Alternative Tourism

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Alternative Tourism Diversity As A Tool For Rural Development: Example Of Turkey / Ermenek

Alternative Tourism Diversity As A Tool For Rural Development: Example Of Turkey / Ermenek

Many definitions of tourism have the same meaning. In order for an action to be considered as tourism in almost all tourism definitions; it is emphasized that the travel takes place outside the site of residence, that there is no intention of working and earning money, that the individual remains solely as a consumer and the trip does not return to a permanent stay. Considering these factors, tourism which is a branch of human and economic geography,can be defined as “travelling for various purposes to spend peoples remaining time outside of their basic occupation and a set of events and interactions that occur during the course of travel and temporary stay” [4]. Supply and demand related to tourism has been continuously increasing since the 1800s. In general, we can say that tourism activities occur in the form of mass tourism. However, since the 1980s, we see that alternative tourism types have emerged with the change in the touristy needs of the people [5].
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Alternative tourism as a route of economic and local development: north  case of baja California sur

Alternative tourism as a route of economic and local development: north case of baja California sur

The periods of time that refer to the present study correspond to the year 2016, beginning in September and ending in November, in the month just mentioned the result was obtained that is due to the organization of potential tourist activities for the Area of study, which resulted from the analysis of the mentioned studies. Finally, through a field study, it was possible to show what was reflected in the results, giving rise to the discussion and conclusions. During the month of September the study area was delimited, resulting in two municipalities in the northern part of Baja California Sur; Mulegé and Comondú (see Figure 1), these municipalities have the extension of 32,000.37km2 and 18,354.8 km2 respectively, which in turn represent 66.23% of the state territory, being 49.2% Mulegé and 17.03% Comondú (National Institute for Federalism and The Municipal Development [INAFED], 2016). It was also during the month of September that he elaborated a table that allows to group the tourist potential of the analyzed studies according to the relevant alternative tourism activities, be they Ecotourism, Adventure Tourism or Rural Tourism (see Table 1). In this table we can find the following columns: Study, Date of the same, Result of research, Alternative Tourism Shed and Activities, in the sense of the rows will list the names of the research. During the month of October the time was strictly devoted to the review and analysis of studies to land on potential activities. We must not forget that in this type of data collection it is necessary for the researcher to remain in a neutral position, without involving feelings or emotions to establish results, on that basis the data was filled in an unbiased way for studies, this With the purpose of that the study is true and applicable for future investigations, mainly in the zone of study.
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The Potential of Desa Pakraman Jasri as Rural Tourism in the Alternative Tourism Development at Karangasem Regency

The Potential of Desa Pakraman Jasri as Rural Tourism in the Alternative Tourism Development at Karangasem Regency

Desa Pakraman Jasri was established by the government of Karangasem regency as tourist village that had a complex potential as nature and culture tourism destination, therefore, in accordance with the concept of 4H and 4A on tourism developing. The way of life of society who still looked after the custom and tradition their ancestors were a major modal development it, and the beautiful views towards Jasri beach. The tourist who visited and stayed in the village will feel the atmosphere of rural life with a variety of society activities that are still traditional. However, the fact, the alternative tourism that was developed in Desa Pakraman Jasri did not develop based on society’s expectation and local government. In term of this, it needed to be studied, found and resolved the problems with the best possibility. The study result was to show that the alternative tourism development in Desa Pakraman Jasri was not through a deep and comprehensive assessment; therefore, there was a gap between society expectations and the happening reality.
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The role of climatic elements in public tendency towards alternative tourism: a sample of Turkey

The role of climatic elements in public tendency towards alternative tourism: a sample of Turkey

