It was thought that alternativematerials might behave in a different way from natural aggregates in standard laboratory tests. An inter-laboratory testing programme was carried out to investigate this. A number of materials including natural aggregates, crushed concrete, MSWI bottom ash, recycling glass and slag were subjected to the Los Angeles and Micro-Deval abrasion tests and the gyratory compaction and vibrating table tests. In the Los Angeles test, the amount of fines produced is measured after 500 revolutions and expressed as a percentage of the sample weight. In the Micro- Deval test, the amount of fines is measured after 12,000 revolutions. To assess the behavior of the materials during the tests, the amount of fines was recorded at intermediate stages: 100 and 250 revolutions for the Los Angeles test; 3,000 and 6,000 revolutions for the Micro-Deval test. The results for the Los Angeles test are shown on Figure 1.
Abstract: Precast concrete sandwich panels (PCSP) are energy efficient building system that are achieved through an insulation layer created between the concrete wythes. The insulation layer is usually of low bearing strength material making it more applicable for non-structural building systems. Hence, shear connectors are introduced to improve its structural capacity, which subsequently degrade it thermal performance by serving as thermal bridges across the panel. This article review researches of alternativematerials and methods used to improve the thermal efficiency as well as reduced the strength loss due to insulation in PCSP. The alternativematerials are basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP), carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP), and foam concrete which are selected due to their low thermal conductivity for use in shear connection. While thermal path method has been used to prevent the effect of thermal bridges. Although, some of these materials have successfully achieved the desirable behaviours, however, several undesirable properties such as brittleness, bond slip, the sudden crushing of the panel system, and FRP failure below its ultimate strength were observed. Hence, the practicality of the alternativematerials are still questionable despite its higher cost compared to the conventional steel and concrete used in PCSP system.
In this context, the mechanical behavior of asphalt compositions of the Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) type with the addition of two alternativematerials, the Sintered Aggregate of Calcined Clay (SACC), in the condition of coarse aggregate, and the vegetable fiber from Curauá, Ananas erectifolius, are studied in the present paper according to the Tensile Strength (TS), the Resilient Module (RM) and the Dynamic Module (DM).
Robo sand (Quarry dust) is one type of sand manufactured in the quarries of stone. It is a substitute material for the river sand used in production of concrete in construction. River sand, which is one of the constituents material used in the concrete production, has become expensive and scarce recourses. So there is higher demand for the alternativematerials used in the fine aggregates.
In civil engineering, Value Engineering supports to identify the alternativematerials and methods with less expensive substitutions, without sacrificing the functionality of the system. Value engineering is a systematic and conceptual approach for occurring the necessary functions in a project at the lowest cost in all fields. This concept mainly focusing on the functions of various components and materials, rather than their physical attributes. The expenditure on constructing the vertical structures is occupying the major part of cost in the total cost of construction. Therefore the selection and proper planning of type of method adopted for construction will reduce the cost of construction, duration of construction, labour requirement and so on while enhancing the quality of the construction process.
The high cost of conventional building materials is a major factor affecting housing delivery in the world. This has necessitated research into alternativematerials of construction. In this study, coconut shell is used as light weight aggregate in concrete. The properties of coconut shell and coconut shell aggregate concrete is examined and the use of coconut shell aggregate in construction is tested. The project paper a ims at analyzing flexural and compressive strength characteristics of with partial replacement using M25 grade concrete. The project also aims to show that Coconut shell aggregate is a potential construction material and simultaneously reduces the environment problem of solid. Beams are casted, tested and their physical and mechanical properties are determined. The main objective is to encourage the use of these seemingly waste products as construction materials in low-cost housing.
Jerry Magutu et al .This paper is based on a literature review and an evaluation of practices that have been I place with respect to low cost building materials and technologies so as to lower costs and hence make the buildings, especially housing for the majority urban poor who have meager resources and hence cannot afford conventionally built houses. The paper utilized both secondary data from the literature, and an empirical study of pilot projects that have been constructed in different regions of Kenya by utilizing traditional architectural research techniques akin to observational techniques in the social sciences, augmented by open-ended interviews and discussions with the different actors in the advocacy and use of low cost materials and technologies in building. This study found out that topmost of the constraints that hinder wider application and universalism for the alternativematerials and technologies is largely due to both lack of standards and specifications, and also information by the general populace about them. Otherwise I general, the alternativematerials and their technologies are quite economical, durable, sanitary and safe in construction as attested to my findings from the case studies for this paper
This case study at Natick University suggests that ARL libraries may be collecting a higher percentage of API material than reported in Marinko and Gerhard's findings. This is encouraging news for librarians who believe that the collection of alternativematerials is of vital importance. However the study’s results indicate that there remains a substantial number of API materials not subscribed to by Natick. These findings also suggest that Natick needs to update its cataloging of alternativematerials. The improved access would benefit on-campus patrons, as well as smaller libraries unable to purchase alternative resources.
