Abstract: Natural plant extracts are a cost-effective and environmental friendly alternative to synthetic plant growth regulators and phytohormones. The present in vitro study investigated the promotory activity of various concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 40 mL/L) of Aloe vera leaf extract (ALE) on the growth of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × Populus tremuloides "Michx") clone T89 and aspen (Populus tremula L.) clone W52. The extract isolated from Aloe vera leaves increased the plant height and weight, number of shoots, leaves and roots, and the root length, as well as mineral concentrations of both Populus clones. The rooted plants were acclimatized in the greenhouse with 90% survival. The results showed that ALE is an efficient alternative source to improve the growth of both Populus clones under study.
High purity cuprous oxide nanoparticles were prepared successfully by the reaction between Aloe vera leaf extract and Benedict’s solution. According to results of diffuse reflectance spectra and particle size analyzer, it was suggested to stop the reaction just after observing the brick- red small particles in green colored colloidal suspension in order to obtain cuprous oxide particles with average size of 90 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X- ray diffraction patterns and EDX proﬁle further confirmed the formation and purity of cuprous oxide nanoparticles by this novel biosynthesis method using Aloe vera Leaf extract and Benedict’s solution. As stated by the scanning electron microscopy, it was revealed out that these nanoparticles were further agglomerated with nanospheres about 5-10 nm which can be attributed to an antibacterial effect. According to the antibacterial sensitivity test by disk diffusion method, it was found that synthesized cuprous oxide nanoparticles have a great antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (Gram negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive) even at lower concentrations (0.3 mg/μl-0.6 mg/μl). According to results obtained from the present study, these synthesized nanoparticles could be a powerful eco-friendly, rapid and effective antibacterial agent against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and a potential use in pharmaceutical and medical applications as disinfectant agents and active ingredient for dermatological applications after conﬁrming either its biosafety or toxicity.
The Aloe vera has been used as traditional medicine for past several years for the treatment of various ailments. Modulatory effects of Aloe vera leaf extract against radiation –induced changes in terms of histological alterations in testes, reduced Glutathione(GSH), Lipid per oxidation(LPO), Acid and Alkaline phosphatase levels in Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs. and 21 days. There was lesser damage to testes tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and leydig’s cells in irradiated animals. Correspondingly, a significant decrease in the LPO and an increase in the GSH level were observed in testes, liver and blood of Aloe vera pre-treated irradiated mice. Similarly, a significant decrease in level of acid phosphatase and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed. The study suggests that Aloe vera plant extract has significant radioprotective effects on testes that warrants further mechanistic studies aimed at identifying the role of major ingredients in the extract.
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The experimental rats in group I and groups III - VI orally received 5 ml/kg b.w of DW and graded levels Aloe vera extract (100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg b.w i.p) respectively, for 7 consecutive days. Rats in group II was administered with indomethacin (10 mg/kg b.w s.c. (sub- cutaneous)). After one hour, on the first and the third day of the experimental period, the rats were injected with 0.1 ml of 2% formaldehyde into the foot pad of the left hind paw 14 . On the first day, and third day paw oedema was measured using a micrometer screw gauge (Sterling Manufacturing Co., SMC 20326, India) an hour before and after formaldehyde injection. On other days paw oedema was measured daily an hour after the treatment with the test extracts. The percentage inhibition of inflammation was calculated as in the Carrageenan- induced rat paw oedema.
Aloe barbadensis (Mill.) belongs to family Lilliaceae and commonly known as Aloe vera. Aloe leaf contains two basic components, pulp (gel) and latex. Aloe gel is a clear mucilaginous substance produced by parenchymal cells located in central region of the leaf. AG is composed mainly of water (99%) and mono and polysaccharides (25% of dry weight of the gel). The most common monosaccharide in AG is mannose -6-phosphate and most common polysaccharides are called gluco-mannans 14 . The prominent gluco-mannon is named as acemannan. AG significantly stimulates collagen synthesis in dermal wound in rats 15 . Mannose-6 phosphate was found to be responsible in wound healing in man 16 . Thereafter, various biological properties of Aloe have been reported by several workers. Topically applied Aloe gel can help in healing of radiation burns 17 .
