable with that of glibenclamide. The histopathological studies during the long-term treatment have shown to ameliorate the biochemical damages caused by alloxan. These results indicate that the B. gymnorhiza root possess significant anti -diabetic activity.
The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effects of aqueous-methanol (40:60) extract of Solanum xanthocarpum whole plant (Sx) were investigated in normoglycemic, glucose fed, and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In normoglycemic rats, the powdered extract of Sx, administered at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w x 1 p.o. resulted in reduction of blood glucose level by 10.55% and 12.83% respectively. In glucose fed diabetic rats, the reduction of blood glucose level was also achieved dose dependently and significantly compared to the vehicle control group. In another experiment, powdered Sx extract was administered daily at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg p.o., for 7 days, after alloxan administration (150 mg/kg i.p.). The treatment showed significant dose-dependent percentage blood glucose lowering in the diabetic rats. This effect of Sx was comparable to that of a reference standard drug, glibenclamide (10 mg/kg b.w p.o. x 7). Additionally, the Sx plant extract also had potent antihyperlipidaemic activity and was found to improve the lipid levels of alloxan induced diabetic rats at the end of the treatment period. Phytochemical screening of the Solanum xanthocarpum total plant extract showed the presence of spirosta-steroidal saponins, amino acids, phytosterols, flavonoids, glycoalkaloids, tannins and tarpenoids, many of which were previously unreported and now contributed to the bioactivity of Sx.
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Each ethanolic extract used in this study possessed active compounds that were well-reported to reduce blood glucose level. Furthermore, herbal extract combination showed synergistic effect in lowering blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, even at 200 mg/kgBW (lowest dose in the study). However, the dose used to achieve the optimum effect was obtained at dose of 800 mg/kg BW.Therefore, the next step is to fractionate and purify the extracts so that the dose of the combination can be reduced. Combination of ethanolic extracts of A. paniculata and A. indica provides various anti-diabetic compounds. The diversity of active compounds in the herbal extract comination may synergistically increase antihyperglycemic effect and may give an alternative in diabetes therapy. However, exploration related to the mechanism of action of each active compound from ethanolic extract remains to be elucidated.
Blood Glucose Levels of Alloxan Induced Pancreotoxicity: The methanolic extract exhibited significant (p<0.01) anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and improved the condition of Diabetes mellitus as indicated by parameters like body weight & lipid profile along with serum creatinine, serum urea and serum alkaline phosphatase.