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Emission and Performance Characteristics of Diesel Engine Using Mamey Sapote Biodiesel as Alternate Fuel

Emission and Performance Characteristics of Diesel Engine Using Mamey Sapote Biodiesel as Alternate Fuel

For developing countries fuels of bio-origin can provide a feasible solution to this crisis. Certain edible oils such as cottonseed, palm, sunflower, rapeseed, safflower can be used in diesel engines. For longer life of the engines these oils cannot be used straightway. These oils are not cost effective to be used as an alternate fuel in diesel engines at present. Some of the non-edible oils such as mahua, castor, neem (Azadiracta indica), rice bran, linseed, Karanja (Pongamia pinnata), jatropha (Jatropha curcas) etc. can be used in diesel engines after some chemical treatment. The viscosity and volatility of these vegetable oils is higher, and these can be brought down by a process known as “transesterification”. Biodiesel has a higher cetane number than petroleum diesel, no aromatics and contains upto 10% oxygen by weight. The characteristics of biodiesel reduce the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas as compared with petroleum diesel [1, 2].
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Dual Bio-Fuel As An Alternate Fuel For CI Engines With Enhanced Physical And Chemical Properties

Dual Bio-Fuel As An Alternate Fuel For CI Engines With Enhanced Physical And Chemical Properties

reasons the alternative energy resources are becoming more attractive as they are renewable, sustainable and produce less or no emissions as compared to conventional fuel. Biodiesel is easily renewable, eco-friendly, non-toxic, and has wide availability compared to conventional used diesel fuel[1], [2]. It is an alternate fuel derived from the vegetable oil which could be first or second generation or animal fats[3], [4]. Biodiesel is produced through different methods like Blending, Emulsification, Pyrolysis and Trans-esterification[5]. The common approach to produced biodiesel is through a simple process called transesterification, as it is the easiest way to produce biodiesel. Lots of work have been done on Jatropha, Palm and other oils which are mostly based on one oil biodiesel, i.e. just blending single biodiesel into diesel. Fewer work has been reported by combining two separate biodiesel blends with mineral diesel [6]. Hass et al.[7] have reported that using a blend of soybean soap stick biodiesel with mineral diesel in 20:80 ratio by volume could reduce CO, HC, and PM emissions by 2.40%, 27.70%, and 19.70 % respectively when comparing to standard diesel. Hifjur Rahman et al.[8] found a good fuel combustion emission and 21% fewer soot deposits by using B10 blends of Simarouba oils and Mahua oil in the ratio of 50:50 with mineral diesel oil. Srithar et al. [9]
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An Interactive Expert System Based Decision Making Model for the Management of Transit System Alternate Fuel Vehicle Assets

An Interactive Expert System Based Decision Making Model for the Management of Transit System Alternate Fuel Vehicle Assets

Traditionally, the process used by public transportation entities to determine the acquisition strategy for new vehicle asset is based upon a broad range of criteria. Vehicle cost has been cited as one of the more critical factors which decision makers consider. It is currently a common practice to consider other factors (life-cycle cost, fuel efficiency, vehicle reliability, environmental effects, etc.) that contribute to a more comprehensive approach. This study investi- gates the next generation of advancements in decision making tools in the area of the application of methods to quantify and manage uncertainty. In particular, the uncertainty comes from the public policy arena where future policy and regulations are not always based upon logical and predictable processes. The fleet decision making process in most governmental agencies is a very complex and interdependent activity. There are always competing forces and agendas within the view of the decision maker. Rarely is the deci- sion maker a single person although, within the transit environment, there is often one person charged with the responsibility of fleet management. The focus of this research examines the decision making of the general transit agency community via the development of an expert systems prototype tool. A computer-based prototype system is developed which provide an expert knowledge-based recommendation, based upon variable user inputs. The re- sults shown in this study show that a decision making tool for the manage- ment of transit system alternate fuel vehicle assets can be modeled and tested. The direct users of this research are the transit agency administrations. The results can be used by the management teams as a reliable input to inform their urban transit buses expansion decision making process.
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Emission and Performance Characteristics of Diesel Engine Using Mamey Sapote Biodiesel as Alternate Fuel