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This research used A. vera leaf extract that for know effectiveness of A. vera leaf extract to mortality Aedes sp larvae Instar III and IV. A. vera leaves can act as insecticides and larvacides without damaging other organisms and the environment due to the content of secondary metabolite compounds which are toxic substances to mosquito larvae . To find out the secondary metabolite content of A. vera leaf extract must do phytochemical screening  was performed the qualitative test showed A. vera contains alkaloid compound, glycoside, saponin, tannin, and flavonoid (Table 1). Pedro et al. and Ramesh et al. also performed secondary metabolite screening on A. vera extracts and secondary metabolites which may be alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and glycosides. These compounds synergize and cause death in Aedes sp larvae [20,21].
Aloe vera (L.) BURM. fil. (synonym A. barbadensis MILLER) (Liliaceae), is a perennial succulent plant be- longing to the Aloeaceae family, a sub-family of the As- phodelaceae . The plant is composed of turgid green leaves joined at the stem in a rosette pattern. Each leaf consists of an outer green rind (skin) and an inner clear pulp (gel) contained water soluble and fat-soluble vita- mins, minerals, enzymes, polysaccharides, phenolic com- pounds and organic acids . Studies have reported that Aloe vera gel has many activity including anti-inflamma- tory , antibacterial, antioxidant , hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties [5,6], and also exert diverse pharmacological and therapeutic activities . As source of synergistic bioactive compounds, it includes anthra- quinones, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, vitamins and enzymes . In addition several works reported on the effect of consumption of Aloe vera gel on gastric ulcer,
Oxidative stress that leads to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and finally cellular lipid peroxidation has been found to play an important role in the development of diabetes mellitus.  Lipid peroxidation one of the cellular features of chronic diabetes. In diabetes, it is thought that hypoinsulinemia increases the activity of the enzyme such as fatty acyl coenzyme-a oxidase, which initiates beta-oxidation of fatty acids, resulting in lipid peroxidation.  Increased lipid peroxidation impairs membrane function by decreasing membrane fluidity and changing the activity of membrane-bound enzymes and receptors.  Moreover, lipid peroxide-mediated tissue damage has been observed in the development of both type-I and II diabetes mellitus and insulin secretion is closely associated with lipoxygenase-derived peroxides. The increased lipid peroxidation leads to cellular infiltration and islet cell damage in type-I diabetes In view of the importance of lipid peroxides in diabetic stress, lipid peroxidation was studied in the present investigation with respect to plant extracts treated, diabetic (Alloxan induced) and diabetic rats with plant extract treatment.
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18. Elissondo MC, Albani CM, Gende L, Eguaras M, Denegri G. Efficacy of thymol against Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces. Parasitology international. 2008;57(2):185-90. 19. Al–azawi BM, Al-Marsome HT, Al-Basheer NM. Evaluation the activity of myrtus communis and Nigella. Sativa plant extract on the vitality of Echinococcus protoscolices in vitro study. Iraqi J of Science 2011; 52(2): 149-55.
The use of natural products such as chitosan and natural dyes for antimicrobial finishing of textile materials has been widely reported. Other natural herbal products, such as Aloe Vera, tea tree oil, Eucalyptus oil and tulsi leaf (Ocimumbasilicum) extracts, can also be used for this purpose. There is a vast source of medicinal plants with active antimicrobial ingredients. Although, there are many natural products rich in antimicrobial agents, the study on their use in textiles is very limited and not well documented. The relatively lower incidence of adverse reactions of herbal products as compared to modern synthetic pharmaceuticals, coupled with their reduced cost, can be exploited as an attractive ecofriendly alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents for textile applications. Recent developments on plant based bioactive agents have opened up new avenues in this area of research. Most of the papers in this area concentrate on the technical details of applying individual natural agents, such as Neem extracts, natural dyes, chitosan, and other herbal products (tulsi, Aloe Vera, tea tree oil, etc.) on textile substrates and their testing. This paper comprehensive critical review on the natural product based antimicrobial finishing agents for application on textiles has been reported. 
DOI: 10.4236/aces.2017.74025 335 Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science properties that control the entrapment efficiency (EE) and the time releases of the bioactive compound. Nanoparticles synthesize with polymers such as Poly (Lactic co-Glycolide Acid) were reported to have a high EE due to its molecular structure that is associated to its active sites . An EE of 47.6% and 38.9% for cinnamon bark extract loaded in PLGA-50 and PLGA-65 NP, respectively was reported by Hill et al. . Peng et al.  also reported about 80% time release of plant oil curcumin encapsulated with PF127 micelles during 6-h period at 37˚C. The control release of active compounds is govern by Fick’s law of diffu- sion, when a species of bioactive entrapped at specific site (initial position) mi- grates through a polymeric a matrix to the surface and subsequent release into the medium surrounding the NP , hence influenced the concentration dif- ferences combined with electrokinectic and other physical properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and the controlled release of bioactive components derived from Aloe vera gel loaded PLGA NP.
