Patrick is concerned with narratives which present themselves in familiar landscapes, mostly those of Southern Germany and North- ern England. These are intuitive explorations, a persistent routine of drawing with a (passive) lens, often those sea-and landscapes which resonate considering their role in the history of Europe. ‘I respond to the light and describe with it a melancholic drifting, recalling mem- ories and historical events. I walk for conven- ience and attuned to my rhythm of thought, this I can accommodate close to my wider fam- ily and professional tasks. Now I spend most of my time in Northern England where an increas- ingly familiar landscape has been emerging in my photographs. It also is becoming part of me. In seeking familiar, unimposing and mod- erately scaled environs I indicate skepticism with the grand gesture, the overwhelming emotion. My approach is normally contained within a straight realist aesthetic, resulting in tentative elementary documents.’
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mankind is. Mankind is an inseparable entity of extreme complexity. It is hoped that answering this question will contribute to reducing global violence and enmity which has divided mankind between the ‘ common us ’ (People in the Global North) versus the ‘ evil them ’ (Muslims) . Reduction in ignorance and proper understanding of fellow human being will ultimately bring perpetual peace, contentment and happiness across the planet for which mankind has always strived. The remainder of the article is divided in the following four sections. Section two discusses aims and objectives of the study. Section three discusses mankind as highlighted in the liberal school of thought. Section four discusses mankind in Islamic theology. Section five concludes and gives policy recommendations.
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On order and change in North Africa and beyond . In the wave of unrest that continues to sweep across North Africa and the Middle East, the notion of crisis has found yet another lease of life, and commentators of all stripes have begun to offer their reflections on exactly what these developments might mean. In this third section we offer two such commentaries that approach this question through existing theories of order and change. Joe Hoover, for example, reads events in Egypt through the prism of realism as both a theory and doctrine of International Relations, identifying the West’s fundamental failure to see the world through anything other than the nation-state’s eyes. Meanwhile, fellow co-editor Nathan Coombs asks whether these events warrant the use of the term ‘revolution’, providing an analysis of recent of left-wing commentary via Alain Badiou’s notion of the event. Both authors here have had the daunting challenge of chasing a moving target, but in routing this pursuit through different theories of order and change, they provide us with an additional window onto the idea of crisis today.
As Meghani has offered us the fragrance of Saurashtra: the land of lions and mountain, its variegated life-style- the saints and satis, the stories of dacoits and the brave, Pannalal in the same manner has discovered the north-east border region of Gujarat state and the throbbing nature of land of Ishan (North-East) mountains in his regional novels like: Manvini Bhavai, Malela Jiv and Valamana. Pannalal has searched the clue of self-religion (duty). While writing the fiction, he preferred to select the plot from every corner of urban and rural life. But when his logical power became self-sustained and winged, he had measured to think over one and only region which was his own. And in the said region, his natural uniqueness could blossom in full swing. The sight of this land and its people seen in his novels has remained the first charming introduction of unknown and unseen region of Gujarat till present day. It seems that Pannalal has made alive the big fair of Ishan corner in the universe of Gujarat: Its Ishan region, the Magariya mountains and chora hills, the Jambudiya dhara (deep lake), and up roaring rivers, the fields of maize crops and horrifying forests, the variety of people- the youth wearing colourful feathers, the woman wearing mere petticoat and cloth or flowered skirts, petticoats and gavans (sari), the snuff smelling women or Hukkah-drinking by male, its Baniyas and Kanbis, its Bhills and Shepherds, the herds of cows and buffalos, their verandah-cum-sitting room(chopad), the courtyards and barns, and houses made of cow-dung and black sand, the walls made of bamboo and maize stalks and houses shaded with grass or the wells in the fields and shades, their fairs and merry-go-round, the marriage songs and ballads to praise the Goddess, their dacoits and thieving, the echoing guns and swinging swords, their bhaidaka(the grain grinded coarsely) and kansar(sweet), and the people: living in the side of mountain and lap of nature, crying, sobbing and enjoying, worshipping the deity of motichhada (measles) and ghost, sacrificing the hens and goats etc. have been vitalized like a fair of Ishan region.