Given the opportunities for outdoor recreation and tourism activities, Turkish people, especially those in the eastern part of the country, would be among the nations who can benefit from these activities perhaps the most. Effects of climatic parameters (e.g. maximum and mean daily temperatures, relative humidity, total precipitation, sunshine, wind speed and global radiation) and weather conditions on tourism and outdoor recreational activities are of special importance in the eastern regions of Turkey (including the city of Erzurum) because severe climatic conditions are prevalent together with the stress on people resulting from the economic and social problems. In this region, long and cold winters affect human activities negatively. For instance, in the city of Erzurum, length of winters is at least six-month from late October to late April and ever recorded minimum temperature in the city is -37.2 ºC. Therefore, local people of the region are required to meet their recreational needs generally indoor and have no opportunities to perform outdoor recreational activities, except for a short period of time, nearly four months. When considered the unfavorable conditions resulting from both climate and lacking of infrastructure, people should perform their outdoor leisure activities in a physically and bio-climatologically comfortable environment. However, in its present condition, the region can not provide this possibility for people with its limited outdoor activity types due to the mentioned poor conditions. In spite of all these disadvantageous properties of the city and the region, in summer months, this area can have a very important alternative tourism potential because of its high elevation, untouched nature, and distinct climate, which can provide people with thermally more comfortable environments in summer months.
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Edu-Tourism: A Case for Alternative Tourism in St. Lucia

Edu-Tourism: A Case for Alternative Tourism in St. Lucia

 Research on international students who travel to an overseas setting to undertake long term studies and their tourist behavior is largely limited to studies in the United States of A[r]

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Vol 2, No 1 (2016)

Vol 2, No 1 (2016)

Dynamically, the issue of tourism development has been developed in a variety of terminology such as sustainable tourism development, rural tourism, ecotourism, which is trying to ensure that the travel can be implemented in real tourist destination especially in village. One approach of alternative tourism development is rural tourism for sustainable rural development. The main point of rural tourism can be seen in the lifestyle and quality of life in society. Authenticity is also influenced by economic conditions, physical and social rural area, such as space, cultural heritage, agriculture, landscape, services, tourism and cultural history, as well as unique experience and exotic regional specialties. Thus, the model of rural tourism should be continued and developed to be an identity or characteristic of certain area creatively.
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The Role of Tourism Stakeholders at Jasri Tourism Village Development, Karangasem Regency

The Role of Tourism Stakeholders at Jasri Tourism Village Development, Karangasem Regency

Karangasem regency is one of nine regencies/municipalities in Bali Province which is geographically located in the eastern tip of Bali. The Regency has a variety of tourism potential, particularly for the development of cultural tourism and nature tourism, which should be explored and promoted as a capital of tourism development in this regency in the near future. The beauty of natural scenery and traditional culture in the Karangasem Regency is filled with unique local customs that can be seen in every activity of the major Hinduism rituals, like Usaba Sembah and Mekaré-kare with pandanus war in the village of Tenganan, Usaba Dangsil at the Village of Bungaya, Usaba Dodol in the Selat Village, Gebug Ende in the Village of Seraya (Karangasem Tourism Office, 2013). Some of the natural and cultural potentials of Karangasem have been explored and developed as the alternative tourism development, such as spiritual tourism, ecotourism, agrotourism, and tourism village.
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Community Based Tourism Development

Community Based Tourism Development

8. Attachment of local wisdom because people have adapted to the natural surroundings. 9. The distribution is not concentrated in one area but can be spread every related area. The development of community-based tourism is expected to provide some benefits for society, particularly the economic benefit. So, the environmental preservation can be implemented by the local communities, their population distribution, and creating alternative tourism. The economic benefit received by local communities is to provide goods and services needed by tourists. The provision of goods and services can be done by women while the men work in the fields. The rural tourism creates jobs for women. 2 This opinion is supported by Schneider, the
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ALANA K. DILLETTE. 255 Payne Street, Auburn AL

ALANA K. DILLETTE. 255 Payne Street, Auburn AL

Co-developed and assisted in the teaching of the inaugural Bahamian Touristscape Study Abroad Program. Initial work included the development of a course curriculum, including assignments before the trip as well as during and after the trip, development of teaching material and coordination with contacts in The Bahamas supporting the program. Course material covered the development and maintenance of mass and alternative tourism in The Islands of The Bahamas. Components of the trip included site visits and tours, job shadowing, panel discussions with important Government figures as well as interactive and experiential learning with top tourism executives in the country. Successful completion of the trip resulted in nomination for the class to be run during its second year.
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Battlefield Tourism: An Examination of Events Held by European Institutions and Their Websites Related to Battlefields

