Finally, M. J. Jweeg, K. K. Resan, A. M. Takhakh and other researchers in (2011 to 2017), [11-23], presented various investigations for friction stir welding and friction stir processing, in addition to the investigation different rotation speed and other parameters effects on the friction stir welding strength, fatigue, residual stresses, optimization conditions of friction stir welding, and other characterizations. The investigation included the evaluation the mechanical tensile strength, fatigue characterizations, temperature effect on microstructure, and other characterizations for friction stir welding with different effect of rotation speed of tool and feed speed influence, in addition to the other parameters effects. Different techniques were used to analyze the friction stir welding for various alloymaterials using experimental and numerical techniques. Also, the studied cases showed that the best rotation speed and other parameters effects gave the best values of properties and behavior for friction stir welding. In the field of the presented work showed that the researchers investigated the effect of different friction stir processing parameters on the mechanical properties, fatigue behavior, residual stress, and other characterizations of friction stir welding. The researchers works did not cover the investigation of the temperature effects on the fatigue characterizations of friction stir welding with various rotation speeds. In this work, the effect of different temperatures on the fatigue strength and life for friction stir welding with various rotation speeds are achieved through experimental and numerical techniques by using finite element technique with Ansys program, and then, a comparison study of the fatigue results is carried out.
Abstract: In present days’ efficiency plays a vital role in power generating applications like thermal industries, especially in marine applications. Actually the stage one turbine buckets tends to many failures like cracks due to heavy thermal stresses. So the main objective is to reduce these stresses and to improve the ability of turbine blade material by selecting alloymaterials. In this work, structural and thermal analysis is carried out for the gas turbine blade, which is used in aero plane and marine application for power generation and propelling. The alloymaterials studied in present work for gas turbine blades are titanium alloy, super alloy and Mnemonic alloy etc.
This study considers the effect of static and thermal stress on connecting rods that are manufactured from four different materials (Aluminum alloy 7068 T6, Aluminum alloy 7050 T7651, Carbon steel C-40 and Forged steel 4340) for Toyota Hilux 2.5L 2kd engine automotive. The investigation is performed using FEM (ANSYS R-19 commercially available software), to recommend better performance materials that have good fatigue resistance and higher fatigue life with less weight.
In This Paper We Have Made A Comparative Study Between Sma’s And Other Generally Used Materials Or Alloys, And Presented Simple Designs Some Medical Applications Of Sma. This Also Discusses About Conventional Bone Plate Used To Repair Jaw Fracture And Explain How Even A Badly Fractured Face Can Be Reconstructed Using Bone-Plates , The Use Of Sma’s In The General Applications Like Robotic Gripper And Aircraft Maneuverability. Finally, From The Comparative Study Of Smas And Other Conventional Alloys We Have Proved That Smas Are Superior To Them In Feasibility, Reliability And Biocompatibility Points Of View.
Materials with much higher theoretical specific capacity such as Sn, Si, Sb, Al, and Ge have been studied . Among these materials, Sn-based materials attract attention of many researchers. However, the great volume fluctuation of pure Sn phase during charge and discharge cycling worsen its performance and shorten its duration [3, 4]. Two main approaches namely alloying and structure designing have been adopted to improve the performance of the Sn-based materials. It was found that alloying Sn with some inert metallic components such as Ni [5, 6], Cu [7, 8], Co [9, 10] can improve the cycling performance of Sn-based materials to a certain extent. Otherwise, both theoretical and experimental analysis proved that reducing particle size of Sn phase increases the active area, improves transport of electrolyte, and accelerates reaction rate [9, 11, 12]. But aggregation of nanoparticles usually deteriorates the electrode rapidly during charge-discharge cycling . Some researchers turn their attention to porous materials due to their large active area, more room for volume change, higher conductivity and no aggregation.