MAY-JUNE, 2013, VOL-I, ISSUE-VI www.srjis.com Page 1341 Singalila is a trekking destination in the far northwest corner of West Bengal state. Kanchenjunga, the world's 3rd highest peak, is visible for much of the trek, to the north, on the Nepalese border with Sikkim. Usually the park is accessed from Maneybhanjang, approx. one hour, or 30 km. west of Darjeeling. The park can also be accessed from Rimbik, where many trekkers finish up, or from Bijanbari, with one extra day's walking. Trekkers must pay a 100rp fee to enter the park, and must hire a guide. Porters can also be hired in Maneybhanjeng. Many trekkers sign up for a 3, 5 or 6 day trek in Darjeeling, where various trekking companies make all of the arrangements. Passports must be carried, as the trek crosses briefly into Nepal, then back into India. Sleeping bags and layered warm clothing are a must, as the temperature dips well below freezing most nights. Overnight lodging is done at assorted huts or simple guesthouses along the way, and hot meals are available at the same. Starting from Maneybhanjang, most trekkers stay overnight in Gairbas or Kalipokhari, and press on to Sandakphu for the 2nd night. Sandakphu at 3636 meters, is a favorite spot to view the high Himalayan peaks of LLotze, Everest, Makalu, etc., in early morning when visibility is good. 3 day trekkers turn aside and head downhill to Rimbik for their final night, while others head further north for spectacular views from Sabarkum and Phalut, then downhill for Raman, and finish in Rimbik for the last night. For greater cash outlay, non-trekkers, or those pressed for time can hire a jeep as transport from Maneybhanjang to Sandakphu, and stay overnight to catch the sunrise views. The ideal time to visit is April or May, in spring when the rhododendrons are in bloom, but Singalila can also be done in the fall, after monsoon season.
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psychological foundations. Simon, North, Kahneman, Akerlof and some further economists in the same line are Nobel laureates and practice methodologically what Schumpeter (1954a) had already suggested earlier. Sociology increasingly claims new ground and indicates the social embeddedness of institutions and economic behavior (Granovetter, 1985; Mikl-Horke, 2008; Bögenhold, 2008; Haller, 2014), which follows a script already provided by Schumpeter. His position is quite close to an institutionalist perspective, which tries to embed historical, regional and, in that sense, cultural specifics in order to gain a clear sense of empirical material, which differs internationally and historically. Reading Schumpeter is an appropriate tool for finding a way back and for shedding light on contemporary questions. Obviously, many open questions remain. One of the issues to be discussed further is the positioning of Schumpeter within so-called Austrian economics. Is Schumpeter a major actor of the Austrian school, if it exists as a unique body? Is he just a foot soldier or does he not belong to the Austrian school at all? The answer is certainly indefinite and vague, depending on how Austrian economics is defined. Another question is how the landscape of the academic division and the economic toolbox might be drawn from the viewpoint of members of different disciplines, e.g. the view of a sociologist, an economist, a historian or a psychologist. Do those academic professionals have separate tool boxes? Sixty years after Schumpeter’s preface to the History of Economic Analysis
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The Sri Guru Granth Sahib (the Holy Sikh Scripture) envisaged a righteous, democratic, humanitarian and egalitarian society based on the ideals of Fatherhood of God and Brotherhood of mankind, service to the humanity, mutual love, social harmony and cooperation. The idea of service to humankind is the inseparable part of the Sikh way of life as laid down by the revered Sikh Gurus. Sikhism is unique in stressing the aspects of selfless service to humanity and contribution to its welfare. It emerged as a new mode of humanitarian thought, heralding a new conception of Ultimate Reality and a new vision of the Universal Man, which led to a new outlook of human spirituality and a whole-life religious system based on the dual aspects of temporal and spiritual concepts, called Miri and Piri in the Sikh parlance (Shan, Harnam Singh, 20012) 1 . The word Seva is
Before you use the Easy Mode Save command, you should make sure that the IDEA Host Computer has enough free disk space to hold the backup. You will typically need about 2-6 MB depending on the amount of recordings in the NVM-Series system. If the NVM-Series system has many Welcome Messages, Instruction Menus, Paging Messages, etc., make sure you have closer to 6 MB of free disk space. If you think the database is close to 6 MB, you may not wish to back it up via a modem if the modem will be using a baud rate of 2400 or less. It would take a very long time and you may not want to tie up a telephone line for that long. Instead, you may want to backup the NVM-Series database using the Archive command. See Archiving the Database in this chapter.
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Humboldtian essence is under pressure. This development is often shaped by political and economic constraints, which as external factors, result in inner reorganisation. Things work out whenever scientific (i.e. academic) reason prevails by facing external constraints with institutional imagination, things work out, where it remains idle and the political and eco nomic constraints rule, the university is threatened with the loss of its essential na ture, and with it its idea and theory. This essential nature consists of an autonomous research and teaching organisation along with a concept of education that both reflects and provides a critical self-awareness to the modern world, which itself is scientific in nature. The keywords are: education, commercialisation, autonomy, and universality.