The potential as a reinforcement in bio-composite materials was evaluated by finding its thermal stability using thermogravimetric (TG) curves. The mechanical behaviour was obtained with a uniaxial tension test adjusted to the ASTM D3822/D3822M-14 standard , determining the resistance of the cellulose micro-fibrils coupled within an amorphous matrix of lignin and hemi-cellulose that constitute the fibre . Finally, the microstructure was observed through a scanning electron microscope (SEM), allowing determination of the influence of its geometry on the tensile strength, where the lumen and the cell wall thickness are the determining factors of the mechanical properties of the fibre . When making a comparison with other natural fibres investigated by various authors, the viability of this fibre was validated in the development of new low-cost materials and friendly to the environment.
the authors found a description of the student needs based LKPD PJBL with STEM approach to improving critical thinking skills. After that, the researchers conducted observations and interviews with students and teachers to know the characteristics of the students, the materials that are considered difficult, and the materials needed. After that, researchers are looking for ways to implement PJBL with STEM approach in the study of mathematics by material trigonometric ratios in the right-angled triangle corresponding to the characteristics of the students. In the design phase, researchers set learning goals, create a description of learning activities to be carried out and choose the media that will be used to support the learning process. After that, Researchers create LKPD designs that follow the characteristics of the students based on learning objectives and activities to do in learning. Based on learning activities contained in LKPD design, researchers determined a tentative picture of evaluation tools to assess the learning process. The data collection technique used observation, interview, and assessment instruments. Observations and interviews were conducted to determine the characteristics and needs of students. Feasibility assessment instruments used to assess the feasibility of the design has been created to be used as the basis for making LKPD stages of development.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------------- ABSTRACT - There has been an increased demand for lighter bicycle components to enhance the ease of using the bicycles which require an integrated mechanical-metallurgical property analysis and validation of a given design optimization. The failure was still taking place in many cases though the dynamic results were satisfying in the design. The usage of the bicycle in a long run is an inevitable challenge as the practical conditions were not same as the design conditions. The stress levels, usage and the body weight of the person are the major parameters for the failure of the components in the bicycle. To overcome these kind of problems usage of composite materials as an alternative for the bicycle shaft and advanced technologies like Internet of Things (IOT) was an interesting choice. This project mainly focuses on the idea of use of composite shaft drive for Bicycles and the use of rapidly growing internet of things in every field of life.
- set acquisition. Panel supervision, in particular, was seen to address some of the issues resulting in cross-disciplinary research. One student spoke of her enthusiastic supervisor who had strongly urged her to create a film as her major research contribution. Unfortunately the supervisor had no skills, knowledge or background in film, nor did the student. This kind of advice to explore alternative dissemination without any clear support, has been mentioned several times in feedback through the process of the fellowship and I can provide no clear reasons beyond a sense that the supervisor was attempting to engage the student in a meaningful outcome, no matter how ill-prepared they were to support the students in their endeavours. It does highlight a major argument for panel supervision, to ensure that there are people expert in a particular process or discipline to support, assist and advise students of the work involved to fully realise a research outcome in an unfamiliar creative form, and perhaps sometimes to dissuade them from this path or to assist them to find a more feasible solution.
Calcium sulfoaluminate belite (CSAB) cement clinkers were produced using two industrial by-products: ladle slag and phosphogypsum. The phase composition of the produced clinkers was identified using quantitative XRD analyses, and the chemical composition of the clinker phases produced from phosphogypsum was established using FESEM-EDS. We demonstrate that ladle slag and phosphogypsum can be used as alternative raw materials for the production of CSAB cement. We also show that phosphorous from the phosphogypsum can be incorporated into the larnite crystal structure. The mechanical properties of the hydrated/hardened cement are also presented and are comparable with those produced from reagent-grade materials.