boundaries with above additives. Literature only made discrete references on above method of quenching and an in depth study is yet to be carried out. This paper attempts to investigate the effect of variation quenching parameters like temperature of quenching, media of quenching with special reference to addition of different percentages of cow and sheep urine in the conventional quenching media, cooling rate, addition of additives etc. The metallurgical microstructure and mechanical properties are experimentally obtained and recorded. Various conclusions are drawn based on the experimental results. Various minerals and metals present in the cow and sheep urine are homogenously mixed. The presence of sodium relieves residual stresses resulting in improved mechanical properties [6,7]. Further addition of alloying elements will improve the mechanical properties . Tensile strength, yield strength, hardness, toughness, etc are some of the mechanical properties observed at different quenching parameters together with the microstructure for each case. Basically quenching is a heat treatment process used for improving the mechanical properties of the components. Once the Al alloy has been heated to the recommended temperature and quenched at a rapid rate, a supersaturated solution forms between the
2000 Series Aluminum Alloys: Principal alloying element is copper with minor additions of manganese and magnesium. This series of aluminum is the original heat treatable alloy group developed in the 1920's. The best known, most widely used heat treatable alloy for aircraft and aerospace is 2024. Can be spot and friction welded but not fusion welded (a few exceptions being tank structures in the Titan Missile). Has good formability in the annealed temper condition and some formability in the solution treated and aged condition, but needs intelligent application in complex designs. Has excellent fatigue properties when compared to other aluminum alloys, excellent strength to weight ratio. Good machinability. Poor resistance to corrosion without alclad layer or secondary chem film, anodize and/or prime and paint. Can be chem film and anodized readily. Other 2000 series alloys include 2017 seen widely in aluminum rivets, fasteners and screw machine parts and 2014 which is used heavily in forgings. These three alloys, 2024, 2014, and 2017 can be considered the foundations of aluminum aircraft, missiles and space vehicles during these past 75 years. 3000 Series Aluminum Alloys: 3003 is the most widely used of all aluminum alloys when measured in thousands of tons per year. It is essentially commercially pure aluminum with the addition of manganese which increases its strength about 20% over the 1100 series aluminum. Normally not heat treatable. A popular alloy in this group is 3003, which is used as a general purpose alloy for moderate strength applications requiring good formability. Applications include home, recreational, commercial and light industrial. Not normally seen for
The wheel is a part that enables efficient movement of an object across a surface where there is a force pressing the object to the surface. The spoke wheel rim assembly contributes the major weight addition in motorcycle after engine. To overcome this disadvantage alloy wheels are invented. While comparing all alloymaterials aluminium alloy is the best of other alloymaterials. The automotive industry faces increasing pressure to maximize performance while minimizing weight and cost to produce more fuel efficient vehicles.
Selection of alloy for industrial service at high temperatures is based on either iron, nickel or cobalt. In iron base systems, both high temperature strength and oxidation capability are increased with increase in Cr content. Low alloy ferritic steels are limited to temperatures below about 650°C. This temperature limit can be raised to 750°C by using higher Cr contents but the service temperature of ferritic steels cannot be pushed much higher. Austenitic stainless steels show appreciable increase in operating temperature AISI 316 with 18% Cr (<900°C) or AISI 310 with 25%Cr (<1050°C). AISI 301S superalloy stainless steel possesses remarkable strength properties with the strength remaining almost constant over a temperature range as wide as -273 to 1000°C (Table 1). Type 310S alloy is useful where intermittent heating and cooling are encountered, because it forms a more adherent scale. Type 310 is used for parts such as superheated tubes, firebox sheets, furnace linings, boilers, baffles, thermocouple wells, aircraft cabin heaters and jet engine burner liners [Gleeson (2004), Safarzadeh (2018); Liu et al (2019); Majumdar et al (2001)].
The as-deposited Sn-Ni alloy coating is silvery white and the surface of the coating is very bright. After electrochemical dissolution, the surface color became black. It can be observed from SEM result that much pores with different size formed in electrochemical dissolution process. Figure 2 shows typical views of the as-deposited Sn–Ni alloys and the porous Sn-Ni alloys. The SEM of A1, B1 and C1 demonstrate that the as-deposited Sn-Ni alloys are firm with some bumps about 1 μm. The porous structure of as-deposited Sn-Ni alloys after electrochemical dissolution can be proved by SEM of A2, B2 and C2.
