Results: The intraperitoneal administration of the methanolic extract (50 and 100 mg/kg), hexane fraction (10 and 25 mg/kg i.p) exhibited significant inhibition (P < 0.01) of the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and attenuated formalin-induced reaction time of animals in second phase of the test. Pure compounds BdI-2, BdI-H3 and BH-3 isolated from B. crispa produced significant (P < 0.01) analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced and formalin tests. The crude extract of B. crispa (50 – 200 mg/kg i.p.) and its hexane fraction inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw edema with maximum inhibition of 65 and 71 % respectively (P < 0.01). The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the plant extract and isolated pure compounds were comparable to diclofenac sodium. B. crispa plant extract (0.5 – 2.5 mg/mL) produced significant anti-platelet effect (P < 0.01) with maximum inhibition of 78 % at 2.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: The findings from our present study suggest that B. crispa possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet properties. B. crispa could serve a potential novel source of compounds effective in pain and
new pharmaceutical agents . All the extracts of L. sativa established significant anti-inflammatory effect by regulating biphasic inflammatory process induced by carrageenan (Table 2). The initial phase (1-2 h) of the in- flammation is due to the release of serotonin ad hista- mine while the final phase (3-4 h) is considered by the peak volume of hind paw . As shown in Fig. 2, leaf extracts exhibited maximum percentage inhibition of in- flammation. The activity of cell suspension exudate was almost similar to that of a leaf extract in comparison while more than that of seed extract. On the other hand, the results revealed that aqueous extracts were more ac- tive in reducing the inflammation than the MC extracts. Our results indicated that oral dose of L. sativa re- pressed the edema preliminary from the 1st hour and throughout all stages of inflammation, which is perhaps due to inactivation of different chemical mediators of in- flammation. Phytochemical profile of Lactuca sativa suggests the presence of simple phenols, triterpenoids and saponins  and triterpenoids are well known for their anti-inflammatory properties . Therefore, it seems that analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of
Most of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs cause hyperacidity and peptic ulcer. The present study was carried out to evaluate analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities of methanol extract of Carallia brachiata L. leaves on experimental mice. Carallia brachiata L. leaves showed significant analgesic effects ( * p<0.01) on acetic acid induced writhing of mice compared to the control group where diclofenac sodium was used as standard. Carallia brachiata L. leaves decreased the carrageenan induced paw edma notably (*p<0.05 and **p<0.01) compare to control group in which standard was diclofenac sodium. The methanol extract of Carallia brachiata L. leaves was administered intraperitoneally as a single dose of 150 mg/kg body weight to alloxan induced diabetic rats and found to reduced blood lipid level (Total cholesterol and Triglycerides) significantly (*p<0.05). The extract also exhibited correlation of altered biochemical parameters viz., SGOT and SGPT levels in diabetic rates. The effect of plant extract was compared with the standard drug metformin. The phytochemical screening tests indicated that the different constituents such as saponins, tannins, triterpenes, alkaloids and flavonoids etc. were present in the plant which has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti- diabetic properties but further study needed to evaluate the mechanism of action of antidiabetic activities of Carallia brachiata L.
Synthesis and pharmacological screening of a series of S-substituted phenacyl 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and Schiff bases derived from 2-[(2,6-dichloroanilino)phenyl] acetic acid (diclofenac acid) are described. The 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and diclofenac moieties are important because of their versatile biological actions. In the present studies, the oxadiazole system has been functionalized onto the diclofenac acid moiety and 18 compounds in this series were synthesized. These compounds were tested in vivo for their anti-inflammatory activity. The compounds, which showed significant activity (comparable to the standard drug diclofenac sodium), were screened for their analgesic activity and to check their ability to induce ulcers by ulcerogenicity and histopathology studies. Eight new compounds, out of 18, were found to have significant anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model, with significant analgesic activity in the acetic acid induced writhing model with no ulcerogenicity. The compounds, which showed negligible ulcerogenic action, also showed promising results in histopathology studies, that is, they were found to be causing no mucosal injury .
