The study employed a cocktail of diagnostic Likert scale questionnaire response type items with proposals of different levels of responses to respondents to evaluate and therefore demonstrate the effectiveness of the nature-semiotic hy- pothetico-deductive thinking and reasoning candidate theory  in developing critical thinking, reasoning and transferability skills in high school students. Items on the constructs were formulated into questions with options provided to respondents to strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree to determine their different levels of judgment and therefore appropriation of the concept. The study was a quasi-experimental design and used a within-subject analysis complemented by a two-way factorial ANOVA. The quasi-experimental model was adopted because there are already existing class structures in the educational system in which schools are constrained to cover syllabuses within a limited and inelastic pedagogic time. Also, schools and parents would oppose any attempt to experiment with their children if a strictly experimental design were to be adopted, since this would require restructuring the existing class set- ting and introducing new subject matter content. Contextual problem-solving now and in the future (unknown) constituted the dependent variable. In order to measure this variable it was operationalised by defining indicators (independent variables) in Klopfer’s taxonomy and the hypothetico-deductive thinking and reasoning program. The 307 high school students, who took part in the study, were distributed according to four socio-cultural zones of Cameroon as follows: 82 (North West and West Regions), 62 (South West and Littoral Regions), 94 (Centre, South and East Regions) and 69 (Adamaoua, North and Extreme North Regions). In all, four bilingual high schools (2 Public, 1 Lay Private and 1 De- nominational) were involved. The bilingual character of the schools offered the opportunity to sample both English- and French-speaking students on the same campus without having to shuffle between many schools. Working in these four socio-cultural zones was a precautionary measure to ensure representativeness and the possibilities of generalisability of results.
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The Reading-of-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes (REM) Test has been widely used to meas- ure the ability of subjects to recognize human emotions by looking at images of human eyes, a task dependent on ToM circuitry (Baron-Cohen, Jolliffe, Morti- more, & Robertson, 1997). A revised REM test (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001), though improved from its original version, is nev- ertheless hampered by intrisic design issues, including the fact that it is often viewed by subjects as too long (subjects frequently fail to complete the test) and the ambiguity between target and foil words cited by the original authors leads to >20% incorrect assignment to at least one foil word for nearly a third of the 40 items in the inventory. Moreover, the range of scores obtained with this test may not discriminate sufficiently between normal subjects (Olderbak, Wilhelm, Ola- ru, Geiger, Brenneman, & Roberts, 2015). After removal of some ambiguous items, a slimmed-down version of the REM was successfully used to measure the effect of stress on analogical thinking in a normal female cohort (Mascarenhas, 2016) but even using this improved version, factor analysis of the dataset showed that only some of the original items showed adequate discriminant validity for the construct (data not shown). In the current work, these items were added to items designed to measure abstract reasoning requiring Boolean logic. The re- sulting hybrid inventory was dubbed ANALGOR (analogical-algorithmic) and was found to be of acceptable length to both male and female adult online res- pondents in cohorts from four different continents.
In this paper, we will concentrate on current computational models of the analogical mapping stage of analogical thinking. The remainder of this paper is divided up into six main parts. First, we show that current theory can be unified within a common meta-theoretical framework. Second, we outline how the various models of analogical mapping relate to this statement of analogy theory. Third, we describe one of these models in some detail. Fourth, we identify a common measure for comparing the predictions of these models. Fifth, using an attribute mapping task similar the above example, we carry out two studies examining the factors affecting analogical mapping. Each study has two parts to it; a computational experiment and a corresponding psychological experiment. The computational experiment determines the outputs the different models make for the target manipulation. The psychological experiment tests these outputs against people's performance on the task. The two studies examine the effects of similarity and of order on analogical mapping, respectively. Finally, we will consider the immediate implications of these findings for analogy research and the wider implications they have for cognitive science.
