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Energy Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol based on Particle Swarm Optimization for WSN

Energy Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol based on Particle Swarm Optimization for WSN

ABSTRACT: The energy constraint sensor nodes operate on limited batteries, so the energy consumption is a key design criterion for the routing protocols in wireless sensor networks. Comparing with single path routing algorithm, multi-path routing algorithm can balance the network energy distribution and extend the network lifetime better.In this paper an energy efficient multipath routing protocol is proposed. The proposed algorithm is based on selection of energy efficient paths from multiple shortest distance path from source to destination. For selection particle swarm optimization algorithm is applied. The PSO algorithm selects energy efficient route among different shortest paths. The k-shortest route is selected on the basis of bandwidth and distance. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with multipath AODV routing protocol and concluded that PSO optimized energy efficient path is more efficient with respect to remaining energy of the network. The result is analyzed with variable number of packets send. KEYWORDS: Wireless Sensor Network, Multipath Routing, Particle Swarm Optimization, Energy Efficiency.
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An Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol with
Replication for On-demand Video Streaming in
MANETs

An Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol with Replication for On-demand Video Streaming in MANETs

Abstract – Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are becoming more essential to wireless communications due to growing popularity of mobile devices. On-demand video streaming over wireless networks is an increasingly important and attractive service to the mobile users. However, MANETs do not seem to effectively support multimedia applications and especially video transmission due to certain limitations like rapidly changing connectivity, network partitions, high error rates, collisions, limited bandwidth and power constraints. In this paper, we proposed and implemented EMRP_R (an Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol with Replication) based on the forecasting of parameters of nodes or routes that effect the performance for on-demand video streaming in MANETs. The main objective of the proposed work is to provide a smooth on-demand video streaming with minimum packet loss. Simulation was carried out in NS2 and the results obtained show that the proposed approach will improve the quality of on-demand video streaming when compared to the other existing approaches.
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An energy efficient multipath routing protocol based on signal strength 
		for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

An energy efficient multipath routing protocol based on signal strength for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

However, DSR Packet delivery ratio degrades to 89% as the pause time gets smaller, but as pause time increases the packets delivery increase reaches 95% at the end of simulation time. The reason for this height packet delivery ratio for SSBS is that it never uses stale route. If it doesn’t have a route for a destination, it finds one through Route Discovery and it also uses signal strength to ensure that only valid routes are stored at the nodes.The protocols impose different amounts of routing overhead, as shown in Figure-4. SSBS has the least routing overhead at all pause times and the routing overhead decreases as pause time increases; this is because it has use selective nodes. As the
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E2MR:Energy Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

E2MR:Energy Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

3.2.1 Depth Based Routing: Depth Based Routing (DBR) is a LFR scheme and does not need any pre-network node location infor- mation. The DBR primarily takes sensor depth into consideration while forwarding a data packet. In data packet forwarding, a node compares its depth with that of proposed receiver node. It only for- wards data when depth of receiver node is lower than sender itself. Sometimes it is unable to find a node with defined parameters, in a result it simply drops the packet or send it back to a higher depth node. It starts sending data to all nodes whose depth are lower than the sender node. On one hand it is beneficial for decreasing end to end delay but on the other hand it generates a sort of flooding which produce a higher energy consumption. This flooding process in DBR continues until packet is received by any of the sinks installed on- shore. Most of the time this process produces multiple copies at sinks level. DBR analyse only depth information while performing data forwarding operations. DBR leads towards a few drawbacks like, short network life of network, flooding and higher energy consump- tion. It mostly sends data to the multiple node of same depth level. DBR has no proper mechanism defined for path selection, protocol generates a random path for every data packet generated.
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Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol based on Path Survivability Factor

Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol based on Path Survivability Factor

International Journal of Computer Applications 0975 – 8887 Volume 104 – No 10, October 2014 Algorithm for Path Discovery Table 1: Pseudo Code for Path Discovery Begin {Find the next adja[r]

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Enhanced Energy Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor  Communication Networks Using  Cuckoo Search Algorithm

Enhanced Energy Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Communication Networks Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm

AOMDV uses distance vector concept and hop-by-hop routing approach. AOMDV also uses route discovery process to discover the on demand routes. The route request (RREQ) propagates multiple reserves between source and destination [19]. AOMDV also provides intermediate nodes with alternate paths as they are found to be useful in reducing route discovery frequency [22]. The main objective of the AOMDV protocol is to detect the multiple paths with loop-free and disjoints using flood-based route discovery. Entry expiration time gives the time after which, if a corresponding RREP has not been received, the entry is deleted. The routing table entry is modified for the maintenance of the multiple entries and multiple loop-free paths. Firstly, advertised hop-count replaces hop-count and advertised hop-count is the maximum over all paths from the current node to nd, so only one value is advertised from that node for a given destination sequence number. Secondly, next-hop IP address is replaced by a list of all next-hop nodes and corresponding hop-counts of the saved paths to nd from that node, as follows:
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Energy Efficient Prioritized Multipath QoS Routing Over WMSN

Energy Efficient Prioritized Multipath QoS Routing Over WMSN

Efficient Multipath routing protocol (REER) which uses the residual energy, available buffer size, and Signal-to- Noise Ratio (SNR) to predict the best next hop through the paths construction phase. REER examines two methods of traffic allocation: REER uses the alternative path if the path cost of the path choosen from the discovered paths falls below a threshold in the first method. The second method splits the transmitted message into number of segments of equal size and then transmits it across multiple paths simultaneously to increase the probability that an essential portion of the packet is received at the destination without incurring excessive delay. In [10], authors designed novel QoS aware routing protocol which works in a distributed manner to support high data rate for WMSN. The routing decision is made according to the dynamic adjustment of the required bandwidth and path length based proportional delay differentiation for real time data. In [11], authors presented multi-path transmission of video using packet and path priority scheduling over WMSN. Here the objective is to provide a transmission mechanism to improve the video quality perceived at the receiver while considering energy, bandwidth and delay constraints of the network. The network- adaptive transmission mechanism is proposed in [12] that decompose the source bit stream into segments of unequal importance and reserves the most reliable paths to transmit the segments with the highest importance. Moreover, unequal segment loss protection with erasure codes of different strengths is used to maximize the expected quality at the destination and propose a fast algorithm that finds nearly optimal transmission strategies.
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Vol 8, No 3 (2016)

Vol 8, No 3 (2016)

Abstract: In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) the devices are interconnected by wireless manner that are able to ubiquitously retrieve contents such as video and audio streams, still images, and scalar sensor data from the environment. MANET provides low power in hazardous environment where replacement of fault evaluation in the MANET is impossible. Hence, development of an energy efficient network is essential in MANET, where the cost of network depends on the energy consumption of each mobile node. Overutilization of energy by a mobile node cannot contribute to the utility or the network as a whole. Hence to optimize the utilization of energy at each node, we propose an energy efficient multipath routing protocol for MANET for enhancing QoS and QoE metrics (EMRP-QQ), which can eventually minimize the data loss and hence there liability of the mobile nodes and the overall network. In our proposed approach an energy efficient clustering is performed using particle swarm optimization (PSO), where all the nodes are clustered without any residual nodes left in the system. Using the appropriate selection of CH and SCH the overall networks overhead utilization is reduced and hence the QoS of the network is enhanced. The result obtained through NS-2 simulation shows that the proposed algorithm performs better than FQ-MP-OLSR approach in terms of reduced energy consumption of each node without affecting QoS and QoE metrics.
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Performance Analysis of Energy Efficient Routing Protocols For  Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

Performance Analysis of Energy Efficient Routing Protocols For Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

Abstract - Mobile Ad-hoc network is a continuously self-configuring, infrastructure less wireless network consisting of mobile device. An energy efficient protocol is important in design of Ad-hoc network because the nodes in Ad-hoc networks operate in limited battery energy and it is not possible to recharge or replace the battery. A shortest path is always selected in Ad-hoc networks by conventional routing protocols. Today most mobile Ad-hoc networks operate on batteries. Power consumption is an important issue. When single path used then the nodes will exhaust very soon and the lifetime of the network is very less. In this paper the discussion of AODV, MEP-AODV and the SELECTIVE AODV is done. The MEP-AODV is the multipath energy efficient probability routing protocol. Minimum battery energy consumption and multipath selection is considered in MEP-AODV. Multipath will selected with sufficient battery energy by destination. Source node can send data via the selected multipath. The proposed model is simulated in MATLAB to evaluate the performance.
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ZBLE: “Energy Efficient Zone based Leader Election Multipath Routing Protocol for MANETs”

ZBLE: “Energy Efficient Zone based Leader Election Multipath Routing Protocol for MANETs”