Emission and Performance Characteristics of Diesel Engine Using Mamey Sapote Biodiesel as Alternate Fuel

For developing countries fuels of bio-origin can provide a feasible solution to this crisis. Certain edible oils such as cottonseed, palm, sunflower, rapeseed, safflower can be used in diesel engines. For longer life of the engines these oils cannot be used straightway. These oils are not cost effective to be used as an alternate fuel in diesel engines at present. Some of the non-edible oils such as mahua, castor, neem (Azadiracta indica), rice bran, linseed, Karanja (Pongamia pinnata), jatropha (Jatropha curcas) etc. can be used in diesel engines after some chemical treatment. The viscosity and volatility of these vegetable oils is higher, and these can be brought down by a process known as “transesterification”. Biodiesel has a higher cetane number than petroleum diesel, no aromatics and contains upto 10% oxygen by weight. The characteristics of biodiesel reduce the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas as compared with petroleum diesel [1, 2].
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Performance and Emission Characterization of Waste Chicken Fat Biodiesel as an Alternate Fuel

Performance and Emission Characterization of Waste Chicken Fat Biodiesel as an Alternate Fuel

In this work conducted an experiment in parry engine with diesel and diesel chicken fat biodiesel blends. The different proposition for ethanol blends of B20%, B40%, B60, B80 and 100% chicken fat biodiesel were used to run the engine at nearly constant speed of 1500 rpm at different loads from 5 to 20 Nm, the load were increased gradually with the help of eddy current dynamometer, in which the engine load were increased by increasing the power supply with the help of knob, time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption in different load are noted. The smoke meter was maintained at temperatures between 70 0 C to 75 0 C to measure the opacity of smoke from the exhaust of the engine at different loads.
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Acetylene as an Alternate Fuel in Modified 4-Stroke Spark Ignition Engine

Acetylene as an Alternate Fuel in Modified 4-Stroke Spark Ignition Engine

Smoke: The variation of smoke level with brake power is seen. The exact mechanism of smoke formation is still unknown. Generally speaking, smoke is formed by the pyrolysis of HC in the fuel rich zone, mainly under load conditions. In petrol engines operated with heterogeneous mixtures, most of the smoke is formed in the diffusion flame. The amount of smoke present in the exhaust gas depends on the mode of mixture formation. The combustion processes and quantity of fuel injected occur before ignition. The smoke level increases with increase in petrol flow rate, and at full load it is 7 BSU in case of petrol fuel operation. Dual fuel operation with any gaseous fuel proved to be a potential way of reducing the smoke density as compared to petrol operation. A reduction in smoke level is noticed. The smoke level is reduced by 14% in induction technique at full load when compared to baseline petrol operation. This may be attributed to the fact that combustion of acetylene-petrol fuel is faster, contributing to complete combustion, and is also due to triple bond in acetylene which is unstable.
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Performance Evaluation of CI Engine Using Cottonseed Oil as an Alternate Fuel

Performance Evaluation of CI Engine Using Cottonseed Oil as an Alternate Fuel

The present study was carried out in the research facility available with institute. The detailed Engine specifications are given in Tab. 2. The engine test rig is a Kirloskar make single cylinder, water cooled, four stroke diesel engines (10 kW), connected to Rope brake dynamometer for loading. One Piezo sensor is mounted on engine head through a sleeve and other mounted on fuel line near injector for measurement of pressures. The test rig has transmitters for air and fuel flow measurements. Provision is also made for measurement of temperature of exhaust, cooling water and calorimeter water inlet and outlet and load on the engine. The block diagram of Test rig is shown in Fig.1
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Recent Development in Fuel Cell as an Alternate Fuel