Battlefield Tourism: An Examination of Events Held by European Institutions and Their Websites Related to Battlefields

It can be seen from the Figure 2 that nine distinctive types of battlefield events classified by the authors after the analysis. A detailed list of the events prepared by the authors can be seen in the Appendix 1.Leading type of battlefield events is presentations (186 frequencies). Most of the events held by the institutions take place across UK cities. A great majority of events held in hotels. Participating as audience may considered as a tourism movement in view of the need for travel and accommodation when occurred. The second largest share is daily battlefield tours (10 frequencies). Daily battlefield tours can be considered as a tourism movement. It is interesting to find out that most of the daily battlefield tours actualized in the historic battlefields in the UK. There exists hardly ever any battle took place in the recent history in the mainland of UK. This matter should not be overlooked. After, so many years it may be very hard to find evidence of the battles occurred in the distant past. The importance of literacy and interpretation may be suggestible when taking English social features into account. The third is conferences (7 frequencies). Attending conferences about wars and battles may also consider as battlefield tourism. Fourth is re-enactment (7 frequencies). Re-enactments are a distinct type of battlefield tourism. Re- enactments of battles are popular in USA especially with the American Civil War theme. It is interesting to find out in the European context re- enactments as a distinct type of battlefield tourism only available in Scottish Battlefield Trust’s website events. Commemoration and social activities share the same score (each with 4 frequencies). Lastly as the minor types of battlefield events are respectively battlefield tours (2 frequencies), field trip (2 frequencies) and study day (1 frequencies). It is
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Bundling as strategy of tourist attraction based on natural and cultural tourism in the ex-Surakarta residency

Bundling as strategy of tourist attraction based on natural and cultural tourism in the ex-Surakarta residency

3 transportation, travel agents, tourist attractions both natural and regional arts and souvenirs (Rai Utama, 2017). The community will get the opportunity to provide for tourists. More and more tourists visiting tourist attractions, will provide a lot of business opportunities for people in the area of tourist attraction. It is hoped that business opportunities can reduce unemployment, ultimately it can improve people's welfare. The research location in the Ex-Surakarta Residence, is an area rich in cultural heritage, nature reserves, museums and natural beauty that can be offered to local and foreign tourists. The uniqueness of the tourist attraction in the Ex Surakarta Residency, has not been fully exposed widely. Based on preliminary identification, it is known that the number of tourist attractions in each region is more than 5 kinds which include attractions of water, nature, museums, cultural heritage, sports, culinary, religious, and can still be developed into several types of tourism. There must be a strategy in developing tourist attractions. Strategies that guarantee the sustainability of tourist attractions must be taken into consideration in planning tourist attractions. To solve the problems in this study, bundling strategy is one of the ways that can be used to increase tourist visits (Adams & Yellen, 2014).
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Not That Alternative: Short-term Volunteer Tourism at an Organic Farming Project in Costa Rica

Not That Alternative: Short-term Volunteer Tourism at an Organic Farming Project in Costa Rica

If the notion of ‘helping’ or ‘doing good’ locates volunteer tourists as the primary agents and subjects in a discourse of international volunteering as international development, then the notion of self-development situates them as its key clients. Our study reflects other research in finding that volunteers expected their volunteering stint to have some sort of self-developmental effect, and a key component of their subsequent satisfaction was having experienced volunteering to some extent in those terms (Gray and Campbell, 2007; Lepp, 2008; Palmer, 2002; Stoddard and Rogerson, 2004). As Julia remarked, volunteering “helps you learn better skills, learn about yourself and about others, and later on in the future it helps you get better jobs because they know you’ll be more experienced and stuff”. According to Wearing (2001, 3) volunteer tourism “has been built around the belief that by living in and learning about other people and cultures, in an environment of mutual benefit and cooperation, one is able to engage in a transformation and the development of self.” Voluntourism promotional material stresses the self- developmental benefits of volunteering, and voluntourism providers design programs to facilitate it. A program called Cross-Cultural Solutions, for example, assures prospective participants that “all of our volunteers come away with the same benefits – personal growth, having a purpose, gaining independence and confidence, connecting with others, seeing a country from the inside-out”. In this prevalent discourse, “helping” or “doing good” is understood as a key resource for self-development that is uniquely provided by international volunteering.
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Economic Development Strategy of Halal Tourism in Sembalun Lombok Timur

