Alternative Fuel and Energy

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Indian Energy Crises and Biodiesel as Renewable Alternative Fuel

Indian Energy Crises and Biodiesel as Renewable Alternative Fuel

To solve dual problems of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation, the renewable fuels with lower environmental impact are necessary. Nowadays, many new fuels have been used and biomass derived fuels are among them. Some of the well known biomass derived fuels are ethanol for gasoline engines and bio-diesel for compression ignition engines. Biodiesel is a renewable and environmental friendly alternative fuel for diesel engine which is produced from variety of vegetable oils and animal fats by the trans-esterification process. Transesterification is a chemical reaction in which vegetable oils and animal fats are reacted with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The products of reaction are fatty acid alkyl ester and glycerine, and the fatty acid alkyl ester is known as biodiesel. Bio-diesel is an oxygenated fuel containing 10% to 11% oxygen by weight. Also it is a sulphur-free fuel. These lead biodiesel to more complete combustion and less harmful exhaust emissions. However, biodiesel fuel has higher viscosity, density, pour point, flash point and cetane number than diesel fuel. Also the energy content or net calorific value of biodiesel is about 12% lower than that of diesel fuel on a mass basis. Using biodiesel can help in reducing the world’s dependence on fossil fuels and also has significant environmental benefits. Using biodiesel instead of the conventional diesel fuel reduces exhaust emissions such as the overall life circle carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), particulate matter (PM), carbon
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Alternative Fuel And Energy Production In Aruba:  A Case Study

Alternative Fuel And Energy Production In Aruba: A Case Study

With the conservative MEP dominated government and parliament, radical or architectural change projects had very low success rates. The public water and electric utility “WEB” owned the water and electricity generation, storage and delivery assets and rights for the entire island of Aruba. The government controlled WEB through leadership placements. If WEB did not advocate and cooperate fully, a project would not go forward. Proposals to help with energy costs and consumption that were not considered “competence enhancing” had never passed. Many innovations related to sustainable energy use were well researched, fastidiously designed and professionally bid-out. However, only competence enhancing innovations moved forward, such as WEB’s new high yield diesel generator.
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Review on Microfludic Fuel Cell As An Alternative Fuel

Review on Microfludic Fuel Cell As An Alternative Fuel

Power modules have a higher productivity than diesel or gas motors. Most power modules work quietly, contrasted with interior burning motors. They are accordingly in a perfect world suited for use inside structures, for example, healing centers. Power modules can wipe out contamination caused by consuming non-renewable energy sources; for hydrogen fuelled energy components, the main side-effect at purpose of utilization is water. On the off chance that the hydrogen originates from the electrolysis of water driven by sustainable power source, at that point utilizing energy components wipes out ozone depleting substances over the entire cycle. Power devices don't require regular fills, for example, oil or gas and can in this way diminish monetary reliance on oil delivering nations, making more noteworthy vitality security for the client country. Since hydrogen can be created anyplace where there is water and a wellspring of intensity, age of fuel can be appropriated and does not need to be matrix subordinate.
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Impact of Di-Methyl Ether (DME) As an Additive Fuel for Compression Ignition Engine in Reduction of Urban Air Pollution

Impact of Di-Methyl Ether (DME) As an Additive Fuel for Compression Ignition Engine in Reduction of Urban Air Pollution

Vehicular pollution is based on the quality and quantity of the fuel.The need to improve the security of the energy supply and to reduce theemissions of pollutant gases has led the many countries to propose theintroduction of alternative fuels in the road transport sector. The DME spray characteristics and combustion process have been investigated for various fuel-injection equipments, in a variety of prototype engines with occasional slight modifications. These engine tests with DME proved its potential as a clean alternative fuel achieving smoke-free high power operation provided optimized fuel injection equipment and the engine configuration are closely matched to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Optimisation of the fuel injection equipment, overcoming the problem of low density, low lubricity and corrosiveness are recognized as technological barriers for mass production of the DME-fuelled compression-ignition engines. However, use of DME as an additive fuel with diesel fuel satisfies the requirement of environmentally safe and renewable new kind of alternative fuel.
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Performance of bombax pentandrum and cassia siamea biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engine

Performance of bombax pentandrum and cassia siamea biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engine

Energy output was considered as the load given to 7.5 KVA generator. The electrical generator was run on constant three phase loading condition of 4500 watt (4.5 KW) on each biodiesel blend. Energy input was measured in terms of energy consumed per hour for the production of specific power. The calorific values of fuel blends were determined as detailed by Demirbas (1998) and presented as KJ/Kg. The overall efficiency of the biodiesel blends were compared with the petroleum diesel. The specification of the electrical generator used for the experimental study is given as.
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The production and comparison of fuel properties on biodiesel with alternative fuel : a review