Abstract: Inside the paper, an analysis of the representation of a zone-based multipath routing technology called Zone-Based Leader Election Energy Constrained AOMDV Routing Protocol (ZBLE) for MANETs has been presented. The primary purpose of the MANETs is to make system communication effective and efficient so that the quality of the network can be ensured. Consumption of energy in the MANETs has extended been a larger problem since the past. Movable devices present into the wireless environment are dependent on batteries and cannot fulfill the power supply due to limited power capacity. To address this problem, we have used zone-based technology which is designed by modifying the AOMDV protocol. Inside here, the demonstration about a zone-based system for the wireless network has been analyzed which is called Zone-Based Leader Election Energy Constrained AOMDV Routing Protocol (ZBLE). It has been implemented for energy efficient communication based on energy label, node tracking, and power analysis. It is a zone-based technology that works in keeping with the energy of multipath routing in mind. ZBLE protocols prolong the network's life by reducing balanced energy consumption between nodes. This protocol is compared to the traditional route protocol i.e. AODV and AOMDV, in which it has been found that the ZBLE protocol presents better results.
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Multipath Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Multipath Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

In 2013, Yash Arora and Himangi Pande, Energy Saving Multipath Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks, The Wireless sensor networks have many characteristics such as limited energy resources, low bandwidth and unreliable links. Due to these characteristics there are many challenges in the design of sensor networks. Routing in WSN is very challenging task. Multipath establishes several path for data transmission rather than single path. Due to this data delivery is high. They proposed energy saving multipath routing protocol (ESMRP). ESMRP make use of load balancing algorithm to transfer the data. ESMRP calculates node strength to discover its next best hop. Our protocol uses two versions, in the first version, data is transmitted through single path, if some path failure occurs or discovered path node strength goes below 15% of alternative path node strength then it will switch to next alternative path. In the second version of ESMRP, message is split into various segments and some correction codes are added to these segments. After that these segments are transmitted across multiple paths. Simulation results shows that the proposed protocol is more energy saving than previous protocol in providing efficient resource utilization.
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An Efficient Multipath Routing Algorithm

An Efficient Multipath Routing Algorithm

With the rapid development of the Internet, more and more real-time and mission- critical applications are deployed. Since these applications are more sensitive to network delay, which impose more strict requirements on network reliability. However, network failures are common in the Internet. Whereas, the convergence time for the current deployed intra-domain routing protocol is the order of seconds. Therefore, network outage may be occurred when network component fails. The slow convergence of the current deployed intra-domain routing protocols cannot meet the reliability requirements of real-time applications. Therefore, improving the Internet routing availability has become an urgent problem. In particular, our contributions can be summarized as follows:
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ECC BASED MALICIOUS NODE DETECTION SYSTEM FOR MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK

ECC BASED MALICIOUS NODE DETECTION SYSTEM FOR MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK

Wireless sensor networks consist of sensor nodes that have limited processing capability, small memory and low energy source. These nodes are deployed randomly and often densely in the environment. In monitoring applications, sensor nodes sense data from the environment periodically and then transmit them to a base station which is called sink node. Thereby data transmission consumes node’s energy based on transmission distance. In most wireless sensor networks, the energy source of the node is limited and cannot be minimized. Here, we have proposed the Efficient Energy based Multipath Cluster Routing Protocol for minimizing the energy consumption in WSNs. It consists of four phases. In this cluster formation, cluster head records all the cluster members. In multipath routing, network is organized as a group of networks. It provides load balancing and increased throughput to the network. In last two phases, both energy consumption model and condition for minimizing average energy consumption was proposed. The proposed scheme attains balance end to end delay, delivery rate and energy efficiency in WSNs. By simulation results, the proposed EEMCRP achieves better data delivery ratio, improved network lifetime, less end to delay and energy consumption in terms of mobility, time, throughput, simulation time and number of nodes than the existing scheme.
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Network Impact Analysis Of AOMV And AOMDV Routing For Real Time MANET Designing

