Within this context, little attention has been paid to the **Analysis** Of **Variance** (AOV). Its rst use in the context of SCA was introduced by F. Standaert and B. Gierlichs [12], and further analyzed in [4]. In [12], AOV is applied to dierent sets of traces in order to experimentally compare its eciency to that of dierent distinguishers, namely: the Dierence of Means (DoM), the Pearson correlation ( ρ ) and the Mutual Information (MI) index. However, no general conclusion could be drawn from these results except that an Hamming Weight (HW) partitioning seemed to be the best choice. Indeed, this paper does not provide any decisive information about the superiority of AOV over CPA and MIA. In [4], it is however argued that AOV and CPA give similar results in practice. The resulting question is then: what kind of practice ? This question is especially important as AOV can also detect non-linear relations between two variables and can easily be extended to multivariate analyses.

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Sound design for experiments on soil is based on two fundamental principles: replication and randomization. Replication enables investigators to detect and measure contrasts between treatments against the backdrop of natural variation. Random allocation of experimental treatments to units enables effects to be estimated without bias and hypotheses to be tested. For inferential tests of effects to be valid an **analysis** of **variance** (anova) of the experimental data must match exactly the experimental design. Completely randomized designs are usually inefficient. Blocking will usually increase precision, and its role must be recognized as a unique entry in an anova table. Factorial designs enable questions on two or more factors and their interactions to be answered simultaneously, and split-plot designs may enable investigators to combine factors that require disparate amounts of land for each treatment. Each such design has its unique correct anova; no other anova will do. One outcome of an anova is a test of significance. If it turns out to be positive then the investigator may examine the contrasts between treatments to discover which themselves are significant. Those contrasts should have been ones in which the investigator was interested at the outset and which the experiment was designed to test. Post-hoc testing of all possible contrasts is deprecated as unsound, although the procedures may guide an investigator to further experimentation. Examples of the designs with simulated data and programs in GenStat and R for the analyses of **variance** are provided as File S1.

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lay-up. A piezoelectric dynamometer was used to acquire the values of torque and thrust force. Taguchi’s method was used and the treatment of experimental results was based on **analysis** of **variance** (ANOVA). The results showed that the specific cutting force decreased with both cutting parameters. The delamination factor increased with both cutting parameters. The feed rate had the highest physical as well as statistical influence on the delamination factor in both composite materials. The surface roughness increases with the feed rate and decreases with the cutting speed. The cutting speed has the highest physical as well as statistical influence on the surface roughness for both the composite materials. Davim et al. [6] studied the cutting parameters (cutting speed and feed rate) under specific cutting pressure, thrust force, damage and surface roughness in glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRP). Taguchi’s method with **analysis** of **variance** (ANOVA) was applied on the experimental data which was established considering drilling with prefixed cutting parameters in a hand lay-up GFRP material. A piezoelectric dynamometer with a load amplifier was used to measure the torque and the thrust force. The results showed that the specific cutting pressure decreased with feed rate and the thrust force increased with the feed rate. The feed rate had the greatest influence on the on the specific cutting pressure and thrust force. The damage increased with both cutting parameters. The surface roughness increased with the feed rate and decreased with the cutting speed.

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two-way classification was proposed, hence establishing a strong link between **Analysis** of **variance** (ANOVA) and Categorical **Analysis** of **variance** (CATANOVA). Onukogu (1985a) obtained an F-test for main effects as well as estimate of missing responses and adjusted row and column effects for balanced incomplete designs. Transformation such as log-linear and logit were not necessary rather data were analysed using their original format. According to Onukogu (1985b), a two-way ANOVA with quantal responses is equivalent to a three-way contingency table in which one of the classifications is treated as responses to the other two classifications. Knowing that sum of square in ANOVA is viewed as the departure of individual observations from their mean which is not helpful in the case of nominal data since mean is an undefined concept, Onukogu (1985b) reported that one of the hard nut to crack in any **analysis** of **variance** of categorical data is the definition and computation of sum of squares. However, he viewed sum of square (SS) of a set of data as the trace of its **variance**-covariance matrix. Singh (1996) obtained the adjusted sum of squares for rows and columns with restriction to situation where interaction is absent. He used the one moment approximation to derive the asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic as used by Light and Margolin (1971) and Onukogu (1985a,b).

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As for the research methodology, we used sample of cashmere of female and male goats of ages 1-5, from Norovlin, Galshir, Bayan-Ovoo soums of Khentii province, and we used methods of sampling, straightening lenght of cashmere fibre length, and fibre diameter was calculated by microscope of Projectina and was defined by computer calculation with scale of 10000 micrometer with support of Summaskitch-III table. Statistics groupping method, normal distribution law analyzer method were used. Also, after formulating the definition that is expressed by the values of diffirent experiments of 4 factor **analysis** of **variance**, we used 4 factor **analysis** of **variance** method.