The production and comparison of fuel properties on biodiesel with alternative fuel : a review

The energy is the most of the human existence. Consumption fossil fuels has grown substantially and consumption the energy sources that is seen as having a major environmental impacts. Diminution world oil reserves and increasing environmental concern have induced found alternative and renewable energy resources called biodiesel. Biodiesel fuel from the vegetable oil, regarded as of the best candidate for the substitute diesel fuel in diesel engines because of the characteristics closer. The application of biodiesel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues. This paper introduces some type of alternative fuel whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel. These types are crude palm oil (CPO), straight vegetable oil (SVO), waste cooking oil (WCO) and Jatrophacurcas(JPO). From the review, fuel properties are found to considerably different on density, viscosity, acid value, water content and flash point as compared with standard diesel. In conclusion, a long period of storage will reduce the quality of biodiesel does not matter what kind of conditions and environments that are exposed to. However, the rate of degradation of biodiesel can be slow if the right circumstances and environment provided.
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An Interactive Expert System Based Decision Making Model for the Management of Transit System Alternate Fuel Vehicle Assets

An Interactive Expert System Based Decision Making Model for the Management of Transit System Alternate Fuel Vehicle Assets

Consistent with this methodology, alternative fuel prices, in terms of price per gallon equivalent, are traditionally higher than their price per gallon because of their lower energy content per gallon. Even given this situation, the appeal and consumer interest in alternative fuels tends to increase when the alternative fuel price is less than the conventional fuel price and as the price differential per gal- lon increases. This may be counter intuitive since this differential does not typi- cally translate to savings on an energy-equivalent basis. Such efforts are espe- cially consequential as worldwide consumption trends put increasing pressure on traditional energy sources [22]. In the United States alone, energy consump- tion is projected to rise 20% above present levels over the next two decades. Worldwide demand is forecast to nearly double by 2030. Much of that growth will be in developing nations-most notably China and India, which between them contain more than one-third of the planet's people which will create un- precedented competition for limited conventional resources.
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Experimental Analysis of Aerodynamic Aspects of Sport Utility Vehicle

Experimental Analysis of Aerodynamic Aspects of Sport Utility Vehicle

With continuing increase and uncertain future of fuel price, the world has put more focus on alternative energy and saving it. Automobile industry, which consuming a decent percentage of fossil fuel, has been working on improving the fuel efficiency in past decades. Electronic vehicles, hybrid vehicles, and human powered vehicles were developed to pursue a high mileage per liter in daily transportations. Besides finding alternative fuel for gasoline, engineers are also trying to improve vehicle gasoline efficiency by manipulating different parameters including engine parameters, aerodynamic drag, weight, and rolling resistance.
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Alternative Fuel Public Transport Buses

Alternative Fuel Public Transport Buses

The rapid rise of private automobiles in developing countries has contributed to economic growth and expanded mobility, it has also resulted in negative impacts on public health, the environment, and urban liveability and energy costs.The vast majority of vehicles in the world (more than 95% of the world market) are currently based on spark ignition or compression ignition propulsion technologies using gasoline or diesel fuel.. But is this an inexorable outcome of the industrialization and urbanization process, or can new thinking and new technologies enable these countries to set different priorities and make technological choices that lead to movement down more sustainable paths? Hydrogen and fuel cell technology are one combination from among a range of established and emergent fuel and power train options to consider (Table 1). The total number of fuel cell vehicles worldwide is about 600 and these are prototypes serving as test vehicles. There is thus a need to evaluate alternatives for the transport sector at least as partial solutions to the problems of energy efficiency, urban pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions in the short and medium term. Although hydrogen and fuel cells are often identified as the ultimate, technological combination for the long term, decision-makers, in reality, are now faced with a complex range of options, in which the costs and benefits of different approaches are dependent on local resources, policy goals and strategic approaches. In this sense, the merits of different technologies will be shaped by specific, national decision making contexts, social and economic goals and concerns about future lock-in situations that may be created by the adoption of alternatives for the short and medium term that involve heavy infrastructure and other expenditures. Despite the complexity and uncertainties in approaching these choices, there are already lessons to be learned from a diverse range of alternative transport initiatives in developing countries. These examples illustrate how the first steps can be taken and how transitional niche markets tend to develop. The brief discussion below emphasizes the importance for decision- makers when approaching these various options to consider the nature of domestic energy resources, the specific public policy measures that are required, the related industrial capabilities already in place, and the nature of pressing social concerns.
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UNCSTUDY_CC.pdf