Network Impact Analysis Of AOMV And AOMDV Routing For Real Time MANET Designing

The Mobile ad-hoc network is a self configure network, where every nodes self decision maker and provide the service to other nodes. MANET is communications a lesser amount of network because nodes freely move anywhere in the network, that is critical challenge for route establishment between communicator nodes. The Many researchers design the routing protocol i.e. proactive, reactive and hybrid but reactive routing protocol is more suitable for mobile ad-hoc communication, because reactive work where on demand based routing needs. The routing capability of protocol is depend on the network conditions and the routing procedure of connection establishment to data delivery in dynamic network. The network conditions are measures in the heavy load and light load. The routing protocol AODV is the most excellent unipath procedure for MANET surroundings. The load distribution and balancing is the additional work in the AODV protocol but possible only in a single path. But in AOMDV protocol has an inbuilt load balancing approach by providing the alternatives for data delivery. In this work our objective to analyze the behavior and hidden performance parameter of AODV and AOMDV routing i.e. contention, queue analysis, congestion etc. multipath routing is better routing approach where multiple nodes simultaneously share the common channel, because its provide multipath between communicator nodes and better individual channel utilization technique. With the help of AOMDV routing approach average back-to- back delay as well as routing on top of your head minimized and greater than before the presentation of the network. The AOMDV is better and provides efficient data delivery. The few of the advantages of the AOMDV multipath routing
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Energy Efficient Grid Based Routing Protocol

Energy Efficient Grid Based Routing Protocol

congestion, the cluster nodes exchange control information to regulate sensors sending rates. To support multi-classes of traffic, the sensors adjust their sending rates based on the importance of the information being reported. This method requires the cluster head to monitor the traffic intensity information across the cluster and periodically forward it. EQSR is an energy efficient QoS multipath routing protocol. In the proposed protocol, multiple paths are created between the source and the destination during the paths discovery phase. Each path is associated a cost that is function of residual energy, buffer occupancy and SNR for the nodes along the path. The node with the highest remaining energy, lowest buffer occupancy and best interference is chosen as the next hop. EQSR utilizes the available paths in order to support node failure recovery without invoking network- wide flooding for path discovery. For that purpose, the proposed protocol splits up the transmitted message into a number of equal sized segments. Then, a Forward Error Correction (FEC) technique is used in order to generate error correction codes of the same size as the data segment. Then, the data segments and the correction codes are transmitted over multiple paths simultaneously. Moreover, EQSR employs service differentiation by transferring the real-time traffic along the paths that have the minimal end-to-end delay while the higher delay paths are used for forwarding non real-time traffic. EQSR estimates the end-to-end delay of each path using the elapsed time of the control message (called RREQ message) that is used to construct the path. That time is calculated since the transmission of RREQ message from the node’s neighbour till it is received by the node itself. When compared with another protocol, simulation results have shown that EQSR achieves lower average delay, more energy savings, and higher delivery ratio.
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CYBER SECURITY FOR CYBER PHYSCIAL SYSTEMS: A TRUST BASED APPROACH

CYBER SECURITY FOR CYBER PHYSCIAL SYSTEMS: A TRUST BASED APPROACH

In wireless sensor networks routing is an essential technique for discovering multiple paths, so in the past years, apart from the numerous recommendations being made, it has also generated a lot of attention from researchers. Generally multipath routing covers a broader research area [2] so to fulfill the objective, the research highlighted on specific areas only which are related to our proposed scheme. Directed Diffusion (DD) is among the oldest multipath routing protocol recommended [8] because it is based on data- centric routing, which every communication must be for a named data. Most sensor nodes are normally application aware and maintained an interest cache. The advantage of this approach makes is to ensure that diffusion attains energy efficiency, and this is done by choosing the most suitable paths, caching and before being transmitted to the network, the data is processed. Though DD is a good routing protocol, there are some drawbacks such as interest broadcasting and path reinforcement that generates lot of energy consumption during control traffic and usage. In [9] Low Interference Energy Efficient Multipath Routing (LIEMRO) was essentially proposed to enhance the packet delivery ratio, lifetime, and latency throughout multiple interference-minimized node disjoint paths also it considers a load balancing algorithm in order to spread the source node traffic through multiple paths reliant on relative quality of each path. Some researchers have recommended a protocol known as N-to-1 multipath routing which has the ability to discover several node-disjoint paths through the sink and a
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Honeypot-based Defense System Design
 

      N.Priya,   K.Naga Teja,   M.Anjay,  Abstract PDF  IJIRMET1602040028

Honeypot-based Defense System Design N.Priya, K.Naga Teja, M.Anjay, Abstract PDF IJIRMET1602040028

Abstract : In mobile ad hoc network (MANET), energy consumption is one among the foremost vital restrictions that deteriorate the performance of the whole network. Multi-path routing is better than the single path routing in ad hoc networks, because multi path routing allows the establishment of multiple path between a single source and single destination node. This project presents a new approach of energy efficient secure multipath hybrid (EESM-hybrid) routing protocol for MANET based on both AODV and AOMDV protocol is modified and converted to work on multiple path .Differing types of routing protocols planned over the years with minimal management overhead and network resources. Hybrid protocol(both AODV & AOMDV) is well-liked routing protocol among others. It is a loop free, no centralized authority, single path, On-demand routing protocol and its performance is superior than different routing protocols in MANET.
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Energy Efficient Cluster Head Selection In Adhoc On Demand Multipath Distance Vector Routing Protocol

