Alternative energy technologies

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How to Proceed with Competing Alternative Energy Technologies: a Real Options Analysis

How to Proceed with Competing Alternative Energy Technologies: a Real Options Analysis

Given the concern over global warming, the development of alternative energy technologies with lower rates of carbon emissions is gaining prominence. Within the domain of existing RE technologies, biofuels, fuel cells, hydroelectric power, solar-based technologies, wave generation, and windmills have all demonstrated various levels of effectiveness and gained some measure of public support in contributing to the world’s energy supply. As cap-and-trade systems for carbon emissions gain popularity, these aforementioned technologies will become only more competitive with traditional combustion technologies using fossil fuels. On the other hand, the allure of nuclear power technology has ebbed and flowed due to public concerns about the safety of reactors, processing of waste material, and the potential weaponisation of programmes. In addition, even if most of the world’s energy supply were to come from nuclear power plants,
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Alternative energy technologies as a cultural endeavor: a case study of hydrogen and fuel cell development in Germany

Alternative energy technologies as a cultural endeavor: a case study of hydrogen and fuel cell development in Germany

Background: The wider background to this article is the shift in the energy paradigm from fossil energy sources to renewable sources which should occur in the twenty-first century. This transformation requires the development of alternative energy technologies that enable the deployment of renewable energy sources in transportation, heating, and electricity. Among others, hydrogen and fuel cell technologies have the potential to fulfill this requirement and to contribute to a sustainable and emission-free transport and energy system. However, whether they will ever reach broad societal acceptance will not only depend on technical issues alone. The aim of our study is to reveal the importance of nontechnical issues. Therefore, the article at hand presents a case study of hydrogen and fuel cells in Germany and aims at highlighting the cultural context that affects their development. Methods: Our results were obtained from a rich pool of data generated in various research projects through more than 30 in-depth interviews, direct observations, and document analyses.
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Sustainable electric energy supply by decentralized alternative energy technologies

Sustainable electric energy supply by decentralized alternative energy technologies

The world is facing two major energy-related issues, short term and long term. These issues are i) not having enough and secure supplies of energy at affordable prices ii) environmental damages caused by consuming too much energy in an un-sustainable way. A significant amount of the current world energy comes from limited resources, when used can not be replaced, hence the energy production and consumption do not seem to be sustainable, and also carries the threat of severe and irreversible damages to the environment including climate change.

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Power management using hybrid control of tie-converters

Power management using hybrid control of tie-converters

The technical advancement in power electronics is playing an vital role in the deployment of renewables and alternative energy technologies which have so far been widely realized in different forms of network topologies and configurations . Similarly, they have been controlled and managed using various control strategies and architectures. Their network topologies and control strategies are mainly determined to maximize the benefits while meeting the load requirements. At present, renewable and alternative

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Sustainable Renewable Energy for Development: Access to Finance on Solar Energy for Bangladesh

Sustainable Renewable Energy for Development: Access to Finance on Solar Energy for Bangladesh

Considerable green energy for economic growth is important variable, the carbon trading under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which provides a trading window for carbon credits, easing the typically higher cost burdens of renewable energy projects (Martinot and McDoom, 2000). The government is also providing support, including tax/duty waivers for the projects (Menanteau, Finon, and Lamy, 2003). Bangladesh Bank is promoting financing for solar energy, biomass and other renewable energy projects with refinance support lines for the lenders. The central purpose of these schemes is channeling funds through scheduled banks to specific sectors to accelerate economic activities in those sectors. Bangladesh Bank through its circulars issued at different times, has offered various refinance schemes, for accommodating special facilities to scheduled banks at concessional rates under the following terms and conditions, shown in appendix-1.
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Impact of carbonization process on briquette from palm oil residue

Impact of carbonization process on briquette from palm oil residue

The world today is really depending on the fossil fuel as the conventional sources of energy. The problem regarding the energy crisis is getting worse from year to year. This is due to the energy demand and the spending power phenomenon. Based on the general statistics, the price of crude oil is increasing rapidly as the market growth every year. To be noted that the oil and gas industry also having a problem of instability in supply. Besides that, the demand and the increasing price of crude oil also affecting the production supply due to the instability towards the supply of the crude oil. From 1996 to 2020 the world expecting that the increase of world energy consumption will becoming 65% (Ahmed, 2008). From here, the world should find a new alternative way of utilizing new sources of energy as to ensure that the world will be less dependency towards the fossil fuel.
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Awareness and acceptability of the filipino people on renewable energy technologies

Awareness and acceptability of the filipino people on renewable energy technologies