UNCSTUDY_CC.pdf

Energy, Energy Ef fi ciency & Renewable Energy, 2016c). The central aim of the Clean Cities program is to decrease petroleum consumption in the U.S. by 2.5 billion gal per year by 2020 (United States Department of Energy, Energy Ef fi ciency & Renewable Energy, 2016b). The Clean Cities program aims to build partnerships among state and local actors within both the public and private sectors to overcome crit- ical barriers that have impeded the acquisition of AFVs and use of alter- native motor fuels. These barriers include the low price of gasoline and diesel, insuf fi cient availability of alternative fuel refueling infrastruc- ture, and the relatively high cost of AFVs (Santini et al., 1995; Whalen et al., 1999; Rubin & Leiby, 2000). The program's main strategies are 1) to encourage a voluntary approach to AFV development and acquisi- tion; 2) to implement and oversee major activities such as grants for in- stallation of idle-reduction technologies and technical training through local designated coordinators; 3) to pay attention to niche markets, such as airport, transit, and government fl eets; 4) to enable and encourage development of refueling infrastructure; 5) to involve federal and state governments in developing and supplying funding, information resources, and technical assistance (Zhao & Melaina, 2006).
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Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel

Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel

The problem of global warming seems to be a never ending one. This is mainly due to the emissions caused by excessive use of non-conventional fossil fuels. These fossil fuels are dwindling day by day and it is almost impossible to meet the ever-growing demands of fossil fuels. Many innovations and researches have been made to tackle this problem on a global scale viz. switching to conventional sources of energy such as solar, wind, tidal, nuclear energy etc. apart from these, there are many modern technologies and ideas which are coming up from all around the world, one of which is Biodiesel technology.
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Production of Alternative Fuels and its Properties

Production of Alternative Fuels and its Properties

In the year 2000, there were about eight million vehicles around the world that ran on alternative fuels, indicating the increasing popularity of alternative fuels. There is growing social interest, and an economic and political need for the development of alternative fuel sources. This is due to general concerns of sustainability, both environmental, economic, and geopolitical. A primary concern is that the fact that the use of conventional fuels directly contributes to the global warming crisis. Another concern is the problem of peak oil, which predicts a rising cost of oil derived fuels caused by severe shortages of oil during an era of growing energy consumption. According to the 'peak oil' phenomenon, the demand for oil will exceed supply and this gap will continue to grow, which could cause a growing energy crisis by the year 2010 or 2020. Lastly, the majority of the known petroleum reserves are located in the middle east. There is general concern that worldwide fuel shortages could intensify the unrest that exists in the region, leading to further conflict and war
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Mahua Biodiesel: A Future Alternative Fuel

Mahua Biodiesel: A Future Alternative Fuel

All natural reserves being depleted fast due to over consumption. Almost 90% of the world’s energy needs are met by the non- renewable sources of energy like coal, oil and natural gas. This is of concern globally as the future generations would definitely be at threat. And this is the ringing alarm bell. The results of performance characteristics of a single cylinder, four stroke, computerized Kirloskar make CI Engine by using mahua (Madhuca indica) oil biodiesel and its 60% blend with diesel fuel have been presented in this paper. Short-term engine performance tests were conducted using diesel, mahua oil biodiesel and its 60% blend.
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Environmental Sustainability Through Exploitation of Alternative Energy Sources (AES) in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Environmental Sustainability Through Exploitation of Alternative Energy Sources (AES) in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Momentarily, coal-based fuel became the most preferred fuel for locomotives because it has higher energy carrying capacity than corresponding quantities of biomass-based fuels (firewood and charcoal). It is noteworthy that coal was comparatively cheaper and a much cleaner fuel as well in the past centuries [13]. Bioenergy is the energy derived from the biomass also called organic matter. It can be made from agricultural crops and plant materials such as wood, sawdust, peat, poultry litter, energy croups (such as willow and neem leaves), rice husks, sugar cane bagasse, cow dung and bio- degradable municipal waste and human soil waste, as well as straw grown specifically to be burnt as a fuel. Bioenergy is sustainable because its source (biomass) is replenished as new crops and forests are grown to replace those that have
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Real-time water-in-diesel emulsion fuel production system for diesel electric generator

Real-time water-in-diesel emulsion fuel production system for diesel electric generator