Recent Development in Fuel Cell as an Alternate Fuel

This new type of fuel cell is based on a ceramic electrolyte material that exhibits high protonic conductivity at elevated temperatures. PCFCs share the thermal and kinetic advantages of high temperature operation at 700 degrees Celsius with molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells, while exhibiting all of the intrinsic benefits of proton conduction in PEM and phosphoric acid fuel cells. The high operating temperature is necessary to achieve very high electrical fuel efficiency with hydrocarbon fuels. PCFCs can operate at high temperatures and electrochemically oxidize fossil fuels directly to the anode. This eliminates the intermediate step of producing hydrogen through the costly reforming process. Gaseous molecules of the hydrocarbon fuel are absorbed on the surface of the anode in the presence of water vapor, and hydrogen atoms are efficiently stripped off to be absorbed into the electrolyte, with carbon dioxide as the primary reaction product. Additionally, PCFCs have a solid electrolyte so the membrane cannot dry out as with PEM fuel cells, or liquid can’t leak out as with PAFCs.
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Using Solid Waste & Alternate Fuel Raw (AFR) Material as a Fuel in Co Processing of Cement Kiln and Reduce Greenhouse Gaseous

Using Solid Waste & Alternate Fuel Raw (AFR) Material as a Fuel in Co Processing of Cement Kiln and Reduce Greenhouse Gaseous

© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2698 (D) AFR (Alternative Fuel and Raw Materials): This refers to waste materials used for co-processing. Such wastes typically include plastics and paper/card from commercial and industrial activities (e.g. packaging waste or rejects from manufacturing), waste tires, waste oils, biomass waste (e.g. straw, untreated waste wood, dried sewage sludge), waste textiles, residues from car dismantling operations (automative shredder residues - ASR), hazardous industrial waste (e.g. certain industrial sludges, impregnated sawdust, spent solvents) as well as obsolete pesticides, outdated drugs, chemicals and pharmaceuticals. (E) Pre-processing: Transforming waste to AFR requires certain standards. AFR does not always consist of a specific waste stream (such as tires or solvents) but must be prepared from different waste sources before being used as fuel or raw material in the cement plant. The preparation process is needed to produce an AFR stream that complies with the technical and administrative specifications of cement production and to guarantee that environmental standards are met.
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REVIEW ON PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS OF C.I. ENGINES BY USING DIFFERENT BIODIESEL (ALTERNATE FUEL)

REVIEW ON PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS OF C.I. ENGINES BY USING DIFFERENT BIODIESEL (ALTERNATE FUEL)

5.7 Md A. Hossain el at (7):- According to the researchers point of view coconut oil can be used as a source of biodiesel to replace the diesel oil as a source of fuel in various diesel engines. Coconut oil can be elicited from the harvested coconut’s flesh. The direct use of the coconut oil as a source of fuel in diesel engines may result into choking or blocking of the fuel injectors. Coconut oil is blended or transesterified to obtain biodiesel so that the viscosity of the oil reduces and volatility increases which may result into proper injection of fuel and proper atomization and vaporization during ignition process. Coconut oil can be transesterified by mixing it with methanol under the presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as a catalyzer. The researchers have obtained a blended mixture of diesel fuel with 80 %( B80), 60 %( B60) and 40 %( B40) of biodiesel from coconut oil and a pure form of biodiesel (B100) are used as a source of fuel to run a mono cylinder 4 stroke diesel engine and the performance is reviewed.
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Studies on Waste Heat Recovery Using Matrix Heat Exchanger and Alternate Fuel

Studies on Waste Heat Recovery Using Matrix Heat Exchanger and Alternate Fuel

The blend of diesel and neem oil is varied as 10%, 20%, 30% and 50% in diesel engine. As the loads are increased, the fuel consumption of blended diesel also increased as compared to diesel. At the constant speed of 1500 rpm, the load was varied as 0, 5, 10, and 15 kg. It indicates the fuel consumption of blended diesel is increased than that of diesel fuel. The blend proportions were prepared as 10N90D, 20N80D, 30N70D, 40N60D and 50N50D respectively. It is observed that for the same load conditions the diesel engine consume more fuel.