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The present study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacological activities of synthetic 1,3- thiazine derivatives. The selected compounds were evaluated for analgesic activity by tail clip method and anti-inflammatory activity by Carrageenan induced paw edema method. Both the test compounds are having a tremendous potential deserves a special attention of the scientific fraternity to emerge as a milestone for medical science of this millennium due to its safety and can be a potent and safe alternative to conventional analgesic and anti- inflammation treatment. The results of compound revealed that the present study has yielded a fair success rate. This kind of pharmacological screening of newly synthesized compounds can lead to the discovery of useful biological activities.
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The Diospyros melanoxylon plant leaves contain the valuable favones, and pentacyclic Tritrpines. Flavonoids possess anti inflammatory 6 and analgesic activities. 7 Flavonoids are known to inhibit the enzyme prostaglandin synthatase, more specifically the endoperoxidase and reported to produce anti-inflammatory effects. 8 Carrageenan induced paw edema method used for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity. Carrageenan is a sulphated polysaccharide obtained from seaweed (Rhodophyceae) which is commonly used to induce acute inflammation and is believed to be biphasic. 9 The first phase is caused by the release of Bradykinin, protease, Prostaglandins and Lysosome. 10 The second phase caused by the release of prostaglandins. Prostaglandin plays a major role in the development of the second phase reaction.
Ariel parts of plant of Homalium zeylanicum was collected during the months of January to September from Tirumala hills, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The plant was authenticated by Dr.Madhava chetty, Taxonomist, S.V. University, Tirupathi, India. The voucher specimen was numbered and deposited in our Research lab P.R.R.M. College of pharmacy. Collected Ethno pharmacological relevance: Homalium zeylanicum (Flacourtaceae) has been traditionally used for treating several ailments including rheumatism, Anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and Anti-diabetic agent in Rayalaseema region of Andhrapradesh. However there is no scientific evidence to support its use in literature. To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the ethanolic extract of Homalium zeylanicum in animal models.
(Shinde et al., 1999). Administration of VVK extract showed significant analgesic activity on peripheral nervous system revealed through suppression of acetic acid induced writhing. Inflammation is a tissue reaction to infection or irritation due to a foreign substance. There are several mechanisms involved in inflammatory reactions such as release of histamine, bradykinin or prostaglandin. In animals, inflammatory reaction is readily produced in the form of paw oedema by the help of Carrageenan, Formalin or Histamine Carrageenan produces inflammation and oedema. The carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method is a test of acute inflammation, while cotton pellet granuloma is a model of chronic inflammation (Ismail, 1997). The polyherbal formulation was found to be significantly inhibiting the carrageenan–induced paw oedema, a test which has a significant predictive value for anti-inflammatory agents acting by inhibiting mediators of inflammation (Mossa, 1995). Extracts of VVK significantly inhibited the oedematous response over time at all doses assayed. However its greatest inhibition was obtained 3 h after carrageenan injection and this was also observed with the reference drug indomethacin. The mechanism behind these activities is poorly understood. However Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Flavanoids, proteins, amino acids, alkaloids, tannins, hydroquinone derivatives in methanolic and acetone extract. Terpenes were estimated in chloroform extract which may be responsible for the activity (Sugunthan, 2015).