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The distribution of microsatellite allele sizes in populations aids in understanding the genetic diversity of species and the evolutionary history of recent selective sweeps. We propose a heterogeneous Bayesian **analysis** of **variance** model for inferring loci involved in recent selective sweeps by analyzing the dis- tribution of allele sizes at multiple loci in multiple populations. Our model is shown to be consistent with a multilocus test statistic, ln RV, proposed for identifying microsatellite loci involved in recent selective sweeps. Our methodology differs in that it accepts original allele size data rather than summary statistics and allows the incorporation of prior knowledge about allele frequencies using a hierarchical prior distribution consisting of log normal and gamma probability distributions. Interesting features of the model are its ability to simultaneously analyze allele size data for any number of populations and to cope with the presence of any number of selected loci. The utility of the method is illustrated by application to two sets of microsatellite allele size data for a group of West African Anopheles gambiae populations. The results are consistent with the suppressed-recombination model of speciation, and additional candidate loci on chromosomes 2 (079 and 175) and 3 (088) are discovered that escaped former **analysis**.

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Beta diversity analyses or community-wide ecological analyses are important tools for understanding the differ- entiation of the entire microbiome between experimental conditions, environments, and treatments. For these anal- yses, specialized distance metrics are used to capture the multivariate relationships between each pair of sam- ples in the dataset. **Analysis** of **variance**-like techniques, such as PERMANOVA [1], maythen be used to deter- mine if an overall difference exists between conditions. The distances use all of the measured taxa information simultaneously without the need to explicitly estimate individual covariances. The utility of these methods is hard to underestimate as virtually every recent major microbiome report has used some form of a community-

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It can be claimed that the **analysis** of **variance** is an extremely useful technique concerning researches in the several fields like engineering, education, management, logistics, industry, etc. The first consists in a single factor when examination can be put up and after that multivariate **analysis** can be imparted.

Under complex survey sampling, in particular when selection probabilities depend on the response variable (informative sampling), the sample and population distributions are different, possibly resulting in selection bias. This article is concerned with this problem by ﬁtting two statistical models, namely: the **variance** components model (a two-stage model) and the ﬁxed effects model (a single-stage model) for one-way **analysis** of **variance**, under complex survey design, for example, two-stage sampling, stratiﬁcation, and unequal probability of selection, etc. Classical theory underlying the use of the two-stage model involves simple random sampling for each of the two stages. In such cases the model in the sample, after sample selection, is the same as model for the population; before sample selection. When the selection probabilities are related to the values of the response variable, standard estimates of the population model parameters may be severely biased, leading possibly to false inference. The idea behind the approach is to extract the model holding for the sample data as a function of the model in the population and of the ﬁrst order inclusion probabilities. And then ﬁt the sample model, using **analysis** of **variance**, maximum likelihood, and pseudo maximum likelihood methods of estimation. The main feature of the proposed techniques is related to their behavior in terms of the informativeness parameter. We also show that the use of the population model that ignores the informative sampling design, yields biased model ﬁtting.

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In the **analysis** of **variance** (ANOVA) the usual basic assumptions are that the model is additive and the errors are randomly, independently, and normally distributed about zero mean and equal variances. With some specific sets of data, the basic assumptions are not satisfied so **analysis** of **variance** cannot be applied appropriately. Tukey [1] suggested that in analyzing data which do not match the assumptions of the conventional method of **analysis**, we have two alternative ways to go about. We may transform the data to fit the assumptions, or we may develop some new methods of **analysis** with assumptions fitting the original data. If we can find a satisfactory transformation, it will almost always be easier to use the conventional method of **analysis** rather than to develop a new one. Montgomery [2] suggested that transformations are used for three purposes, stabilizing response **variance**, making the distribution of the response variable closer to the normal distribution, and improving the fit of model to the data. Choosing an appropriate

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The object of the present work is to study the robust ness of the power in **Analysis** of **Variance** in relation to the departures from the in-built assumptions (i) equality of **variance** of the errors, (ii) statistical independence of the errors, and (iii) normality of the errors in fixed and random effects models. It is difficult if not impossible, to conduct an exhaustive study of the problem, because the above assump tions can be violated in many ways. However, a general model and some important particular models have been used to obtain fairly conclusive evidence regarding the robustness of the power in **Analysis** of **Variance**.