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chosen himself rather than using the names that Harvey originally introduced into the argument. This is a departure from the technique Nashe used in previous works with his references to Spenser, France, Watson and Daniel all being responses to Harvey's letters where these figures are originally mentioned. Here Nashe has chosen his own gallery of great and good men and Spenser is the only one who appears in both of the lists. Instead Nashe looks beyond the page and invokes soldiers, bishops and heralds to make his point. All the men that Nashe names are well respected in their own fields and well known to the establishment; Nashe appears to be suggesting that Spenser is not only a great author as Harvey tends to cite him, but is also a figure worthy of respect outside of the literary world. This idea is supported by the manner in which Nashe then refers to his inclusion of Spenser; he describes the preceding five men in glowing terms, listing their accomplishments and their effect on him before eventually turning to the author. Here Nashe takes pains to make it clear that his placing of Spenser in this final position is not a slight on the poet; rather he notes
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Hegel’s guiding idea, when considering elections, is that the lower chamber should not just represent the sheer will of the people: for were it to do so, “political life”, which is meant to protect people’s rights and legitimate interests, would be made dependent on “arbitrary will and opinion”, thus on “contingency” (RPh §303R). Equally, membership of the lower chamber should not be determined by the simple fact that a large mass of people has certain views. Indeed, for Hegel, the “sole aim of the state” with regard to the “people” is to ensure that it “should not come to existence, to power and action, as such an aggregate [Aggregat]”. Otherwise, what would hold sway would not be reason and right, but the “blind force” of the people, the simple weight of numbers (Enc. 3 §544R; see also RPh §302). To put the point another way, the “private estate” should not participate in the political process as a shapeless mass of individuals, since this would base the laws of the state on the “democratic element devoid of rational form” (RPh §308R). 18 Hegel was once accused by Karl Popper of
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In organizations, idea generation is not a specific job and often when new ideas surface, no action is taken (Gamlin, Yourd, Patrick, 2007). In most cases, the ideas can be of great scope, hard to process and rarely developed or funded. The management of an idea management process may also lack of a process to evaluate and compare worthiness of ideas, and have difficulties to find a right home for an idea (Gamlin, Yourd, Patrick, 2007). To select as many high quality ideas possible can result in unrealistic assumptions with respect to prognostic and discriminating capabilities of managers in finding the very few ideas from the pile of mediocre ones. Remember, a process itself cannot turn a mediocre idea into a star (Cooper, Edgett, Kleinschmidt, 2002a). For every individual idea, other experts may need to get involved in making a good judgement and varying the process layout; this results in a non-ideal type of idea management (Kijkuit & Van den Ende, 2007; Geffen & Judd, 2007; Vandenbosch et al., 2006; Lubart, 2000).
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Reducing the impairment of streams and reservoirs by excess sediment (popularly referred to as siltation) and adsorbed pollutants is a great challenge for water resource managers throughout North Carolina and the rest of the increasingly populated Southeast, east of the Appalachian Mountains. This challenge can be rendered tractable by a quantitative knowledge of sediment sources, storages, and their residence times in the fluvial system. Although an approximate knowledge of these can be postulated, the inherent spatial and temporal complexity of fluvial processes, and continually evolving urban influences can cause substantial departures from predictions. For example, because of storage potential, sediment yield rarely equals gross erosion, a phenomenon reflected in the concept of sediment delivery ratio (SDR; the ratio of gross watershed erosion to contemporaneous downstream sediment yield; Walling and Webb, 1983). A poor understanding of SDR in urban stream networks has been cited as a key problem for environmental planners (Stow et al., 2002). Some method is needed for more rapid and accurate evaluations of the different sources of sediments and bound pollutants in urban stream water, and their residence times at different locations. In addition, it is important to understand the downstream dilution of such pollutants, and in the case of particulate sediment, the likelihood of storage and concomitant benthic habitat modification, as they move downstream.
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A radical strategy of emancipation today proposes democracy from below, as is now the zeitgeist with new social movements and activist protest. Along with horizontalist and autonomous politics comes the critique of political representation. Such post-politics is not only popular with ultra-leftists but also with academics and neoliberals. As Tiqqun puts it, today’s “cybernetic” social systems seek to do away with socialism and now include the direct and participatory democracy of citizens’ movements, which replaces political programme, class struggle and the critique of political economy with ecology and economic democracy (Tiqqun, 2020). If today’s left wishes to resist pragmatic compromise with bourgeois ideology, however, we must find a means to overcome the false choice between old left communist parties and the new forms of networked horizontalism. A different kind of communism is possible. The “idea of communism” that has been discussed in the last decade by various left intellectuals, must, of necessity, find some form of organizational expression beyond populism and beyond the neoliberal bipartisan endgame, leading some scholars to rethink the idea of the party, which we could otherwise refer to as the questions of leadership on the left (Hardt, 2015; Frank, 2016; Gautney, 2018; Sunkara, 2019; Gerbaudo, 2017; Mouffe, 2018). Three options present themselves to us: critique through an objective analysis of the conditions that prevail, hierarchical party organization and dispersed leftist disruption. To the extent that the latter is deemed ineffective, the idea of the party implies not only the experiences of twentieth-century state communism, but also a consideration of how it is that the concept of the party survives because of what Slavoj Žižek refers to as the “spectral features” of the idea, its irreducibility not only to historical experience, but to its own notion (Žižek, 2017b: lv).