The effect of methanolic extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens (MEIF) was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity by using on carrageenan, and cotton pellet induced granuloma tests for its effect on acute and chronic phase inflammation models in rats, as well as analgesic activity in mice. Dose of 300 mg/kg MEIF and Indomethacin could block the writhing response by 57.54 % and 73.73 % (p < 0.05), respectively. It was also indicated that the MEIF showed significant (p < 0.05) antinociceptive action in hot plate reaction time method in mice. Maximum inhibition (54.63 %) was obtained at the dose of 100 mg/kg after 3 h of drug treatment in carrageenan induced paw oedema, whereas indomethacin produced 57.65 % of inhibition. In the chronic model the MEIF 300 mg/kg, indomethacin and dexamethasone standard drug showed decreased formation of granuloma tissue by 22.64, 29.63 % and 34.84 % respectively. The results indicate the potent analgesic and anti- inflammatory effects significant (p<0.05) and therapeutic efficacy of Ichnocarpus frutescens extract on animal models which are comparable with those of standard drugs such as Pentazocine, Indomethacin and Dexamethasone respectively.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) form an important class of widely used therapeutic agents due to their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects. The pharmacological activity of NSAIDs is related to suppression of prostaglandin biosynthesis by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX). COX is an endogenous enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The enzyme exists in at least two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2. Although both isoforms catalyze the same biochemical transformation, they are subject to a different expression regulation. COX-1 is a constitutive enzyme and is responsible for the physiological function of prostaglandins (PGs) like maintenance of the integrity of the gastric mucosa and provides adequate vascular homeostasis, whereas COX-2 is an inducible enzyme and is expressed only after an inflammatory stimulus . In recent years, many heterocyclic moieties have been designed and synthesised as potent anti- inflammatory drugs. Among such scaffolds, 1H-imidazo [1,2-b] pyrazole derivatives have been reported to show various biological activities [2-8] such as anti-inflammatory, anti- allergy [8 - 10], anti-cancer agents against trypanosome eruzil  and also used to modulate the activity of G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR119 [12-15]. 1H-imidazo [1,2-b] pyrazole derivatives has been found to exhibit interesting biological activities such as inhibition of DNA synthesis and fMLP- induced neutrophil chemotaxis [16, 24]. Based on the above findings in quest of our work on biologically active fused heterocyclic compound, in present we synthesized 1H-imidazo [1,2-b] pyrazole ring system bridged with secondary amine such as morpholine and pyrrolidine moiety. Further these synthesised compounds were screened for in-vivo anti-inflammatory analgesic activity in-silico molecular docking studies.
DISCUSSION: In this study, pharmacological evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of C. pluricaulis was carried out using different experimental models. Variety of indigenous drugs is used for relief in inflammation. The most widely used primary test to screen new anti-inflammatory agents measures the ability of a compound to reduce local edema induced in the rat paw by an injection of an irritant agent. The development of edema in the paw of the rats after the injection of carrageenan has been described as a biphasic event.
Carrageenan is the preferred phlogistic agent for use in studies of anti-inflammatory activity, because it is non-antigenic and has no systemic side effects. Carrageenan-induced inflammation is a significant test for assessing a substance’s an- ti-inflammatory activity by evaluating the degree to which it inhibits the inflammatory mediators of acute inflammation . Flavonoids have an- ti-inflammatory activity, as they cause inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation . The current study revealed that T. cordifolia extract possesses good anti-inflammatory activity (Fig. 4). This anti-inflammatory activity was observed to be dose dependent and might be due to the flavonoid content of the plant extract . It was clearly evi- dent from this study that T. cordifolia extract pro- duced the maximum anti-pyretic effect at a dose of 300 mg/kg. It has been reported that alkaloids and flavonoids have anti-pyretic potential , and the phytochemical analysis of T. cordifolia showed the presence of both alkaloids and flavonoids.
In conclusion, we demonstrated that RvE1 and RvD1, but not PDX, were simultaneously anti-inflammatory and analgesic in experimental models that were closely related to translational studies in humans. Moreover, these SPMs presented a wider spectrum of activity compared to nonselective and selective NSAIDs, the main compounds used therapeutically in the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, adverse effects, such as edema formation, demonstrated in this study can account for the potential side effects of these drugs in the clinic. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of RvE1 were associated with the specific activation of the BLT1 recep-
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Benzopyranopyrimidines have provided an important pharmacophore synthesized research platform for chemists. This is because of their specific characteristics which consist of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, in vivo antitumor, in vitro anti-aggregating activities as well as cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines, and causing significant perturbation in cell cycle kinetics. [1-5] In this respect several pyrimidine derivatives showed good in vitro antiplatelet activity, being able to inhibit AA (Arachidonic Acid), ADP and collagen-induced aggregation, together with a good in vivo antithrombotic effect. [3,6-9] Some of these compounds were also found to be interesting as analgesic and/or antiphlogistic agents.  The basic function in benzopyranopyrimidine scaffold was also investigated and it was concluded that it has a pivotal role in the expression of antiphlogistic/analgesic activities without adverse gastrolesive effects.  Benzopyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine is a potentially important pharmacophore that exhibits in vivo antitumor activity, cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines and can cause significant perturbation in cell cycle kinetics. 