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Chapter 8 develops a new **analysis** of **variance** approach by taking account of the resultant lengths together with their corresponding mean directions to eliminate the possible collapse discussed in Chapter 7. The method is still based on maximum likelihood techniques but requires the user to test for equality of concentration parameters prior to testing for any difference between mean directions. The cross-product terms are examined and found to equal their desired combined value of zero. An investigation of the interpretation and representation of interaction on the circle is given in Section 8.4 prior to its calculation via the new approach. For the two-way design the cross-product terms are again shown to equal zero. Further designs are then constructed in the same manner.

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Fundamentally, **analysis** of **variance** in English writing simply means the study of language in use (Finnegan, 1994, p. v). Various studies have shown that student’s with whom English stand as an ESL or an EFL face difficulties in learning English writing which could be associated with social and cognitive factors relating to language learning (Chase, 2011; Veloo, Krishnasamy, and Harun; 2015). These two factors make English writing more complex, more conscious, which requires more effort and much more practice in order to create, organise, generalise, and analyse ideas particularly in academic context. Most recently, Odey et al. (2014) highlighted on the effect of SMS texting on the writing skills of university students in Nigeria. They found that students consciously or unconsciously transfer the SMS writing pattern into their essays. Likewise, Veloo, et al. (2015) argues that gender issues have become more prominent while relating their study to academic performance among undergraduate students in Malaysia. They were investigating on gender differences in English writing among undergraduate students of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM). The findings of the study indicated that female undergraduate students secured higher mean in English writing proficiency compared to the males. In addition, Chase (2011) **analysis** of **variance** among college student’s English writing further affirms that students’ writing based on gender varied. She employed 112 samples of argumentative essays for **analysis** among students with African, Asian, Hispanic, Caucasian, and American ethnicities as sample population and the findings show that female students write longer essays than their male counterpart from both ethnic groups.

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The **variance** distribution of the Black Sea level non-tidal oscillations in the synoptic variability range is an indication of the energy distribution of surge oscillations. When analyzing such sea level oscillations, extreme values are usually calculated, whereas the mean estimate of their energy is difficult to obtain. The results of this study allowed us to quantify the average **variance** of the storm surges and to obtain a picture of its spatial variability. The distribution of the **variance** of mesoscale sea level oscillations is a display of the total energy of the seiches of the Black Sea. The results of the present study provided a quantitative estimate of mean surge process **variance** and allowed us to obtain a picture of its spatial **variance**. The distribution of the sea level mesoscale oscillation **variance** is a representation of total energy of the Black Sea seiches.

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We propose a new method for model selection and model fitting in nonparametric regression models, in the framework of smoothing spline ANOVA. The “COSSO” is a method of regularization with the penalty functional being the sum of component norms, instead of the squared norm employed in the traditional smoothing spline method. The COSSO provides a unified framework for several recent proposals for model selection in linear models and smoothing spline ANOVA models. Theoretical properties, such as the existence and the rate of convergence of the COSSO estimator, are studied. In the special case of a tensor product design with periodic functions, a detailed **analysis** reveals that the COSSO applies a novel soft thresholding type operation to the function components and selects the correct model structure with probability tending to one. We give an equivalent formulation of the COSSO estimator which leads naturally to an iterative algorithm. We compare the COSSO with the MARS, a popular method that builds functional ANOVA models, in simulations and real examples. The COSSO gives very competitive performances in these studies.

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In this paper, the precision of the method improved or not is analyzed through calculating ionospheric TEC data in 2008 provided by IGS, which is selected randomly. Then the calculation of 40 days is taken as the example for **analysis**. Since the sampling rate of the IGS TEC data is , data calculated with superposition **analysis** of periodical wave **variance** including improved and un- improved is selected (N30°, E105°), (N35°, E105°), (N40°, E105°), (N30°, E100°), ( N30°, E95°), (N30°, E90°) and (N30°, E85°) from Jan. 11 to Feb. 19 to obtain the prediction of ionospheric TEC about this region in Feb. 20 and Feb. 21 in 2008 by superimposing the cycle components. The calculation about (N30°, E105°) from Jan. 11 to Feb. 19 in 2008 is taken as the example for **analysis**. Figure 1 shows the results.

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Similarly, [3] developed a method for deriving exact tests for **variance** components in some unbalanced mixed linear models. The derivation was based on a new kind of preliminary orthogonal transformation and a subse- quent resampling procedure. The resulting tests are based on mutually independent sums of squares which, un- der null hypothesis, are distributed as scalar multiples of chi-square variates.

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If we denote the estimated variance between plots within treatments by s2W we obtain the standard error per treatment mean as s C s2 SEtreatment = + W.. If the replicates were arranged i[r]

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