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On adaptation, the present results suggest that any complete computational level account of analogical thinking should include adaptation constraints (see Keane et al., in press); constraints that evaluate the adaptability of alternative mappings. This evaluation could rely purely on local aspects of the candidate inferences being made: for instance, by noting whether the inferences suggest new objects which are absent from the original specification of the target-problem domain. However, such a local evaluation does not seem sufficient. It would result in evaluations which rated the swing solution as being better than the stick solution (because the latter suggests a new object) but would also evaluate the swing and lasso solutions as being equally adaptable (because both use string-like objects which are present in the problem). It seems more plausible that evaluation is performed by simulating the proposed solution in some way; the action of swinging a rope-like object is tested in the target problem or the action of reaching something with a stick is tested. Only a detailed simulation of this type will produce evaluations that correspond to the adaptability ordering supported by the present experiment (i.e, swing better than stick, and in turn stick better than lasso). Techniques for such evaluation have been widely explored in the area of analogy and case-based reasoning in
Theobald Smith’s said that: “Discovery should come as an adventure rather than as the result of a logical process of thought. Sharp, prolonged thinking is necessary that we may keep on the chosen road, but it does not necessarily lead to discovery”. As we know, all scientific advances rest on a base of previous knowledge. Often, the application or transfer of a new principle or technique from another field provides the cen- tral idea upon which an investigation hinges. Such transfer is a typical analogical thinking scheme. In attempting to apply an existing technique to a new problem, some new knowledge arises.
Emergency managers certainly have less time to make their decisions compared to the time interval of classic decisions, so, their decision mechanism is strongly based on recognition procedures due to the peculiar environment, and the limited process possi- bility of simultaneous pieces of information. The competence of emergency managers is based on the unity of theoretical knowledge and practical experience. Building on prac- tical experience, the different mechanisms like analogical thinking, critical analysis, sa- tisfactory procedure, decisions based on exceptions, creativity and heuristics, together with the internal triggers, hold as pillars and make recognition-primed decision proce- dure of emergency managers operational. Author illustrates the above as a complex system of emergency decision-making of disaster managers in Figure 2.
We note this is not the identical control task to Ven- detti et al. (2014), which used a second analogy task, but used analogies with less semantic distance between the pairs of words. All four words came from the same do- main, such as the senses (e.g. blindness : sight :: deafness : hearing). Although the evidence suggests this task does not engage analogical thinking to the degree the distant analogies do, because prior analogy research suggested that detecting an effect on retrieval could be more diffi- cult than using the picture-mapping task (as discussed above) our intuition was that a semantic association task which requires no analogical thinking whatsoever would increase our chances of measuring a difference between the two conditions, while still maintaining similar task demands (in that both tasks involve filling in a fourth word that matched a set of three in some way).
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• favour systematic sets of matches (Gentner's systematicity principle); that is, if one has two alternative sets of matches then the mapping with the most higher-order connectivity should be chosen. This constraint aids the choice of an optimal mapping from among many alternative mappings. Similarity constraints can disambiguate between alternative matches. When these constraints is applied only identical concepts are matched between the two domains (Gentner, 1983) or, more loosely, semantically-similar concepts are matched (Gick & Holyoak, 1980; Holyoak & Thagard, 1989). Semantic similarity can be used to disambiguate matches; if one match in a set of one-to-many matches is more similar than the others, it can be preferred. Finally, there are pragmatic constraints (e.g., Holyoak, 1985; Holyoak & Thagard, 1989; Keane, 1985). Again, these constraints may disambiguate a set of matches. For example, in a certain analogical mapping situation, one match may be pragmatically more important (or goal-relevant) than other alternatives and so it will be preferred over these alternatives.
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The findings from Experiment 2b demonstrate that false memory priming of homonym analogy problems leads to significantly higher solution rates than when those same problems are unprimed or are primed but no false memories are generated at recall. Moreover, the results of Experiments 2a and 2b show that when participants make errors in solving homonym analogies they have a tendency to opt for a high semantic associate of the incorrect context (in other words, the context consistent with the a and b analogy terms), but this context bias is frequently overcome when priming is effective. These findings provide evidence that priming may help partic- ipants overcome a bias with selecting the high semantic associate consistent with the analogy problem and may also increase a participant’s ability to inhibit the context set by the a and b terms when interpreting the hom- onym. From Experiment 2b it seems that falsely recalling a non-presented critical item is linked to a more efficient ability to inhibit the incorrect context of the analogy and to select the correct context item in analogical reasoning. This is consistent with the idea that false memory primes are particularly effective at priming problem-solving tasks (more so than true primes), such that they have the strength to enable in- hibition of even a dominant context in problem solving. The present findings also extend the efficacy of false priming in terms of the time taken to solve analogical reasoning problems. Previous research has demonstrated Fig. 4 Mean solution times (s) with standard errors for fast and slow solvers as a function of priming condition
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Lepage (1998) proposed an algorithm for comput- ing the solutions of a formal analogical equation [A : B = C : ? ]. We implemented a variant of this algorithm which requires to compute two edit- distance tables, one between A and B and one be- tween A and C. Since we are looking for subse- quences of B and C not present in A, insertion cost is null. Once this is done, the algorithm synchro- nizes the alignments defined by the paths of min- imum cost in each table. Intuitively, the synchro- nization of two alignments (one between A and B, and one between A and C) consists in composing in the correct order subsequences of the strings B and C that are not in A. We refer the reader to (Lep- age, 1998) for the intricacies of this process which is illustrated in Figure 1 for the analogical equation [even : usual = unevenly : ? ]. In this exam- ple, there are 681 different paths that align even and usual (with a cost of 4), and 1 path which aligns even with unevenly (with a cost of 0). This results in 681 synchronizations which generate 15 different solu- tions, among which only unusually is a legitimate word-form.