The study aimed to determine the attitude of the Filipino people towards renewable energy technologies. The study is quantitative in nature which used descriptive survey as means of data collection. Four hundred seventy three (473) respondents from thirteen municipalities of the province of Zambales were selected for this study. Results indicate that majority of the respondents were male, below 21 years old, married, with elementary level as the highest educational attainment, have household size of 3-4 members, and monthly income of below Php15,000 to Php above 50,000.00.Findings of the study revealed that majority of the respondents are moderately aware of the renewable technologies in the locality and indicated moderate acceptability on the different technologies such as solar panel and windmill however, showed slight acceptability on biogas and ramp pump. Solar panel and wind mill were more acceptable than ramp pump and biogas.
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Technologies for Alternative Energy

Technologies for Alternative Energy

Electrolysis is a well-known process that converts water into hydrogen and oxygen using electricity. Currently, two types of electrolysers exist: the alkaline electrolysers , and the less mature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) technology. Alkaline electrolysis is a mature technology that is well suited to producing hydrogen for stationary applications. The major R&D challenges for alkaline electrolysers is to improve their efficiency, lifetime and costs. PEM electrolysers are basically fuel cells operated in reverse mode. In PEM electrolysis, the electrolyte is a solid, acidic membrane and no liquid electrolyte is required. Major advantages include the absence of a corrosive electrolyte, a compact design, high current densities and high operation pressures. The main drawback in the current PEM systems is the limited membrane lifetime. It is expected that the PEM electrolyser performance (in terms of cost, efficiency and lifetime) can be improved by new materials and new cell stack design. Electrolysis makes possible the production of hydrogen using alternative sources of energy. But electrolysis requires substantial amounts of electricity. Moreover the environmental friendliness of the technology depends on using either alternative energy sources or fossil fuels supported by carbon capture and storage as means of producing the electricity required. Currently, electrolysis provides only a small percentage of the world’s hydrogen, most of which is supplied to industrial applications requiring small volumes of high purity hydrogen. It will also be decades before improvements in renewable energy technologies would yield electricity at a price which would enable hydrogen to compete with conventional forms of energy. Industrial electrolysis systems currently have net system efficiencies of up to 70-75%. Current R&D efforts are aimed at improving net system efficiencies toward 85%. As electricity costs are the main operating cost of electrolysers, the main RD%D target is to increase their electrical efficiency. High-temperature and high-pressure electrolysis may offer efficiency advantages, and this may be facilitated by new developments in PEM electrolysers.
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Online kiosks: the alternative to mobile technologies for mobile users

Online kiosks: the alternative to mobile technologies for mobile users

This is an environment in which self-service machines are common. Airline passengers are waiting or moving through a concourse and a variety of machines are available to support the completion of the tasks that travellers need to perform. Examples may be: the car park pay station, a self-service photograph machine, soft drinks and confectionery vending machines. Kiosks, therefore, are a natural addition to the array of facilities available. Some of them are task based and are an alternative to a human service agent. Others enhance the user experience either by offering the opportunity to complete transactions that would otherwise not be possible (taking out last minute travel insurance, sending flowers for a special occasion), to communicate with friends and relatives, or to search for local, regional or global information.
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An assessment of the future impact of alternative technologies on antibiotics markets

An assessment of the future impact of alternative technologies on antibiotics markets

Despite these challenges, antibacterial innovation continues through new technologies such as bacterio- phages (i.e., viruses that attack and kill specific bacteria) or vaccines. One might wonder if these inno- vations have the potential to replace antibiotic treat- ment for certain pathogens if they should become included in future treatment protocols. Several papers, among them Allen et al. [26], Fernebro [27] and, re- cently an AMR Review report [21] and a review paper by Czaplewski et al. [28], have identified and discussed such technologies, but without explicitly assessing their potential impact on the antibiotics markets. Thus, in this paper we assess the effect that different technologies might have on use and demand for anti- biotics in different segments of the antibiotics market, taking the perspectives from industry, clinical practice and health policy research. We also ask whether alter- native technologies could potentially counter anti- biotic resistance to the extent that they would reduce the need for developing new antibiotics in the short and medium terms.
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Saying ‘No’ to Foreign Direct Investment in Wind Power Generation Sector by Attracting Indigenous Entrepreneurs: A Step towards Self-reliance

Saying ‘No’ to Foreign Direct Investment in Wind Power Generation Sector by Attracting Indigenous Entrepreneurs: A Step towards Self-reliance