The anti-edematogenic drug Indomethacin is effective with high doses of carrageenan. The activity is related to its effect upon plasma exudation (Zanin et al., 1978). The dose 1000 mg/kg of SLP produced a significant inhibition of carrageenan induced paw edema at +2h. Therefore, it can be inferred that the inhibitory effect of leaf powder of Sphaeranthus amaranthoides on carrageenan induced inflammation could be due to inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase and subsequent inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. It remains delayed anti-inflammatory activity in acute exudative phase of inflammation. The delayed response for its anti- inflammatory activity clearly reveals that the mechanism of action may be attributed by PG synthetase inhibition rather than inhibiting the mediators of early phase of inflammation. So, the experimental pharmacological studies establish Sivakaranthai powder as weak analgesic and moderate anti-inflammatory drug.
DushtaVrana (chronic ulcer) is the type of wound which breaks integrity or continuity of skin or mu- cous membrane. Wound healing is a natural restorative response to tissue injury. Healing is the inter- action of a complex cascade of cellular events that generates resurfacing, reconstitution, and restora- tion of the tensile strength of injured skin or membrane. It is difficult to management of wound with a single drug. In the present study Haridraditaila is selected for chronic ulcer management. The trial drug ‘HaridradiTaila’ i.e. medicated oil consisted of Haridra (Curcuma longa), Manjistha (Rubiacordifolia), Nimbapatra (Azadirachtaindica), Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhizaglabra), Neelkamal (Nelumbonucifera) & Sesame oil (Sesamumindicum). These drugs possess VranaShodhana (wound cleaning) and VranaRopana (wound healing) properties. The present study was carried out on all types of Dushtavrana (chronic ulcer). Total 30 patients were selected and the study was single blind clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of HaridradiTaila by the subjective and objective criteria. The Haridraditaila was applied topically twice a daily for 30 days or till healing of wound whichever is earlier. This study shown that, there are significant results found in DushtaVrana (chronic ulcer) by anti-infective, analgesic and anti-inflammatory property which reduces pain, discharge, inflamma- tion, tenderness, burning sensation and itching which contribute healthy granulation tissue formation, thus Haridraditaila possess sufficient efficacy in wound healing without producing any deleterious effects.
Abstract: Calotropis gigantea is a common wasteland weed with medicinal properties. Studies conducted indicates that the plant possess antibacterial, antiasthmatic, free radical scavenging, wound healing, vasodilation, procoagulant, antifertility, anti inflammatory, anticancer, cytotoxic, analgesic, anti pyretic, anti convulsant and anti diarrheal activities. Calotropnaphthalene, calotropisesjuiterpenol, calotropisesterterpenol, calotropbenzofuranone were the major phytochemical compounds derived from the root extract of the plant. Latex was found to contain the cardiac glycosides, calotopin, uscharin, calotoxin, calactin and uscharidin gigantin and hence possess the pharmacological activities. The plant was also mentioned in ayurveda and unani for the treatment of asthma and for many other diseases.
Presently there is an increase in the significance of herbal medicines with amplified laboratory investigations of biological and pharmacological properties. The plant Wedelia trilobata emerged as a good source of medicine with anti-inflammatory anti-microbial, analgesic, anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective and anti-diabetic properties. A large number of phytoconstituents have been isolated and identified from different parts of Wedelia trilobata which include flavanoids, triterpenoids luteolin, arachidonic acid, sterols and other constituents of the essential oil reported are α-pinene, α-phellandrene and limonene. The current review on Wedelia trilobata can be a good source of information for further research to explore their full therapeutic activity.
Andrographis echiodies is an Acanthaceae family plant it is used for many medicinal purposes in South Asia like India and China. This medicinal plant was extracted by different solvents and its medicinal properties were identified by various technique. Based on the literature, this plant possess pharmacological properties like antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, anthelmintic, analgesic, antipyretic, hepato-protective activities and antioxidant effect. It contains plenty of phytochemical constituents such as glycosides, flavanoids, flavones, steroids, tannins, carbohydrate, glycosides and alkaloids.
5. Sasikala V, Saravanan S, Parimelazhagan T. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Passiflora foetida L., Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2011; 4(8): 600-603. 6. Chivapat S, Bunjob M, Shuaoprom A, Bansidhi J, Chavalittumrong P, Rangsripipat A, Sincharoenpokai P. Chronic toxicity of Passiflora foetida L. extract. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Product, 2011; 4(2): 24-31.