Energy Efficient Cluster Head Selection In Adhoc On Demand Multipath Distance Vector Routing Protocol

because of unexpected circumstances, the original LEACH protocol has no spare CH node, and then the ordinary nodes in the cluster will still interact in accordance with the original provided time until the end of the round, causing a great amount of energy waste. When the proportion is 5%, the system effectiveness is the highest. In fact, the ratio finds the number of CH nodes depending on the number of initial nodes, and there are more alterations in the structure resulted by the appending of new nodes and the failure of existing nodes in actual function. In WSN, the cluster heads are accountable for gathering the data from the members of the cluster and fusing them, and then transmitting them to the BS Station (Base), also known as the SINK. Therefore, the energy of cluster head nodes is mainly utilized in the following sections: energy will be consumed on receiving the data received by members of (N/r) clusters, energy utilization of data fusion processing, and energy utilization of transmitting the fused data to the base station. The choice of cluster head node in LEACH [16] has some deficiencies such as,1. some very huge clusters and very tiny clusters may prevail in the network at the same time.2. Irrelevant cluster head picking while the nodes have different energy.3. Cluster member nodes exhausted of energy after cluster head was failed.4. The algorithm does not consider the position of nodes. omits residual energy, geographic location and other information, which may simply result in cluster head node will rapidly fade. The Cluster head gathers and groups the information from sensors in its own cluster and sends the information to the BS. By rotating the cluster-head randomly, energy consumption is estimated to be uniformly distributed. However, LEACH possibly picks too many cluster heads at a time or randomly chooses the cluster heads far away from the BS without taking into consideration of residual energy. As a consequence, some cluster heads will exhaust their energy early thus minimizing the lifespan of WSN. In every step of the cluster formation, network requires to adopt the two steps to choose cluster head and transmit the aggregated data. (i) Set-Up Phase, which is decomposed in to Advertisement, Cluster Set- Up & Schedule Creation phases. (ii) Steady-State Phase, which achieves data transmission using Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).[19]
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Improving Energy Efficient QOS Performance for Heterogeneous MANET

Improving Energy Efficient QOS Performance for Heterogeneous MANET

In Mobile Ad hoc Networks, routing is one of the most essential tasks owing to volatile topology. In MANET, the nodes can depart and connect the network; this uneven nature makes support of QoS (Quality of Service) is a complex task. A major issue in heterogeneous networks is energy utilization. In this paper, a heterogeneous network is intended to attain enhanced energy-efficient multipath QoS provisioning. Primarily, the multipath routes are assumed to be discovered and they then find the gateway node along with all the nodes in the network by using the gateway selection procedure. By using a QoS based Energy Efficient Optimal Multipath route discovery and route maintenance in multipath routing protocol, discover the optimal path for data transmission from the source to the destination. In this way, QoS parameters such as bandwidth, throughput, packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay will be computed and accomplish in the best possible way.
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Energy Efficient Power Aware Multipath Dynamic Source Routing

Energy Efficient Power Aware Multipath Dynamic Source Routing

Mobile networks have attracted significant interest in recent years because of their improved flexibility and reduced costs. Compared to wired networks, mobile networks have unique characteristics like frequent network topology changes, varying link capacity because of the impacts from transmission power, receiver sensitivity, noise, fading, and interference. Additionally, wireless mobile networks have a high error rate, power restrictions, and bandwidth limitations [1]. Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which network traffic can be sent. [2] In a mobile ad hoc network arbitrarily motion of nodes results in unpredictable and frequent topology changes. Additionally, since nodes in a mobile ad hoc network normally have limited transmission ranges, nodes cannot communicate directly with each other. Hence, routing paths in mobile ad hoc networks contain multiple hops, and each node in mobile ad hoc networks has the responsibility to act as a router. Because of the importance of routing protocols in dynamic multihop networks, a lot of mobile ad hoc network routing protocols have been proposed in the last few years. Routing protocols of MANETs fall into two main categories. First are Proactive protocols which are also known as table driven routing protocol in which every node periodically exchange the routing information and maintain network topology information in form of tables.
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