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ABSTRACT: Nano-sized ZnO particles of specific morphology were synthesized using the plant leaf extracts of Aloe vera. In modern science Nanotechnology is an ablaze field for the researchers. Nanoparticles having a size of 1-100 nm in one dimension are used significantly concerning medical chemistry, atomic physics and all other known fields. Nanoparticles are used immensely due to its small size, orientation, physical properties, which are reportedly shown to change the performance of any other material which is in contact with these tiny particles. The biological approach is the most emerging approach of preparation, because, this method is easier than the other methods, eco-friendly and less time consuming. The semiconductor ZnO has gained substantial interest in the research community in part because of its large exciton binding energy 60 meV which could lead to lasing action based on exciton recombination even above room temperature. The Green synthesis was done by using the methanol of Aloe vera extract and zinc oxide. A fixed ratio of plant extract to metal ion was prepared and the color change was observed which proved the formation of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV- vis Spectrophotometer, FTIR Analysis, XRD, and SEM .
There are more than 250 species of aloe develop around the over in world. Be that because it may, fair two species are created nowadays mechanically, with Aloe barbadensis Mill operator and Aloe aborescens being the foremost prevalent. The Aloe Vera plant is developed in warm tropical domains and cannot survive setting temperatures. It is an evergreen never-ending creating to 0.8 m by 1 m at a moderate rate. The plants slant toward light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soil requires all around drained soil can create in healthfully destitute soil. The plant slants toward destructive, nonpartisan and fundamental (fundamental) soil. It can't create in shade. It requires dry or clammy soil and can persevere dry spell. They are xerophytic plant. It can be multiplied by seed. Youthful equalization are planted within the soil after the whirling season in lines organized at a separation of 60m.In the moment year takes off are gathered by nearby individuals by ensuring their hands in light of the prickly strategy for takes off. The clears out are cut near to the base, kept inside light fuel tins and taken them to a central spot for the course of action of aloe. Juice of aloe is accessible in parenchymatous cells of pericycle that are cement cell. In a single section point cement cells apply.  USES
Candida albicans strains was used in this study. The stationery phase culture of C.albicans MTCC 183 contain about 1×10 8 CFU/ml. We next assessed the zone of inhibition of various extracts of Aloe vera : pet ether, Ethyl acetate, Chloroform and MeOH. At the concentration of 100 mg/ml, zone of inhibition was (10.50mm±0.577, 11.50mm±0.577, 13.75mm±0.500 and 16.25mm±0.500), at 150mg/ml (11.75mm±0.500, 13.50mm±0.577, 15.25mm±0.500 and 16.75mm±1.893), at 200mg/ml (13.25mm±0.500, 15.25mm±0.500, 16.75mm±0.500 and 21.50mm±0.577 and at 250mg/ml (16.25mm±0.500, 17.50mm±0.577, 19.50mm±0.577 and 23.75mm±0.500) for pet ether, Ethyl acetate, Chloroform and MeOH extracts respectively. Vernier calliper was used for the measurement of zone of inhibition. Increase in concentration was directly proportional to the increase in zone of inhibition. Antifungal effect of Aloe Vera may vary according to the solvent. In our study, the antifungal property of methanolic extract of Aloe Vera was more potent than other solvent extract as it has shown maximum inhibitory activity out of 4 different extracts of Aloe vera.