Economic Development Strategy of Halal Tourism in Sembalun Lombok Timur

The Targets of Tourism Development, According to Kusudianto (1996) in Doni and Hasan, the international and domestic targets of tourism development are: International targets of tourism development: a) Increasing foreign exchange earnings b) More economic development provides employment opportunities c) Income increase national, increased tax revenues, and expansion. d) Increased appreciation overseas about Indonesian culture e) Promotion of diplomatic relations with other countries. While targets in the country of tourism development: a) Creation of unity and unity of national identity of Indonesia b) Improvement of general welfare c) Presence of general attention to the environment d) Preservation of traditions and local customs e) Protection from private rights for a vacation. (Tourism Dynamics Volume XI No. 2, October 2012)
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Strategy of Local Government in Tourism Development of Marina Beach in Bantaeng Regency South Sulawesi Province

Strategy of Local Government in Tourism Development of Marina Beach in Bantaeng Regency South Sulawesi Province

This research was focused to analyze strategy of local government in the de- velopment of tourism in Marina Beach, Bantaeng regency, South Sulawesi province, and the supporting and inhibiting factors as well as efforts to over- come them. Design used in this research is descriptive qualitative through SWOT analysis concept from Rangkuti, with calculation by Litmus test from Bryson to find the most strategic applicable issue. As for the affecting factors in strategy, there are supporting and inhibiting factors, while inhibiting fac- tors can be overcome by efforts based on mapping of internal (strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats). And therefore, 16 applicable strategies have been formulated, consisting of S-O strategies: advancing promotion by employing technology of both electronic media such as website and printed media such as tabloid, brochure and magazine; making regulations on Preservation of Tourism Regions and giving strict sanction to any violation; W-O strategies: reevaluating tourism development programs by providing better supporting facilities and infrastructures; employing technol- ogy optimally in the development of tourism object since initial to final phase; S-T strategies: encouraging conducive atmosphere among communities for better security and order to provide secureness for both local and foreign tourists; W-T strategies: preserving unity and integrity to reduce individuality in community and to prevent acculturation and negative influence of foreign culture; placing staff according to their skill, especially the one with compe- tence in the field of tourism.
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Economic development through halal tourism

Economic development through halal tourism

The interesting hypothesis proposed by Muhammad Afdi Nizar about the relationship between tourism and economics is causality, namely: a) economic growth supported by tourism, economic growth The interesting hypothesis proposed by Muhammad Afdi Nizar about the relationship between tourism and economics is causality, namely: a) economic growth is supported by tourism, so economic growth is influenced by tourism development (the hypothesis of tourism-led economic growth); b) tourism is supported by the economy, so tourism development is influenced by economic growth (the tourism hypothesis is driven by the economy); c) both (economy and tourism) have mutual benefits and are reciprocal causal hypotheses. Then, Nizar argues that there are two things that build a relationship between tourism and the economy, namely: 1) tourism has an impact on the economy because it can create employment, affect income, balance of payments, foreign exchange income from several things, such as tourist expenditure, tourism development, imports and export of goods and others; 2) tourism can be a stimulus effect for certain products and can form a community that is expected to move the regional economy in a positive direction by creating new jobs and increasing income for the region 13 .
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An Evaluative Study on Tourism in Bangladesh