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Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emission Characteristics of DI Diesel Engine using Pumpkin Seed Oil as an Alternate Fuel

Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emission Characteristics of DI Diesel Engine using Pumpkin Seed Oil as an Alternate Fuel

The experiments are conducted for variable loads like 0.2, 1.37, 2.67, 3.88, and 5.09 KW at rated speed, with injection pressure of 210 bar and cooling water exit temperature at 65°C. Three blends of all types of vegetable oils such as 10%, 20% and 30% are used in this experimentation. The vegetable oils and their blends with diesel are heated externally to a required temperature as stated earlier before injecting into the test cylinder. The engine was sufficiently warmed up and stabilized before taking all the readings. All the observations recorded were replicated thrice to get a reasonable value. The performance parameters such as Brake Thermal Efficiency(ηB.Th.), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption(bsfc), Exhaust Gas Temperature(EGT) and Volumetric efficiency(ηVol.) Emission parameters such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ), Hydro carbon (HC) (HC),
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Experimental Investigation of the Suitability of Orange Peel Oil as a Blend with Cotton Seed Oil as Alternate Fuel for Diesel Engines

Experimental Investigation of the Suitability of Orange Peel Oil as a Blend with Cotton Seed Oil as Alternate Fuel for Diesel Engines

The setup consists of single cylinder, four stroke, VCR (Variable Compression Ratio) Diesel engine connected to eddy current type dynamometer for loading. The compression ratio can be changed without stopping the engine and without altering the combustion chamber geometry by specially designed tilting cylinder block arrangement. Setup is provided with necessary instruments for combustion pressure and crank-angle measurements. These signals are interfaced to computer through engine indicator for Pθ−PV diagrams. Provision is also made for interfacing airflow, fuel flow, temperatures and load measurement. The set up has stand-alone panel box consisting of air box, two fuel tanks for duel fuel test, manometer, fuel measuring unit,transmitters for air and fuel flow measurements, process indicator and engine indicator. Rotameters are provided for cooling water and calorimeter water flow measurement. The setup enables study of VCR engine performance for brake power, indicated power, frictional power, BMEP, IMEP, brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, Mechanical efficiency, volumetric efficiency, specific fuel consumption, A/F ratio and heat balance.
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Alternate Fuel Options in the Kiln

Alternate Fuel Options in the Kiln

The used oil may be considered as a hazardous waste and have to be disposed of according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. The used oil have the advantage of being inexpensive as compared to conventional fuels and they are readily available at garages and oil change service centers, vehicle dismantlers, machine shops and industries. This paper describes a new approach to lime kiln fuel for firing that combines furnace oil and used engine oil in the ratio of 75 to 25(by weight).

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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ENGINE WITH JATROPHA OIL AS AN ALTERNATE FUEL

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ENGINE WITH JATROPHA OIL AS AN ALTERNATE FUEL

The high viscosity is due to the large molecular mass and chemical structure of vegetable oils, which in turn leads to problems in pumping, combustion and atomization in the injector systems of a diesel engine. Due to the high viscosity, in long term operation, vegetable oils normally introduce the development of gumming, the formation of injector deposits, ring sticking, as well as incompatibility with conventional lubricating oils. Therefore, a reduction in viscosity is of prime importance to make vegetable oils a suitable alternative fuel for diesel engines. The problem of high viscosity of vegetable oils has been approached in several ways [6] such as
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Applying model based testing approach in electric vehicle charging system : MyEV charging system case study

Applying model based testing approach in electric vehicle charging system : MyEV charging system case study

An electric vehicle can be assumed as alternate fuel automobile that uses electric motors and motor controllers for propulsion, as opposed to more common propulsio[r]

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Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure , Combustion Chambers on Performance and Emissions of a C I Engine using Cotton Seed Oil Biodiesel with Additives

Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure , Combustion Chambers on Performance and Emissions of a C I Engine using Cotton Seed Oil Biodiesel with Additives

compared to diesel at full load condition. The exhaust gas temperatures with the blends are usually lower than that with diesel fuel. The decrease in NOx emissions is usually proportional to the iso-butanol content in the blends. The HC emission increases on increasing iso-butanol content in the blends, and reaches its maximum value with the use of B20 + 5%.The test result reveals that cottonseed oil and isobutanol can be used as fuel additive and the blend performs better as both the blending materials increase in the blends thus stating that B20 + 10% blend is the most suitable blend which can be used in place of pure diesel without making any changes in the engine system. M. Leenus Jesu Martin, V. Edwin Geo, D. Kingsly Jeba Singh, B. Nagalingam [2] conducted experiment on A comparative analysis of different methods to improve the performance of cottonseed oil fuelled with diesel engine. They have concluded that The brake thermal efficiency of diesel and neat CSO at peak power is 32.3% and 28% respectively. An increase in the brake thermal efficiency to 31.4% is noticed at peak output with cotton seed oil ethyl ester (EECSO). Smoke, CO and HC levels are reduced with EECSO compared to neat CSO. A blend of 60% CSO and 40% of diesel results in good brake thermal efficiency and a significant reduction in smoke level. The preheated blend of 60% of CSO and 40% of diesel at 90 °C shows an increase in brake thermal efficiency, which is close to diesel. Engine performance improves with the addition of orange oil (OO) and DEE with CSO. S. Naga Sarada , M.Shailaja , A.V. Sita Rama Raju , K. Kalyani Radha [3]were conducted experiment on Optimization of fuel injection pressure for a compression ignition engine with alternate fuel as cotton seed oil. They have concluded that 1
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The Emissions Analysis of Diesel Engine Using GarciniaIndicaand Rice Bran Oil Based Methyl Esters As Fuels with an ANN Approach

The Emissions Analysis of Diesel Engine Using GarciniaIndicaand Rice Bran Oil Based Methyl Esters As Fuels with an ANN Approach

The above reasons urge search for alternative fuels that are inexpensive, abundant and environmentally friendly which can be used in existing engines without any or with minor modifications. Country like India having vast vegetation and land availability, bio-diesel has come up as a promising alternative fuel. In recent years, lots of research has been done to investigate use of tranesterified edible as well as non edible vegetable oils such as Sunflower, Peanut, Olive, Soya bean, Rapeseed, Pongamiapinnata ,Cottonseed, Jathropa, etc as alternate fuel for diesel engine.
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A review of system dynamics models applied in transportation

A review of system dynamics models applied in transportation

Goh et al, (2012) develop two models to investigate policies to improve traffic safety. The first model is used to assess policy options which aim to encourage the purchase of cars with higher safety ratings. The second model is used to evaluate the impact of public transport policies on travel time and traffic safety considerations. The first model looks at how cars with different safety ratings are purchased and is similar to the work on alternative fuel uptake models, network effects and price effects being included. The larger the current share the more attractive it is to purchase due to lower maintenance costs and social norm factors. It was shown that high taxes and subsidies for low/high rated cars are needed to overcome the network and price effect. However, the sensitivity tests suggested that policies aimed at reducing the network effect e.g. awareness or early scrappage schemes for low rated vehicles may improve the fleet average star rating more quickly. The second model combined a goal based safety policy which reacts to number of crashes versus a tolerable level but then added the link between this and the policy on subsidies for public transport. It was shown that the larger the subsidy the greater the reduction in crashes and hence less need for other “safety” interventions which could be more expensive per saved crash. Similar to the work on the take up of alternate fuel vehicles, this paper demonstrates the importance of long term feedbacks and of taking a more holistic approach to the problem of safety.
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ALTERNATE-1 AND ALTERNATE-2 DISJUNCTIONS IN HETEROZYGOUS RECIPROCAL TRANSLOCATIONS

ALTERNATE-1 AND ALTERNATE-2 DISJUNCTIONS IN HETEROZYGOUS RECIPROCAL TRANSLOCATIONS

Thus, the large size of the ring plus the large size of the 4 A , chromosome and the position of the “knob” make it possible to recognize readily the four chromosomes and[r]

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