All the FDI benefits, i.e., employment, income generation, skill development, technology spillover, productivity, import, export, economic growth, infrastructure development, poverty reduction, etc., have no substantial effects in case of ARE projects, since wind energy generation in Pakistan constitutes only one percent of the total domestic production of energy. The argument about benefits from inflow of foreign currency that has positive impact of foreign currency reserve is not valid in case of wind power industry. As per FEM of SBP (2016), the power sector is entitled to open offshore foreign currency bank accounts, so practically foreign currency does not inflow to Pakistan’s central bank account. If some project opens onshore foreign currency bank account instead of offshore account, then in this case, the equity and loan inflows come in tranches, and material amount outflows on account of equipment payment, international services payment, dividends and profits repatriation, etc. put a minor impact on foreign currency reserves. The results of this qualitative enquiry match with the findings of several studies that FDI appears beneficial (Antanaviciene, 2014; Li and Liu, 2005; Liu et al., 2002), provided proper support of the government and institutional support framework are ensured (Buckley et al., 2007; 2009; Busse and Groizard, 2008; Busse and Hefeker, 2007; Gorg and Greenaway, 2004; Li and Resnick, 2003). The findings also correspond to those of Konings (2001) that FDI is not the only solution since in several cases, the indigenous entrepreneurs outperformed than those companies with FDI. As there have been several studies, especially in the domestic context of exploitation by foreign firms and MNCs to local communities and
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Comparative Study of Alternative Computing Technologies for Speed and Density

Comparative Study of Alternative Computing Technologies for Speed and Density

Reversible computing receives its name from the fact that reversible gates work both ways; forward and backward. In other words, there are no dedicated input and output lines in a re- versible gate. All lines, depending on the op- eration, can be either input or output lines. In addition to being reversible in direction of op- eration, the gates used in reversible computers are also thermodynamically reversible. Ther- modynamic reversibility means that the energy lost in changing the state of the gate is regained when the gate is changed back to the original state. Only small amount of energy is lost dur- ing the cycle of going and coming back from a state. This type of energy reversibility reduces the power consumption of the device to mini- mum levels so that many gates can be crammed into a VLSI package since power consumption and dissipation is reasonable.
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The Development of the Renewable Energy Technologies in Spain

The Development of the Renewable Energy Technologies in Spain

tient between RET and the sold total energy at electrical market) that has contributed to the electricity generation (x axis in Figure 4). This curve shows the evolution of the additional cost of the RET in percentage respect the total retribution by the sold total energy at electrical mar- ket price (y axis in Figure 4). All the parameters neces- sary for the calculation has been taking from the on line data base of SNCE. This curve represents a test of effec- tiveness to achieve the Spanish target (rising of the glob- al TER) versus their efficiency in costs (increasing over- cost of RET) [8].
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Overview and assessment of superconducting technologies for power grid applications

Overview and assessment of superconducting technologies for power grid applications

Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) comprises inducing a DC current in a coil constructed of superconducting material submerged in liquid helium that subsequently generates a dynamic magnetic field. Whilst in the superconducting state, current can circulate with almost negligible losses, achieving efficiencies of >95% [25]. The inherent characteristic qualities are a rapid charge/discharge response of a few milliseconds whilst also providing a very fast full discharge time, high power density as well as the capability of a very high number of cycles, allowing a longer service lifetime. Such qualities render suitability of SMES systems for use in addressing voltage, frequency or power quality issues in applications such as microgrid control [26]. Similar forms of ES competing with SMES are supercapacitors [27] and flywheels [28]. Possessing similar properties to SMES, supercapacitors are suited to high-power, short-duration applications however possess weaker efficiencies (70-85%) and higher self-daily discharge (20-40%) [27] while flywheels exhibit high efficiencies of >90% and service lifetimes of >20 years with fast recharge and response but again possess high levels of daily self-discharge in comparison to SMES [28]. Live, successful in-grid demonstrations of operational SMES systems are few and far between however there is a 3- year project active in Italy, “DRYGRID4SMES”, which involves research and development of a prototype cryogen-free SMES system based upon the MgB 2 and could demonstrate a
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Energy-storage technologies and electricity generation

Energy-storage technologies and electricity generation

Supercapacitors exhibit very high energy-storage efficiencies (>95%) and can be cycled hundreds of thousands of times without appreciable loss of energy-storage capacity. Supercapacitors therefore represent the energy-storage solution with the greatest lifetime in terms of cycling ability. Supercapacitors are, however, susceptible to self-discharge and the degree to which this affects the technology is related to the nature of the carbon electrodes. The energy (E) stored by a capacitor is related to its operating potential difference (V) by E = 0.5CV 2 . The majority of commercially available supercapacitors incorporate activated carbon electrodes and either an aqueous or organic electrolyte that may be operated at potential differences of ~1V and ~3V respectively. Organic electrolytes therefore offer increased energy density. The power density of supercapacitors is a function of the porosity, surface area and resistance of the electrode as well as the transport properties of the electrolyte. Monolithic electrodes have been shown to significantly decrease electrode resistances. Recent attention has been given to the
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HYDRODYNAMIC CAVITATION IN ENERGY SAVING TECHNOLOGIES