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Since it has often been argued that the origins of our modern concern with records are rooted in the idea of modernity itself (rationalisation, standardised conditions, ever more sophisticated means of quantification, the role of applied science and, more generally, of the scientific world view), it then looks at the contribution of recent discussions of sport technologies and the logic of quantifiable progress (see especially Loland, 2000), considering the place and importance of relative emulation and of the qualitative evaluation of sporting performances.
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Looking backwards, it is evident that engagement has always been high on the University of Salford’s agenda. In 1981, when this university was subjected to savage funding cuts, Vice-Chancellor John Ashworth took the university into partnerships with business and industry that strengthened its reputation for engagement. Today, we are still building strong partnerships such as the Framework for Innovation and Research in Media City that will be based in the Media Enterprise Centre at Salford Quays, and which brings together our university and Goldsmiths, MIT, the Universities of Lancaster, London and Cambridge, the BBC and North West Vision and Media. In the future, it is probable that such networks of engagement will come to define Higher Education. Just as the complex requirements of information technology are driving the evolution of distributed computing and shared services – the digital cloud of the near future – so universities will come to depend on flexible consortia of organizations in order to tackle complex problems more effectively.
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administration of the state and how the concept of economy is intrinsically attached to the whole idea. If one system doesn’t function properly the whole system will automatically fail. Foucault has mentioned about La Perriere and Frederick the Great’s writing to criticize Machiavelli’s understanding. For Machiavelli ‘The Prince’ is concerned about two things which ensures its power – territory and its inhabitants. Le Perriere is more concerned about relationship of men with things and relationship of men with ‘other kind of things’. Complexity of relationships among individuals is his central focus. Foucault is clearly of the view that government and sovereignty should be clearly distinguished. Foucault rightly observed that it is important for the government to employ ‘tactics’ rather than laws to achieve its desired goal. In this context he also mentions about ‘statistics’ which in his words is “the science of the state” and “the science of police” which became the governmental apparatus from the late sixteenth century. He believes that the art of government can only develop in a free liberal atmosphere where there are no political or economic tensions.
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The purpose of this dissertation is to articulate the proper aims and limits of political philosophy by expanding upon John Rawls’s idea of a realistic utopia and applying it to various debates in contemporary political philosophy. First, I defend the importance of ideal theory in constructing a theory of justice and respond to various critics, such as Amartya Sen and others, who argue that ideal theory is neither necessary nor sufficient for our work to advance justice in society. Second, I argue that empirical facts must be included in our reasoning about fundamental principles of justice, contrary to theorists such as G.A. Cohen who argues that political theorizing should proceed independently of such facts. Finally, I conclude with some reflecting thoughts on the importance of articulating a conception of justice that avoids hopelessly utopian ideals. In doing so, I defend the vision of a realistically utopian society as one that both answers our most fundamental interests and also provides us with the best chance of realizing justice in the world.
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be the main focus of attention instead of theology and metaphysics and, in the form of “first philosophy”, it became the basic foundation for other philosophical branches. During Renaissance, i.e. 15th and 16th centuries, a great revolution happened in people’s thoughts, and the center of western beliefs changed from the heaven to the earth. In 19th century, since Georges Lemaitre first noted that an expanding universe might be traced back in time to an originating single point, scientists have built on his idea of cosmic expansion and the west has accepted the Big Bang theory as the prevail- ing cosmological model for the universe. In this century, which is the era of romantic- ism, under the influence of thinkers like Darwin, Marx, Nietzche and Freud, the view towards man and the world were totally changed in the West, and the meaning of eve- rything was hidden in this world. In contrast, the Eastern man, under the influence of religions that appeared in the East, has always been searching for a valuable truth beyond materialism and a transcendental world .
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control over economic activity in manufacturing and trade, it was argued that if everyone was left to its own devices then the result would not be disorder but a well-balanced society of ever- growing prosperity. To abolish the social, political and religious arrangement prevailing in the Christian dominated Europe, the ideology of Liberalism was introduced. This idea argued that free market, and self-adjustment of the economy in a Laissez-Faire system devoid of any state and social interference would produce maximum prosperity for the whole nation. In market economies, decisions about production of goods, valuation, trade, distribution, etc. are all settled by individuals or small groups acting with maximum possible freedom, and a minimal set of legal or social constraints. Although all of us have observed and participated in markets where goods, services, and money are exchanged, but “the market” which are imagined by economists is an automatic and self- correcting, “smoothly performing machine”, governed by empirical rules and general norms. Like advancement in the field of hard sciences, it is claimed that liberal/market economic system is as an advanced state of social development, and its
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