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examples, “Such instances show us that, in research, it may be detrimental to scatter our attention too much, while overstraining it too strongly in one particular direction may also be harmful to discovery. . . . . . We must notice, in that direction, that it is important for him who wants to discover not to confine himself to one chapter of science, but to keep in touch with various others.” Hadamard also dwells at length on how the very nature of innovative thinking itself is analogical in its elements, and produces several examples to corroborate this notion. He cites the studies conducted by Alfred Binet on the remarkable ability of some chess players to play multiple simultaneous games without seeing the chess boards, and observes, “their results may be summed up by saying that for many of these players, each game has, so to say, a kind of physiognomy, which allows him to think of it as a unique thing, however complicated it may be; just as we see the face of a man. Now, such a phenomenon necessarily occurs in invention of any kind.” Hadamard goes on to demonstrate this phenomenon using both instances of his own personal inventive thinking and those of other mathematicians, and men of science and art. To reproduce certain excerpts (starting with Hadamard’s own thought process),
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Analogy is heavily used in written explana- tions, particularly in instructional texts. We introduce the concept of analogical dialogue acts (ADAs) which represent the roles utter- ances play in instructional analogies. We de- scribe a catalog of such acts, based on ideas from structure-mapping theory. We focus on the operations that these acts lead to while un- derstanding instructional texts, using the Structure-Mapping Engine (SME) and dynam- ic case construction in a computational model. We test this model on a small corpus of in- structional analogies, expressed in simplified English, which were understood via a semi- automatic natural language system using ana- logical dialogue acts. The model enabled a system to answer questions after understand- ing the analogies that it was not able to answer without them.
Mapping Theory (Gentner 1983; Falkenhainer et al. 1989) with natural language parsing techniques and a domain- independent verb lexicon called VerbNet (Kipper et al. 2000). A carer can then record new ideas resulting from creative thinking in audio form, then reflect on them by playing them back to change them, generate further ideas, compose them into a care plan and share the plan with oth- er carers. Some of these features are depicted in Figure 1. The right-hand side of Figure 1 shows one retrieved ana- logical case description – Managing a disrespectful child – as it is presented to a carer using the app. The Carer app is described at length in Maiden (2012). The next section describes two of the computational creativity services – the analogical reasoning discovery service and the creativity prompt generation service.
In Chinese analogical reasoning task, we aim at in- vestigating to what extent word vectors capture the linguistic relations, and how it is affected by three important factors: vector representations (sparse and dense), context features (character, word, and ngram), and training corpora (size and domain). Table 2 shows the hyper-parameters used in this work. All the text data used in our experiments (as shown in Table 3) are preprocessed via the follow- ing steps:
The ability to identify analogical relationships be- tween what looks like unrelated situations, and to use these relationships to solve complex problems, lies at the core of human cognition (Gentner et al., 2001). A number of models of this ability have been proposed, based on symbolic (e.g. (Falken- heimer and Gentner, 1986; Thagard et al., 1990; Hofstadter and the Fluid Analogies Research group, 1995)) or subsymbolic (e.g. (Plate, 2000; Holyoak and Hummel, 2001)) approaches. The main focus of these models is the dynamic process of analogy making, which involves the identification of a struc- tural mappings between a memorized and a new sit- uation. Structural mapping relates situations which, while being apparently very different, share a set of common high-level relationships. The building of a structural mapping between two situations utilizes several subparts of their descriptions and the rela- tionships between them.