HYDRODYNAMIC CAVITATION IN ENERGY SAVING TECHNOLOGIES

установки очистки тележек вагонов представлены результаты определения энергии удара жидкости , воздей -.. ствующей на очищаемую поверхность , стационарной и пульсирующей струй.[r]

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Energy Saving Technologies in Industries- An overview

Energy Saving Technologies in Industries- An overview

In time where energy costs become exceeding high, then buildings will become more and more dependant all passive (non use of renewable sources of energy). The light pipe will lower energy consumption, improve the quality of light in the inner parts of building up to depths of 2 meters (or more) and also enable office buildings to have deeper floor depths [4]. The light pipe solar energy lighting system delivers the clean light energy into building spaces and thereby saving electrical energy for lighting during daytime [5].
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Year: 2016 Volume: 4 Number: 4

Year: 2016 Volume: 4 Number: 4

Web 2.0 technologies are described as the internet sites that emphasize user-generated content, usability, and interoperability. Social networking technologies are web-based platforms where individuals make connections with others of similar interests (Gunawardena et al., 2009). These technologies are described as social structures consisting relationships between individuals or organizations within a certain domain (Liccardi et al., 2007). The use of social networks in educational settings mostly centered around interacting and exchanging knowledge in accessible ways (Yuen & Yuen, 2008). The literature in educational technology field has revealed that the integration of social networking technologies in school settings presented positive impacts on learners’ motivation (Shim et al., 2011; Ologie, 2013) and engagement (Dholakia et al., 2004; Scholz, 2009; Al-Mukhaini et al., 2014). This study took place in an alternative school environment that serves youth who are unsuccessful in their regular school placement because of a variety of risk factors, such as lack of motivation, absenteeism, behavior problems, and low academic achievement. The following research question was addressed in this study: How does the integration of social networks help students be motivated and engaged in an alternative high school environmental science class?
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Biodigesters: Alternative energy production and organic loading reduction

Biodigesters: Alternative energy production and organic loading reduction

Poultry litter is all the material that is disposed on the floor of grow-out housesas a bed for the poultry (Paganini, 2004). It is a mixture of excretes, feathers, ration and materials used on the floor. Many are the materials that are used in poultry litters, such as: sawdust, peanut bark, rice husk, coffee bark, dry grass, chopped corn cob, among several other materials (Grimes, 2004).For a long time poultry litter was used for feeding ruminants, but due to sanitation problems in Europe in 2001, like the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture published a rule (Brasil, 2001) that prohibits the commercialization of poultry litter for nourishing ruminants. That occured because of the risks of the contaminations of the littler that have remaining of ration that perhaps might have animal protein in their composition. Due to the difficulty to proceed inspection in all Brazilian territory in order to determine whether the poultry were fed with animal or vegetal protein, the prohibition is for all types of poultry litter, regardless their origin. With this correct prohibition, the destination for poultry litter became restrict, and researches with the objective of studying alternatives for the exploitation of this residue are necessary. An alternative to reduce the environmental impact caused by the accumulation of residues is to reuse the litter. The reuse also favors regions where the base material is scarce and where it is difficult to sell the litter after its use. Other reasons for reusing poultry litter are: cost for purchase of materials; labor to remove the litter from the grow-out house, along with the attempt to reduce the downtime of the facilities; reduction of logging, making scarce the offer of wood shavings; and adaption to the seasons of the year for availability of materials (Paganini, 2004). According to Lien, Conner e Bilgili (1992); Malone (1992) and Brake et al. (1993), the litter can be reused from 1 to 6 times without significant differences regarding mortality, weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency and quality of the carcasses. Several factors influence the composition of the poultry litter, such as the composition of the ration, amount of material to cover the floor of the grow-out house, season of the year, density of the grow-out house, type of substrate in litter, ventilation in the grow-out house, level of reuse of the litter and characteristics of the birds excreta. Santos (1997) noted that there was significant decrease in the production of waste in the farm when the litter is reused.
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Technologies for Reducing Stationary Energy Use

Technologies for Reducing Stationary Energy Use

Installing more efficient equipment can reduce emissions from space heating and cooling in residential buildings. For example, a 6-star-rated gas heater will reduce emissions by 45 per cent relative to the 1-star equivalent. Similar savings are available in air conditioners in both heating and cooling modes and further savings are quite feasible. For example, in the United States it has been estimated that using high efficiency air-conditioners with larger condenser and evaporator areas and more efficient fan motors ad compressors can raise energy efficiency by around 64 per cent. Improved control and management systems (such as timers, occupancy sensors and zoning) can further reduce energy used in space heating and cooling. In addition, residential distributed generation technologies such as fuel cell or micro-turbine cogeneration can be used for space heating (and cooling with absorption chillers) while supplying electricity for other residential energy requirements.
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