An Evaluative Study on Tourism in Bangladesh

It is widely recognized that Bangladesh is very rich by the natural beauty and panoramic views, what a tourist wants to enjoy. But there is lack of effective initiatives, proper management plan, and quick & sincere effort of government (Akther, 2001). Bangladesh is a reverie country. She has vast natural beauty and a glorious historical background. Since liberation Bangladesh has progressed a lot and has paved her way to development with a good agro-based economy along with industry and service sector. Tourism is a part of service. But it has good associations with some other sub-sector of service and non service sectors. A large number of employment opportunities are being created by this sector. Tour operator business is doing well in Bangladesh. Thousands of young people have engaged themselves as tourists’ guide. Moreover some other induced impact of truism results in economic progress in local area and the country as a whole. Communication, throughout the country, is developed because of tourism. As a result, other economic activities are augmented. Based on findings, some recommendations are suggested.
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Greece tourism report 2010

Greece tourism report 2010

The Greek National Tourism Organisation (GNTO) is a Public Entity (PE) supervised by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Since 1950, the GNTO constitutes the ruling state agency for the tourism promotion of the country and the licensing of its tourism enterprises. According to the Law 3270/04 (Government Gazette 187/Α/11.10.2004), GNTO consists of the Head Office located in Athens and the Regional Departments of Tourism (as of 01.01.2005, in Attica, Crete, Western Macedonia, Eastern Macedonia – Thraki, Western Greece, Epirus, Ionian Islands, Central Macedonia, Southern Aegean, Peloponnisos, Sterea Ellada, Thessalia, Northern Aegean). GNTO also maintains several Info Kiosks (in Argostoli, Ancient Olympia, Arta, Gytheio, Evia, Zakynthos, Igoumenitsa, Herakleion, Thessaloniki, Santorini, Kavala, Kalamata, Corfu, Korinthos, Larissa, Lefkada, Rethymno, Samos, Chania, Chios). Recent L. 3878/2010 regulates GNTO’s organisation. It is important to highlight at this point that: by virtue of article 30, L. 3498/2006, the Directorate of Tourism Policy and Coordination of the General Secretariat of Tourism supervises and provides its consent for all the tourism promotion activities of all public sector entities.
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Slovakia tourism report 2009

Slovakia tourism report 2009

the field of tourism foresees that “each Member State shall send the Commission, once a year, a report on the most significant measures it has taken and, as far as possible, on measures it is considering taking in the provision of services for tourists which could have consequences for travellers from the other Member States”. With the publication of the “Agenda for a sustainable and competitive European tourism”, the Commission announced that “in order to strengthen the collaboration with and among Member States, their current annual reporting through the Tourism Advisory Committee (TAC) will be used to facilitate the exchange and the dissemination of information about how their policies and actions safeguard the sustainability of tourism”.
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Recommendations for tourism development of rural areas in North Macedonia

Recommendations for tourism development of rural areas in North Macedonia

Rural areas in North Macedonia are rich in diverse natural and cultural preconditions favorable for practicing rural tourism.The paper summarizes the results of accomplished activities in the rural environment in the line of developing rural tourism in North Macedonia. The overview of activities and results is based on three parameters: (i) By following the methodology and goals set within the Strategy for rural tourism development of Macedonia 2012-2017; (ii) By obtaining results from specific tailor-made field research; and (iii) By following the general criteria of standardization according to the European Federation for Rural Tourism EUROGEST. The findings highlight the characteristics of rural tourism in North Macedonia in eight statistical regions, fifteen draft rural destinations, thirty rural areas, and fifteen rural settlements whereas rural tourism is practiced. Keywords: Rural areas; Rural tourism;Tourist destinations; North Macedonia
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Slovakia tourism report 2010

Slovakia tourism report 2010

the field of tourism foresees that “each Member State shall send the Commission, once a year, a report on the most significant measures it has taken and, as far as possible, on measures it is considering taking in the provision of services for tourists which could have consequences for travellers from the other Member States”. With the publication of the “Agenda for a sustainable and competitive European tourism”, the Commission announced that “in order to strengthen the collaboration with and among Member States, their current annual reporting through the Tourism Advisory Committee (TAC) will be used to facilitate the exchange and the dissemination of information about how their policies and actions safeguard the sustainability of tourism”.
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