Dependent variable. The dependent variable was production of the converging forces solution to the radiation problem, and served as an indirect measure transferability of information encoded from the rebel leader story to a novel context. As per Catrambone, et al. (2006), successful analogical transfer was coded according to specification in a proposed solution of: (1) the use of separate beams of radiation, (2) the use of weakened radiation (3) the use of strong radiation, (4) the use of both strong and weak radiation, (5) the use of multiple treatments or doses of radiation over a period of time, and (6) the use of radiation from different angles. Solutions that included Features 2 and either 1 or 6, but not 3, 4, or 5, were considered successful analogical transfer solutions. This was a dichotomous outcome. There were two outcome measures: an initial outcome measure, then an outcome measure after being given a hint to solve the problem on the basis of the rebel leader story from earlier.
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Given that, in its standard denotation, analogy sets out to clarify or illuminate an unknown variable, it appears entirely natural that attention should perpetually (re)turn to the referent and even retain a fetishistic investment in its status as the ‘ground’ of the equation. After all, to do otherwise (that is, to call the referent itself into question by ‘particularizing’ it) might complicate the analogy to the point of incomprehensibility, or at least unnecessarily prolong the interval between perception and cognition. From this utilitarian perspective, what good does it do to demand any more of analogy than its standard function? Furthermore, since Žižek himself is addressing neither linguistics nor semiotics, why would one assume that analogy bears any significant weight on his methodology beyond this standard function of clarification? Primarily, it is essential to bear in mind that my aim throughout this paper has involved the interrogation of certain philosophical concerns - and namely universality - in Žižek’s work; analogy offers us a rhetorical means of exploring these concerns, and, insofar as we accept analogy as a strategic/pedagogic device, is therefore subject to investigations that exceed its immediately apparent use-value. It is at this point that I should like to suggest that, while difference (i.e., the difference between two positively existing objects) does indeed influence our comprehension of meaning in analogy, it is the substance of this difference which Žižek radicalizes in his approach to universality. That is, the remainder of this paper will involve a discussion of Žižek’s methodological shift, apropos of universality, from the substantial properties which constitute analogical meaning- through-difference, to the insubstantial (or minimal) difference which establishes a thing’s constitutive noncoincidence with itself.
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• favour systematic sets of matches (Gentner's systematicity principle); that is, if one has two alternative sets of matches then the mapping with the most higher-order connectivity should be chosen. This constraint aids the choice of an optimal mapping from among many alternative mappings. These techniques have been shown to be very powerful even if they are very sensitive to the representations used. SME demonstrated in a very concrete way the sort of computational problems which people solve when mapping analogies. For instance, it demonstrated that even for apparently straight-forward analogies (like the atom / solar system or General story / Radiation problem analogies) there are a large number of matches to be considered and many possible analogical interpretations to be chosen between. The key insight is that systematicity turns out to be a very important principle in deciding which of these interpretations is optimal. Other statements in the initial theory have also been specified in the model. For example, Gentner originally stated that "attributes tend not to be carried over in an analogical comparison". This is realised in the model by match rules that exclude matches between attributes, unless they are placed in correspondence by the computation of structural consistency.
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Saturation = 100 − Number of empty cells ×100 Total number of cells (6) The average saturation of analogical grids produced in 11 languages of our Europarl data tends to rise from unigrams to sixgrams (see Figure 7 (bottom)). This indicates that ana- logical grids on longer N-grams are more dense. However, it should be kept in mind, by referring to the results on num- ber of analogical grids and their average size, that they are much less numerous and much smaller.
To determine the unique characteristics of animal architecture among the architectural design methods, this research has found the architectural method rather as a sort of ’analogy method’ in which designers make visual similarities between either animal bodies or their habitats. Furthermore, the research has demonstrated that animal architecture, as a type of analogy, can be used beyond mere visual approaches. Designers may use animals’ behavior and their life qualities in addition to their body or habitat shapes as the sources for their design analogies. Unlike previous design methodology studies, this is new to compare methods and find the originality, if any, of a method. It is true that some scholars (including Karl Von Frisch, OttoVon Friesch, Mike Hensel, Alejandro Bahamon and Patricia Perez) have put forth animal architecture and studied the method in the field. However, none has detected the way this method is unique compared to other design methods. The findings of this research show that animal architecture significantly overlaps with the analogical method categorized by Broadbent and Lawson, the analogical and metaphorical method by McGinty and the organi-tech method by Jencks and Jormakka’s nature and geometry as authorities’ method (Table 3).