The methodology used for this study is shown in the flow diagram in Fig. 1. The sample was first prepared to Abstract: This paper presents the fracture behaviour of magnesium alloy (AZ31B) with the reinforcement of carbon-nanotube (CNT) and lead subjected ballistic impact. Magnesium alloys are material that can absorb impact energy, however the absorption energy can be increased with the alloy reinforcement with nano-partial. This paper leads to two parts which are experiment and simulation of gas gun. The projectile used was a cone-nose type with diameter of 11 mm made by steel series 1006. The simulation used Cowper-Symonds model to see material behaviour with 25 mm thickness. The correlation of the experiment and simulations was evaluated to see the accuracy of simulations made. It was shown that the value of R2 was 0.9588 where simulation can be used to predict the ballistic impact on 600 m/s velocity. From the simulation results, it was found that the depth of penetration for Magnesium alloy AZ31B reinforced with CNT and Pb showed good agreement findings. The depth of penetrations onto the simulation were obtained between 15 to 25 mm. The added reinforcement materials provide a reduction in the depth of penetration of 40% compared to the original Magnesium alloy AZ31B. Thus, this type of magnesium alloy reinforced with CNT and Pb is suitable for ballistic resistant panel with weight saving determination on armoured vehicle.
robust, meaning that similar reliability can be expected from the predictions as would be expected from creep rupture models. The best feature is, however, that this is accomplished utilizing a minimum amount of data. Some of the strain models presented have been verified with creep data withheld from the initial model optimization. Deliberate aim of keeping the modeling tools simple will hopefully make them more attractive to the design engineer and the life management expert. The simplicity, accuracy and robustness in prediction are in itself the driving force and ultimate aim of this work. Table 4 shows the method of Life Fraction Rule (LFR) calculations. Though routine method, it was applied for completeness of research on this alloy.
An optical microphotograph and the EBSD map of the extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy are shown in Fig. 2. The material has almost equiaxed grains but a few elongated grains paralleled to extruded direction. The fraction of the boundaries with rotation angle more than 15 degree is 0.7, then an average grain size is 15 mm. It is interesting to note that the deformation mechanism at 473 K and 10 2 s 1 in the present alloy with the grain size is corresponded to a region
The present investigation showed that with appropriate choice of pre-strain conditions, it is possible to attain the microstructural stability in ZK60 magnesium alloy. It is expected that the change in precipitation process results in the microstructural stability. This change will occur under a certain accumulated strain prior to aging. In order to clarify the eﬀect of pre-strain on microstructural stability, chemical composition of each precipitate in the materials processed by schedules A and B D was analyzed using TEM-EDS.
5251 5251 is a medium strength non-heat treatable alloy which is often used as an alternative to 5052 although because of its lower magnesium content its mechanical properties are slightly lower. It has excellent corrosion resistance and weldability.
portion of the cycle. Since alloy 617 and alloy 230 have the same Face-centered Cubic (FCC) crystal structure as austenitic stainless steels, similar creep-fatigue response could be found for these two alloys. Indeed, Figure 2.9 demonstrates that holding only in the tension portion of the cycle led to extensive material damage and drastically reduced fatigue life for alloy 617. Besides, the length of hold time also has a strong influence on the material fatigue life as shown in Figure 2.9 for alloy 617 and Figure 2.12 for alloy 230. The fatigue life showed a monotonic decrease with increasing hold time and in some cases hold time effect would saturate, namely no future reduction in fatigue life with additional increase in the hold time . During the hold time, stress relaxation is usually found as shown in Figure 2.13 and Figure 2.14 for alloy 617 and alloy 230, respectively [16-17]. The stress relaxation results in the development of creep strain, and increases the accumulated strain in the crack-tip region. This would cause intergranular crack growth and accelerate the propagation of fatigue crack, leading to shorter fatigue life . The underlying reason for the reduced fatigue life in creep-fatigue testing is rather complex. In general the fatigue life is influenced by the following factors: test temperature, test environment, the fatigue waveform, the imposed total strain range, and the duration of hold time, etc.
The counter example clearly violates the invariant, since after execution of the operation, domNext’ contains nil, which contradicts one of the conjuncts in the invariant. Returning to the specification of append, it is fairly easy to spot the error. The part of the specification which deals with the case when the list is not empty describes what should be the value of the list next1 at all the links in the domain of next and also at the new link ll we have added. This condition does not exclude, however, that next1 can have other links. Thus, the Alloy constraint analyser is free to introduce nil into the domain of next1, which violates StateInv. To fix the problem, we additionally need to state that the list next1 should only be larger than next by one element ll:
To ensure safety conditions for the test based on university regulations. Due to availability of materials since walls of the lab are not bulletproof. The main aim of the project is to confirm concept that shear thickening fluid improves resistance against bullets. As a result of difference in weight of the bullet and shooting distance, the obtained kinetic energy for 9 mm tool steel bullet is different from kinetic energy of real 9 mm FMJ bullet (Type II-A) which is normally set to be 556.516 ± 0.324 J (National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 2008).