There is a novel concept which could eliminate the high dependency of the surfactant as well as the concerns towards the stability issues of the emulsion. The said concept is about producing the emulsion fuel in real-time, and directly and continuously supplied into the engine. The proposed name for the concept is real- time emulsion fuel production system (RTES). The concept of RTES is consisting of the fuel and the water which is stored in different unit. The two immiscible liquids will be transferred quantitatively and instantaneously being emulsified by a mixing system before it injected into the combustion chamber. This system is attached close to the engine fuel delivery system so that the new developed emulsion fuel made from that system is transfers instantaneously into the combustion chamber, thus the need to have emulsion with having long stability period is not necessary anymore. By implementing this concept, the presence of surfactant could be eliminated or the used of surfactant can be very minimal, plus the material that have the surfactant potential such as glycerine can be utilized only on its own. There is one patented invention [31] which nearly same with the concept of RTES, utilizes for burner and also diesel engine. However, no technical data or report revealed through the use of that invention on the engine/ burner (The technical details explaining the said invention is discussed in chapter 2).
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Miller Renewable Resources PPT.ppt

Miller Renewable Resources PPT.ppt

 Nuclear power plant Nuclear power plant : 92% of energy is wasted : 92% of energy is wasted through nuclear fuel and energy needed for.. through nuclear fuel and energy needed for.[r]

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Alternative Energy

Alternative Energy

As a result of this movement, the industry was demonized by many environmentalists. This created numerous regulations that crippled the industry’s ability to expand due to over exaggerated safety concerns. This is what has led to the construction length increasing so much over time. Towns do not want nuclear plants to be built nearby and they oppose any new nuclear plants due to misconceptions related to safety. People also bring the company building the plant to court frequently, which halts construction and this makes it more expensive to build. Since the construction process takes up the majority of the cost, this drove the price up over time and is preventing nuclear energy from competing cheaply, not because of an inability to compete. This is not necessarily a phenomenon limited to the United States, as many other industrialized countries have had similar concerns and regulations. A good example of this would be how Japan has been making in nearly impossible to use nuclear energy after the Fukushima accident in 2011. This has nothing to do with other forms of energy out competing it but irrational fears that are making it harder to develop nuclear power.
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Techno-economic and resource analysis of hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel

Techno-economic and resource analysis of hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) devel- ops and maintains  TEA models that describe the process and production economics of conceptual biochemical con- version pathways to biofuels and bioproducts. For a given set of conversion parameters, material and energy balance and flow rate information are generated using Aspen Plus process simulation software [64], assuming a feed rate to the biorefinery of 788 dry US tons of oil per day. These data are used to size and cost process equipment and compute raw material and other operating costs. Using a discounted cash flow rate of return analysis, the minimum jet fuels selling price (MJSP) required to obtain a net present value of zero for a 10% internal rate of return is determined. The result is a TEA model that reasonably estimates an “nth- plant” production cost for this pre-commercial process. Table  2 summarizes the financial assumptions applied in this study.
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Nuclear Power in Open Energy Markets: A case study of Turkey

Nuclear Power in Open Energy Markets: A case study of Turkey

For many decades, like many developed countries, Turkey has controlled her electricity sector as a state-owned monopoly. However, faced with rapid electricity demand growth, Turkey started to consider nuclear option 4 . The present paper aims at evaluating both the present status of nuclear power in general (including existing nuclear technology, nuclear power economics and current status of nuclear power in the world) and its implications for Turkish energy market in particular. Following part of the article provides a brief overview of nuclear power economics. Next part not only sets out the development and current context of nuclear power in the world but also focuses on its repercussions for the open energy markets. Fourth part considers both the historical background and current status of nuclear power in Turkey. Energy policymakers and others whose main interest is in nuclear-related policy matters may wish to concentrate on the final part.
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Alternative energy technologies as a cultural endeavor: a case study of hydrogen and fuel cell development in Germany

Alternative energy technologies as a cultural endeavor: a case study of hydrogen and fuel cell development in Germany

Successful networking in alliances is the prerequisite for agency creation. Alliance members create agencies whose sole objective is to enhance the societal usage of certain inventions. Thus, the creation of the agencies aims at accelerating the development of specific technol- ogies. A prime example for the creation of an agency is the emergence of the NOW which was implemented on the initiative of other agencies such as the TES and the CEP in order to set up a superordinate authority that would eventually merge all of them into one central organization. The main task of the NOW is to coordi- nate and steer all demonstration projects in order to push hydrogen and fuel cell technologies towards mar- ket entry [40]. Hence, the launch of the NOW reveals the efforts of diverse actors to make the process of tech- nology development more efficient.
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