Histological observation under microscope, using eosin-haemotoxylin stain, clearly shows the defective architecture of seminiferous tubules within the testis of Aloe vera treated animals. The lumens of seminiferous tubules were also found to be reduced, indicating their compressed and bounded disorientation, whereas the same were radially oriented in control testis. Similarly,  demonstrated the histological damage s in the semiferous tubuls and Lyding cells of Aloe vera –treated mice. so, the altered architecture of semiferous tubuls in Aloe vera group of animals is very well correlated to the damaged membrane proteins and lipids. These finding suggest that Aloe vera extract has complimentary potency to develop an antihyperglycemic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Further studies are in progress
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of tomatoes is also known to be caused by the same fungus [18,19]. All the extracts except S2 had significant inhibition on the mycelial growth of the fungus. The inhibitory effect of the ethanolic extracts from A. vera was more when compared to other extracts. One can, therefore, say that ethanol was more efficient in the extraction of phytochemicals which are effective against the fungus. This is in line with the claim that the amount of an active ingredient in an extract is a principal function of the solubility of the active ingredient, which in turn is influenced by the type of solvent used in the extraction . This is the underlying factor responsible for the variation of efficacy in assayed extracts [21,20]. EA at 50mg/ml exhibited the greatest effect against the fungus. This is in consonance with the discovery made when the extract of Aloe vera was tested against pathogenic species of genus Alternaria . The inherent ability to induce a toxic effect on mycelial growth and proliferation of these fungi was said to be responsible for the efficacy of A. vera extract . The presence of alkaloid which was found to be more in A. vera extract could also be responsible for this. One of the major properties of alkaloids is their toxicity against the cells of foreign organisms . Extracts of A. schweinfurthii also inhibited the growth of the
Our findings demonstrated that administration of aloe vera extract provided beneficial effects on long term diabetic neuropathy via improving tibial nerve histomorphological alterations in its fibers. The most common abnormality observed in the present study was folding of the myelin sheath within the field of axoplasmic neurological disorders, which was directly related to increased age of the diabetics. Based on the findings of this study it could be concluded that diabetes causes considerable histologic and histometric changes in tibial nerve tissue.
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The Figure-3 shows that the more the addition of Aloe vera gel extract, the higher the density level of lotion obtained. The graph is written in a first-order linear equation, in which x-axis (horizontal line) is the percentage of Aloe vera gel extract and y-axis (vertical line) is the density level of the lotion. Based on the graph of the effect of Aloe vera gel extract percentage on the density level of lotion, a simple regression equation is obtained by y = 0.2181x + 1.4272. The increase in the percentage of addition indicates an increase in density level. Therefore, the higher percentage of Aloe vera gel extract addition, the higher the density level of lotion that is obtained. In the above figure, the coefficient of determination is R 2 = 0.9096 and R = 0.9537. The square root is the correlation, as the correlation coefficient between the concentration of Aloe vera gel extract and density level of lotion is 0.9537. This indicates a strong relationship between the two variables. Then, the coefficient of determination is 90.96% of density level of lotion that is affected by the percentage of Aloe vera gel extract added to the formulation.
Several in vivo and in vitro assays had been carried out on A. vera latex; the analysis had shown some adverse side effect after consuming the chemical compounds present in the latex such as aloin, danthron, emodin, and aloe-emodin. These chemical components produced a carcinogenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic effect (Guo & Mei, 2016). In salmonella assay, the genotoxicity of anthraquinone derivatives was observed but, the clinical importance of the experimental results was not clear enough. Another side effect of a laxative drug like rhubarb or Senna includes abdominal pain, cramps, meteorism, haemorrhoid congestion, flatulence, and urine coloration become reddish if the pH is alkaline or becomes orange if acidic (Mukherjee et al., 2013). Overdose can result in watery diarrhoea or bloody diarrhoea with mucus leading to haemorrhagic gastritis and electrolyte imbalance, vomiting and nephritis (Mukherjee et al., 2013). Also, it will lead to hypokalaemia that cause decreasing in colonic movement while sodium loss can end up in secondary hyperaldosteronism which lead to muscular weakness, steatorrhea, mental disturbance, kidney dysfunction, impaired autoimmune nervous system, and weight loss (Guo & Mei, 2016; Mukherjee et al., 2013). However, A. vera laxative activity may be toxic and teratogenic during pregnancy (Minwuyelet et al., 2017).
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Aloe vera is a stemless or very short-stemmed plant growing to 60 – 100 cm (24 – 39 in) tall, spreading by offsets. The leaves are thick and fleshy, green to grey-green, with some varieties showing white flecks on their upper and lower stem surfaces. The margin of the leaf is serrated and has small white teeth. The flowers are produced in summer on a spike up to 90 cm (35 in) tall, each flower being pendulous, with a yellow tubular corolla 2 – 3 cm (0.8 – 1.2 in) long. Like other Aloe species, Aloe vera forms arbuscularmycorrhiza, a symbiosis that allows the plant better access to mineral nutrients in soil.
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