Microorganisms, as heavy metal biosorbents offer a new alternative for removal of toxic or valuable metals can be used for remediation processes and it is always recommended that microbe used for bioremediation must have natural decontamination process and the method should be cost effective 11 . Moreover microorganisms can detect very less concentrations of toxic metals which serve as an added return to the remediation process 12 .
Foodways studies by historical archaeologists commonly include descriptions of artifacts and faunal materials, and often include an assessment of the relative expenditures that each household chose to make when purchasing ceramics, based on the ceramic price indices developed by George L. Miller (Miller 1991). The impact of Miller’s studies concerning the consumption of goods and commodities in the foodways complex has been to make us, as historical archaeologists, think about the costs of the household goods and food remains we excavate. We need to remember, however, to include discussions about the functions of artifacts. In the case of red-earthenware vessels in the Northeast, the period from 1780 to 1880 saw great changes in food-preparation technology, which affected vessel functions. It was a time of innovation and a push toward modernization of many aspects of life, including food preparation. One of the most obvious changes, from an archaeological point of view, is a decline in the relative numbers of red earthenwares in the ceramic assemblages we excavate in New England and the Middle Atlantic. Many intersecting factors led people to stop using redware food-preparation vessels, including greater availability of other types of cookwares, a desire for cleaner-looking vessels, and a growing awareness of the effects of lead glaze, but a major cause for this change in the foodways complex was the shift in cooking technology from hearths and bake ovens to cooking stoves. Vessels made of other materials replaced redwares on the cooking surfaces and in the ovens of cast-iron stoves, reducing the food, and most cookbooks included sections
Babesia infections occur mainly in animals, and are transmitted by ticks. The severity of the diseases varies considerably depending on the species of Babesia involved as well as the immune response of the infected animal. In Mongolia infection produced by Babesia parasites is widely spread, provoking severe damage to the agricultural and economic sectors. Currently, strategies to control and prevent the infection are inefficient. Indeed, the necessity to look for suitable and accessible strategies to obtain animals free from the infection is needed. Currently, assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are used for the improvement of productivity in livestock. Moreover, embryo transfer seams to be useful approach to obtain clean embryos obtained from infected animals. Therefore, by using a mice model (ICR) infected with Babesia microti, an alternative method to obtain animals free from infection was examined. ICR mice at 8 weeks old were challenged with 0.2 ml of 1x10 7 IRBC/ml by i.p injection. After infection, superovulation was induced and then embryos were obtained
77 As discussed in Chapter 4, the manufacturer’s material has produced different stress- strain responses when created to the same density specification. Therefore, using this theory, the distribution of material from both EUEPP and UKEPP was evaluated. By identifying cell edge and wall contributions it is possible to explain the differences between each material and why at lower strain rates the material performance varies. Through rearranging the equation to make φ the subject within a quadratic, it is possible to predict the materials solid material within a cell’s edge using the Young’s modulus from a low strain rate test, as shown in Figure 32a. The test was carried out on a sample of EPP from EUEPP and UKEPP; the results from the VHS compression test for a block of 80 kg.m -3 EPP at a strain rate of 1 s -1 showed a modulus of 21 MPa and 14 MPa respectively.
In the present perception of the material ranking, it is clear that the technically the current material i.e., HX220YD (St 1) fulfills the expected quality for the manufacturing of front fender of automobile. The rank- ing is carried out to eliminate materials with lower tech- nical potential, meaning that any potential advantages of the other materials might permit better economic and environmental performance. The materials Al 1 and Al 3 will be excluded avoiding additional effort on subse- quent steps of any further methodology. The other steels (St 2 & St 3) achieve the highest score after St 1. The St 1 is the alternative with lower manufacturing costs de- rived from the lower material and fixed costs. St 3 for both thickness (estimated and minimum commercially available) having higher manufacturing costs, closely Table 2. Normalized data of candidate materials.
The economical aspects of designing for sustainability, like those of any building project, are concerned with the input of capital, materials and labour; and to provide services and assets. A life-cycle assessment can be a useful planning tool in considering the life span, serviceability and durability of a building and its components. In South Africa an additional dilemma is that housing solutions should not only satisfy potential beneficiaries, but also have to be afford- able in terms of existing governmental housing subsidies.